My Student Page
Lab 1 Assessment
How to make an in-text citation
Bacterial division protein FtsZ.
What i Learnt
In today's cell biology prac class, i have learnt how to set up my very own cell biology wiki page, also i now know how to include references to external and internal links, how to identify if a resource is allowed to be used for personal projects and assessments. A wide rang of annotations can be used to tidy up my own page and carefully structure all my work to be accessed easily and efficiently. Pub med is a great resource to use which is based in the US as well as Bio med central and other journals located in the resource section of the cell biology wiki. By adding specific annotations to a pub med identification number i was allowed to automatically add a full reference which saves time.
Lab Assesment 1
Influence of zona pellucida thickness of human embryos on clinical pregnancy outcome following in vitro fertilization treatment.
The success rate of IVF treatment is typically determined by clinical implantation and interplay of clinical and nonclinical variables such as endometrial receptivity, ovulation induction protocols, patient’s age, etiology of infertility and gamete to embryo quality. Embryo grading prior to the embryo transfer is a widely researched topic, however the current embryo grading systems don’t support enough research and new reliable parameters are needed to be found. One of these parameters are predicting IVF outcomes based on the thickness of the Zona Pellucida during fertilisation. Two clinical evidence are in support of this parameter. Evidence has shown that the implantation rates of human embryos correlate with the Zona Pellucida thickness ranging from 10-29%. Also adverse influences of prolonged embryo culture conditions in vito, that are manifested in the thickening and hardening of the Zona Pellucida, is leading to failure of up to 75% of IVF embryo hatching due to micro assisted fertilization techniques such as zona thinning and hatching. Throughout other research conducted, there has shown a strong influence of Zona Pellucida thickness of the transferred embryos on clinical IVF outcomes. However certain research has also shown that Zona Pellucida thickness can be a reliable indicator for predicting the success of in vito fertilisation. The test conducted by Anette Gabrielsen and others, was performed on 141 women to shown if there is any correlation between the thickness of the Zona Pellucida of embryos during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles. The result was the thickness of the Zona Pellucida shows a strong correlation with the clinical outcomes following IVF treatment, Indicating Zona Pellucida thickness can be a reliable indicator for determining the outcome of IVF treatment
Anette Gabrielsen, Piyush R. Bhatnager, Karsten Petersen, Svend Lindenberg Influence of zona pellucida thickness of human embryos on clinical pregnancy outcome following in vitro fertilization treatment. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2000 Jul 17(6) 323-8. 
Factors affecting fertilization: endometrial placental protein 14 reduces the capacity of human spermatozoa to bind to the human zona pellucida.
Human spermatozoa must travel and reach an oocyte for fertilisation, many factors affect the amount or strength of the spermatozoa when released from ovulation. Of these factors, endometrial placental protein 14 is a glycoprotein that is secreted during the secretory phase endometrium and decidua in females. Researches have tested endometrial placental protein 14 to determine whether this glycoprotein reduces the capacity of spermatozoa to bind to the Zona Pellucida. Oehninger and Coddington performed an investigation by evaluated sperm samples from fertile men which were incubated with and with the endometrial placental protein 14. A quick recap of the experimental method was the biologically active endometrial placental protein 14 was purified from human amniotic fluid via anion exchange. Once the separation has taken place, the spermatozoa was incubated for 30 minutes with and without the endometrial placental protein 14, then washed and used in a variety of assays. The ability of the binding of the Zona pelluicda were assayed in a 4 hour gamete incubation. Using a computerised sperm analyser, the acrosome reaction was determined. This time consuming investigation concluded that endometrial placental protein 14 produces a fast, potent and dose dependent inhibition of binding of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida while not affecting other event such as the acrosomal reaction. The spermatozoa binding to the zona pellucida interaction has shown to be specific for this endometrial placental protein and has fundamental bearance to the process of fertilisation.
Oehninger S, Coddington CC, Hodgen GD, Seppala M. Factors affecting fertilization: endometrial placental protein 14 reduces the capacity of human spermatozoa to bind to the human zona pellucida. Fertil Steril. 1995 Feb 63(2) 377-83. 
Lab Assessment 2
Xin Sun, Erik N. Meyers, Mark Lewandoski and Gail R. Martin, Targeted disruption of Fgf8 causes failure of cell migration in the gastrulating mouse embryo Genes Dev. 1999 13(14):1834–1846
Lab Assessment 4
Lab Assessment 5
What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?
Gastroschisis is a congenital birth defect which results in the anterior abdominal wall failing to completely close during early development. It occurs during the 4th week of pregnancy and happens 1 in every 5000 births with a 75% chance of occurring in the first born child . A small 2 inch opening can be seen right of the umbilical cord which results in the abdominal organs (Intestines, sometimes stomach and very rarely the liver) to protrude outside of the body lacking a peritoneal membrane. The hole is caused by a herniation of the abdominal viscera in the amniotic cavity. The external organs that are left floating in the amniotic fluid which can cause swelling, shortening of the intestines, less blood flow and even twisting of the bowel .
In order to diagnosis an infant with Gastroschisis, physical examination is required. The infant will have problems with absorption and movement in the gut. Conducting a prenatal ultrasound, will successfully identify if there is any extra amniotic fluid. Treatment of Gastroschisis varies based on the amount of abdominal organs that are protruding out. If only a small amount is floating in the amniotic fluid, then a primary surgery repair is only required. However if there are large amounts of abdominal organs floating in the amniotic fluid, then staged repair is needed which lasts from 3 to 10 days. Omphalocele (exomphalos) is an abdominal wall defect similar to Gastroschisis, as it results in a hole with abdominal organs protruding out. However the difference in Omphalocele is that the umbilical cord is herniated and leaves a hole located at the belly button area with the abdominal organs spilling out but covered in a transparent sac .
Omphalocele occurs during week 11 of pregnancy and happens 1 in every 5300 babies. Causes of these abdominal wall defects are unknown, but research suggests that alcohol and tobacco use, certain medications and obesity lead to an increased chance of having one of these defects . Omphalocele can be diagnoses by physical examination and a prenatal ultrasound. If an infant suffers from Omphalocele, then surgery can be used, however as the abdominal organs that protrude out are covered by a transparent sac, they are protected from unnecessary exposure to amniotic fluid. If surgery is undertaken, then a material is placed on the sac which results in the abdominal organs slowly pushing back into the abdominal cavity .
Lab Asessement 6
S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction.
Type II diabetes mellitus is a common health problem that affects 85% of diabetes sufferers . It is characterised by insulins resistance which eventually leads to the loss of beta cell function. Recent clinical trials have shown the the loss of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, increases insulins systemic ended why scientists are pursing this S6K1 inhibitor as a potential agent to improve insulin resistance. Sung Hee Um and other scientists conducted studies on mice and was able to show that In mice that have a S6K1 deficiency also have a loss of beta cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction and impaired placental development . Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy that limits oxygen supply and nutrients to the fetus which in turn leads to a lack of beta cell growth in the embryo causing type II diabetes mellitus. Restoration of placental development and the restoring of intrauterine growth restriction by complicated embryo procedures does not restore the lost beta cells or overall insulin levels in the S6K1 deficient embryos. This lead to the belief that the loss of S6K1 does in fact lead to a intrinsic beta cell lesion in the embryo. As stated at the beginning of the investigation, the results of this experiment remained consistent with the hypothesis, when S6K1 is reexpresed in S6K1 deficient beta cells of mice, the embryonic beta cell size is restored to its natural size, glucose tolerance, insulin levels and RPS6 phosphorylation is restored without intrauterine growth restriction. The data presented suggests that a nutrient reduction in intrinsic beta cell S6K1 instead of intrauterine growth restriction during the development of the fetus, can lead to tent restoration of beta cell growth and development of type II diabetes mellitus in future life. 
Sung Hee Um, Melanie Sticker-Jantscheff, Gia Cac Chau and Kristina Vintersten, June 15, 2015. S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction 
Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth. Early embryonic layers that contribute to the development of teeth include the first pharyngeal arch, ectomesenchymal cells and neural crest. By the time of week 6, odontogenesis begins and creates the teeth.
Cells that contribute to odontogenesis are:
Odontoblasts – are mesenchymal cells derived form the neural crest that later differentiate by the enamel epithelium. They secret predentin that calcified to create dentin.
Ameloblasts – are the inner enamel epithelium which eventually becomes the enamel. The developing teeth grow in ossyifing jaws.
Periodontal ligament – this ligament holds down the teeth as they are not anchored by bone.
Group 1 – Three Person embryo
The entire group project is short in comparison to other reports. Adding a video about a teenage girl who has three biological parents is an excellent tool to engage the readers. Regarding the history, the timelines used help structure the changes over time and allow easier reading, although it is reality short for the entire history, possibly add one or two more paragraphs covering all aspects of the history of three-person embryo. Benefits section wasn’t completed equally as some sections such as the mitochondria linked infertility and Hereditary mitochondrial disease are fairly small in comparison to the technical progression.
Diagrams, more timelines and human models were used and discusses which is a valuable asset to the project. As well as large tables discussing where this procedure is prohibited. Overall this group project reaches out to different aspects of three person embryos although it still has a long way to go, certain sections need to be updated with information, and some other sections need to be clarified more with the addition of vital information.
Adding further reading clearly shows that the group are interested in the topic they have chosen and have taken the time to add additional links for people who are interested in reading up on three person embryos. Also the glossary is way too small, it needs to include a lot more definitions, which is due to the lack of information in the overall set out of the project. The citations and references are filled out correctly and help with the clarity of the report.
Group 3 – Female Infertility and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Overall layout is very well organised, covering multiple important aspects. All supplied headings have a sufficient amount of information regarding the sub topic. The project begins with a hand draw diagram, includes a map of prevalence of primary infertility, flow chart, histological slides, ultrasounds, and tables showing current treatments and their disadvantages. These all contribute to making the project easier to follow and read, their topic is very clear and doesn’t go in different directions, instead follows one path.
Up to 40 references and many citations were included which shows that the group did further research, however the downside to the project is there is room for more information, creating headings such as complications and glossary, the glossary section would do the reader a world of good to look back at words they haven’t heard of before.
A main positive out of this project is the heading followed by subheadings which all have a deep understanding of information included, it isn’t just empty spaces. The group authors should get together and research other topics they can included because the more vital information the better understanding the reader would have of the topic.
Group 4 – Male infertility
This group project is so far the most detailed, it has the most information included. Many topics followed by sub topics followed by even more sub topics is a clear indication of the amount of research they have undergone. Multiple diagrams, YouTube videos, flowcharts, microscopic images, histological slides, ultrasonography, timelines and tables were very useful in supporting the information they have and helps give a clear understanding of male infertility. 68 references included a vast search for research they did which is a general indication of reliability so as the multiple citations used throughout the report.
Lack of a glossary doesn’t help the reader as this report is a general but very large topic, with all the information they have included, the readers are bound to come across a fair amount of words or phrases they will not understand. No symptoms are recorded down, and also in the risk factors and prevention section, only one table is included. Perhaps more information regarding the prevention is required.
Overall the project is done quite well, although if a reader was to judge on its clarity they may find it a bit hard as there is a lot of information which could do with a bit of clarity, possibly but separating, bullet points or tables. A glossary should definitely be added as it plays a very important role for the reader’s benefit.
Group Project 5 – Oncofertility
This project contains a lot of information, but right from the beginning through to the end it is obvious that it is unclear and hard to follow, all the information is placed there but needs to be clarified further and made easier to read. Diagrams and videos are used which help giver a richer understanding of the project. A large reference list cited all over the project validates the sources of information.
In contrast to the large amount of information and few diaphragms and videos used, there should be more diagrams used, such as histological slides, timelines, YouTube videos and hand drawn diagrams. This would help the readers have an easier time following the path of this report as at the moment it is just a lot of information with few diagrams and videos. The use of sub headings followed by more subheadings is a very good way to organise the information in which they have done well.
Lack of a glossary won’t help the readers if they haven’t heard of certain things, so a glossary is advised to be added in. Although the amount of information is a clear indication of the amount of research and valuable information found, the clarity of the project needs to be addressed as it will bring the entire project together.
Group 6 – Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis for ART
The Project is structured really well, with multiple headings and subheadings. This report contains a lot of citations and references which help with the clarity of the report. It was easy to follow because of the different headings included. Different sections either had tables, bullet point lists, diagrams or images that helped create an understanding of the information. It is obvious that a lot of research was done for this topic. Diagrams, tables, microscopic images, graphs, in vitro analysis, lists, collapsed tables are all a great tool to use besides just information.
The first half of the report is just information, until the diagrams are seen, possibly separate into subheadings, or bullet points as it may be unclear as there is just loads of information by themselves. The layout affects the clarity also, as it is a heading with sub information, possibly adjust the lining of the paragraphs so the headings and subheadings stand out. The citations and references are done extensively.
The introduction and ethics headings are left empty which obviously need to be filled with information, a glossary section may prove helpful if added for the reader’s benefits, and even a further reading section could help. Overall this report is good however the clarity and structure should be assessed in order to make this a better report.