From Embryology

Lab Attendance

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Lab Assessment 1

Article 1

"Effect of vitamin D status on clinical pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization" [1] PMID 25077107


According to this study, vitamin D may play a role in human reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether there is a correlation between vitamin D levels and implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in infertile women following IVF.


• Total of 173 infertile women participated in the study that met the following criteria: aged 18-41 years, follicle stimulating hormone level 12 IU/L or lower and able to provide informed consent.

• 25(OH)D samples were collected within 1 week before oocyte retrieval from those infertile women.

• Vitamin D status was evaluated and determined by serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels.

• Patients were classified in two different groups; having sufficient (≥ 75 nmol/L) or insufficient (or deficient; hereafter referred to as “insufficient”; < 75 nmol/L) serum levels of 25(OH)D.

• Patient demographics and IVF cycle parameters between two groups were compared.

• Clinical pregnancy, as identified by ultrasound following 4-5 weeks after embryo transfer; was the primary outcome measurement.


According to the outcome of this study, the women with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D had significantly higher rates of clinical pregnancy (52.5%) per IVF cycle started than that with insufficient levels (34.7%). Therefore, Vitamin D supplementation can potentially provide an easy and cost-effective way of improving pregnancy rates but requires further investigations as the results are not statistically significant in the sufficient 25(OH)D group.

Article 2

"Examining the temperature of embryo culture in in vitro fertilization: a randomized controlled trial comparing traditional core temperature (37°C) to a more physiologic, cooler temperature (36°C)." [2] PMID 25044079

The aim of this study was to illustrate the better clinical outcome of blastulation and pregnancy rates in human clinical IVF in a more physiologically cooler temperature i.e. 36°C, compare to the traditional core temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.


• 52 Infertile couples with a female partner less than 42 years old were selected for this study.

• 8 or more oocytes from a female of 42 years of age, with infertile couples (n=52) were retrieved.

• Mature oocytes obtained from a single cohort of oocytes were randomly divided into two groups. One group was cultured at 37°C and the other at 36°C. These conditions kept as it is from the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) until the time of verification (embryo transfer).

• Paired embryo transfers were done by transferring an euploid embryo from both group.

• DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the outcome for each embryo.

It is important to note that, some factors were measured throughout the study to measure the main outcomes and highlight which of these conditions clinically improved the embryonic development. These factors are: rate of development of expanded blastocysts, fertilization, aneuploidy, and sustained implantation.


According to this investigation, paired analysis shows a slightly higher usable rate of blastocyst formation per zygote at the 37°C environment (48.4%), compare to the other group at the 36°C culture (41.2%). Rates of fertilization, aneuploidy, and sustained implantation were equivalent. In conclusion, IVF culture at 36 degrees does not improve the conditions for blastulation and pregnancy rates in human in IVF. Thus, keeping the traditional temperature or decreasing it to 36 degrees does not have any advantages to embryo development .


  1. <pubmed>25077107</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>25044079</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 09:47, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These are good summaries of the 2 articles. You could simplify the way in which you have shown the PubMed links. We will be showing this in the group project work. (5/5)

Lab 2 - Images

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

<html5media height="480" width="640"></html5media>

Dynamic Localization of Two Membrane Proteins for Fertilization.jpg

Image showing Dynamic Localization of Two Membrane Proteins Required for Fertilization[1]

  1. <pubmed>18050412</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 09:50, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Your image is uploaded correctly and has reference, copyright and student template. You should be aware though that WormBook is an online REVIEW of c Elegans development and as such is not a RESEARCH ARTICLE. You should always indicate in your text that is from a review. (4/5)

Lab 3-research/review articles

[Oncofertility and breast cancer: Where have we come from, where are we going?].


This article focuses on the current context of national and international recommendations, techniques development to evaluate and preserve fertility and patients' claims, this study aims to make a survey about the management of patients' breast cancer regarding oncofertility. This article concludes that , in order to satisfy patients' requests, several improvements have to be made regarding the patients' information, the health professionals' awareness and care coordination.I don't go through it now but very interesting article to read and useful for our group project.

Emergency fertility preservation for female patients with cancer: clinical perspectives.


This article explains about clinical perspectives to explore the new as well as the currently available options and strategies that can be used for emergency fertility preservation of female cancer patients.Such options include emergency ovarian stimulation, embryo freezing, egg freezing, ovarian tissue freezing and autotransplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian protection techniques. This article also mentions the advantages and disadvantages of each option as well as a new comprehensive multi-step strategy for these situations.

Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment


As all we know, Sexual dysfunction is the main consequence of cancer treatment. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. This article emphasizes on these sexual dysfunction and does in depth. It addresses that innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Therefore, advances in both technologies and in knowledge about how cancer treatments can damage fertility, offer hope to patients who want children.

Impact of fertility preservation counseling and treatment on psychological outcomes among women with cancer: A systematic review


This article explains about psychological outcomes in female cancer patients who undergo fertility preservation counseling/consultation (FPC), with or without fertility preservation (FP).I read through the whole article as I found it really interesting and relevant to our group project. This is another subheadings we can add to those.

--Mark Hill (talk) 09:50, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These articles relate to your group project topic. PMID 26026071 is a review not an (research) article. I did say you could use either, but you should always indicate this difference when including the content in your submissions. (5/5)

Lab 4 Assessment-Quiz

Mesoderm Development & Placenta Development

1 Somites:

A. differentiate into myotomes which give rise to skeletal muscle in trunk and limbs
B. differentiate into sclerotomes which give rise to vertebrae
C. arise from segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm
D. differentiate into myotomes which give rise to skeletal muscle of the limbs
E. all of the above are correct

2 The most distinctive characteristic of a primary chorionic villus is its:

A. outer syncytiotrophoblastic layer
B. cytotrophoblastic shell
C. extraembryonic somatic mesodermal core
D. bushy appearance
E. cytotrophoblastic core

3 The portion of the decidua which does not survive until the end of pregnancy is the:

A. capsularis
B. basalis
C. laeve
D. parietalis
E. frondosum

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:00, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Q1 needs more in the actual question, you should not use a single word as a question. For example: "In relation to somite development, identify from the options below the most correct answer. Note that D is only correct for the somites associated with limb development (C3-5; L3-5) and is therefore ambiguous. Q2 is OK, though once again the question should state "distinctive feature of primary chorionic villus not shared with other stages of villus development." Q3 is OK, "does not survive" could have been better phrased. (8/10)

ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

Lab 5 Assessment

What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

Omphalocele is a rare birth defect that occurs every 1 in 4000 ~ 7000 live births worldwide. Babies with this problem are born with their visceral organs, mainly the liver, and intestine inside a thin membrane sac known as the omphalocele sac external of their abdominal cavity into the base of the umbilical cord. Technically, it is a herniation of the umbilicus. It is an abnormality in the development of the gastrointestinal system at around week 9~12 of fetal development.It occurs when lateral unfolding of the embryo fails for some reason, leading to the formation of an omphalocele. The organs are placed inside the abdominal cavity through surgery, usually within the first half year of the child being born [1] ,[2] .

Children born with this defect often have other abnormality problems, often chromosomal abnormalities like a Trisomy at pair 13, 18 or 21. It is unknown the causes of this birth defect; some investigation have suggested multiple pregnancies, maternal age and number of births may increase the chance of a child being born with an omphalocele, but there are also many studies that do not agree with this. It is suggested that consumption of alcohol, not enough dietary foliate in the mother and smoking, may contribute to this birth defect.The survival rate for children born with just an omphalocele and do not have any other health problems is 90%.A woman carrying a fetus with omphalocele often have high levels of alpha-fetoprotein in her body. Blood testing, detailed fetal ultrasound, ultra-fast fetal MRI and a fetal echocardiogram can lead to early diagnosis of a omphalocele whilst in the fetal stage, and in many cases where it is legal, the pregnancy is terminated [3] , [4].

BUT Gastrochisis is a development abnormality of the anterior abdominal wall, where the bowel extend beyond without a covering sac between the developing rectus muscles, taking place slightly lateral and towards the right of the fetal umbilicus. Gastrochisis commonly happens as an isolated malformation, occurring in approximately 2.5 in 10’000 births [5].

During the 4th week of normal fetal development, the lateral body of the fetus folds, moving ventrally and fusing in the mid-line to form the anterior body wall. It has been suggested that the incomplete fusion of the mid-line causes Gastrochisis, resulting in the abdominal viscera to project through the abdominal wall, herniating through the rectus muscle. This is one of the many theories related to Gastrochisis as the cause is still unclear. Other studies mention other causes include, the failure of mesoderm to form in the body wall, rupture of the amnion around the umbilical ring with subsequent herniation of the bowel, abnormal involution of the right umbilical vein resulting in a weakening of the body wall and therefore resulting in herniation of the bowel, and disruption of the right yolk sac artery with consequent body wall damage and gut herniation [6] , [7] .


  1. CDC - Birth Defects, Facts about Omphalocele, [ ], Friday June 8, 2015
  2. Omphalocele | Birth Anomalies | Prognosis & Treatment, [ ], Friday June 8, 2015
  3. <pubmed>13989758</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>13303095</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>19419415</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>25059025</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>17230493</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:10, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Correct. (5/5)

Lab 6 Assessment

Group project

Lab 7 Assessment

Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

The signalling of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is responsible for regulating the actions of the gonads. This takes place through binding of GnRH to GnRH receptor (GnRHR) on gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland to control production and secretion of gonadotropins. This experiment was performed to illustrate that luteinising hormone-expressing gonadotropes express the GnRH receptor that increases the secretion of luteinising hormone. This is important for development of follicle-stimulating hormone-expressing gonadotropes which might be mediated by paracrine interactions within the pituitary. A functional role of GnHRH was suggested because removal of GnRHR cells increased the number of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus meaning that it played a role in defining the amount of GnRH neurons present [1] .

This experiment was carried out on mice models where GnRHR cells were ablated to reveal the functional role in the embryonic development of the reproductive axis. The study explains that luteinising gonadotropes acts as target cells for GnRH neurons in the forebrain and maturation of follicle-stimulating hormone gonadotropes is dependent on the increased secretion of luteinising hormone. The method in which gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland mature was revealed as GnRH neurons migrate to the forebrain in the first step, secreting GnRH at this point. This is followed by the expression of GnHRH by the luteinising hormone gonadotropes [1] .

Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth

The cells and their layers which contribute to tooth development through odontogenesis begins in the 6th week of development and include:

Odontoblasts: Mesenchymal cells of neural crest origin that produce predentin, which calcifies forming dentin in the process of dentinogenesis. Enamel epithelium causes odontoblast differentiation and these cells contribute to the outer dental pulp .

Ameloblasts: Derived from the oral epithelium of the ectodermal cells. They differentiate from preameloblasts and activated by ectomesenchymal cells. Ameloblasts produce enamel proteins like amelogenin and enamelin to form enamel, the outer covering of the tooth’s crown. It is important to know that Ameloblasts only present during odontogenesis.

Peridontal ligament: specialised connective tissue (bundles of collagen fibres), which anchors the root of the tooth in the alveolar socket so it is not displaced. It surrounds the cementum of the tooth root.

--Mark Hill (talk) 13:45, 7 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)


  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>20805495</pubmed>

Lab 8 Online Assessment - Peer Reviews

Group Project 1

Three Person Embryo

I liked how you guys started the introduction and provides partially a brief overview of what your project is about. But I believe it is not enough to allow the audience an insight to your project page. This is something that needs to be worked on and maybe add some images also. However, the choice of short video used in the introduction is great. This is definitely a benefit for your page as it will reinforce the information you have been trying to get across. Like I mentioned, one thing you could work on is adding images and explaining the content in more depth. There is great amount of reference at the end of the page in the reference list which is fantastic!, however there is no in- text referencing in each section such as introduction or in some of the parts of the “Technical Progression” like “Cytoplasmic transfer” or “Spindle-chromosome transfer”. Having in-text referencing will allow the audience to know exactly where the information was read from and for the interest of the audience can read that specific paper in detail.

I also noticed that there are no information for “Benefits” and “Legal Status” or there is limited information for such headings like “Ethics”. I’m assuming you didn’t get the chance to upload information there or you haven’t had the time. This is something you need to work on so that the audience has some note of what this page is about. Also you need to change the format of the page for example it is to move the 'Benefits' heading towards the end of the page after the audience gained a good level of understanding of the project. You included some great images but be careful with copyright as I didn’t see it. But also consider some more images, tables, diagrams as well as hand drawn images in some sections, to make it more inviting and not overwhelming with just content. I do appreciate that the section of “Technical Progression” is subdivided into “Human Model”, timeline” and etc. But maybe consider adding in the current research, historic research, limitations and disadvantages to ensure that you can get all the marks possible by addressing all the key concepts. The timeline is a great idea that outlines the significant progresses and in turn helps put major events into perspective, making it more effective for students to study and understand.

Well done on making the “Glossary” at the end. This is exactly what I would have expected to see and I used it while I was reading through your page. Also it is great to see the table in the “Prohibited” section but I would suggest you to write some sentences explaining the legislation rather than just pasting the links.

Overall, this project page has room for improvement by giving certain sections of the page the attention they deserve. Images are imperative in allowing a balance between text and the image itself. Diagrams, tables and animations can sometimes be refreshing, and less overwhelming to see them among paragraphs of content. Try and work on time management, or set a group deadline that everyone has to meet so that all the information can be well up before the due date so your group can have time to edit and add images and play around with the page comfortably. Goodluck!

Group Project 2

Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome (OHSS)

Great work, it looks like your group has a clear mindset and direction to where your group project is going, even if it is not there yet. Also great introduction! Your entire page's contents were introduced well and simple. However, all Text and no images were included except one image. Not a good look to go through. The information here is good but is also very dense and hard to follow without any images. It would be great if you could break it up a bit with more images, tables, diagrams and hand drawn pictures. This style of writing is very professional and would be perfect for a report or essay; however as a wiki page it is too hard to follow. Breaking up the information into tables and short videos would allow you to guide the reader through your topic. Well done on the use of bullet points make it easy to follow. Only one hand drawn image as well as one table uploaded onto the page contains adequate information explaining them, which is good.

Well done on use of “Glossary” section. It is indeed necessary and important.

There has clearly been a lot of research and work put into this project and that is very commendable and I do appreciate it. However on a whole as I mentioned, there is too much information without having any interactive techniques such as tables, diagrams and etc. One of my suggestions is to make a table for “Prevention” or “Genetics” section or even both. I also suggest adding another subheading for “current research findings” or “Future research” which requires more time and research. Therefore you can include more journal articles in this section .In this section pictures would also be good to help understand and engage readers. Overall, well done on your written information for each section. They’re very relevant to the topic and to the project as well.

Some sections like “Effect on the Newborn” or “Animal Models” seem to be untouched. I’m assuming you are still in the process of adding content. Please be aware of the deadline. Moreover, in text citation is crucial which are missing in some paragraphs. Citations should be carried through the entire page to know exactly where you have got your information from. Good job on referencing at the end of the page. All research articles seem to be relevant to all sections.

Overall, it is a really good project with the potential to be excellent because of the amount of effort you have put into the research. Keep up the good work, but just edit and add those things I mentioned to the project and finish the sections you need to. Very well done so far and good luck with finishing the project off.

Group Project 3

Female Infertility & Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Really good introduction! It clearly outlines what is in the page and it serves to summarise the topic and highlight the areas that you will be addressing. It includes in-text citations and I’d like to acknowledge the hand drawn diagram and the efforts taken to do that. Great job. However, it is a bit pixelated so maybe try resizing the image to a smaller size.

This project was done really well. All key points, i.e. “causes”, “Pathogenesis”, “Signs and Symptoms” and etc., were clearly described. In terms of content, this group did a great job. It is very informative and all information they have included are relevant to the topic. There is a great deal of information that is presented in a strong manner with the use of adequate images, tables and diagrams. Images and diagrams can help summaries what some of the paragraphs communicate. For the” Prevention and Treatment”, your table is fantastic as it is informative, concise and relevant to the topic. Use of tables is always beneficial as it makes the page more inviting. Otherwise the page appears to overwhelming with just written content and no visual content to reinforce concepts and information. This was the case for previous groups so well done on that. There is an extensive list of references, which demonstrates, a great effort towards researching your projects system. Only for one of the references which is not from PubMed, you need to put into in the correct format and add the exact date you visited the website.

On the down side, there is an inconsistency in the amount of information throughout the page. Some sections lack information more than others for example you need more information for “Environmental Factors “and “Medications”. Thus, this can be a room for improvement to insure further research is done in those sections. I believe, this is a very large topic with many possible sub-headings so try to come up with more sub-heading. Yes, you mentioned animal models and environmental/genetic information but you need to do more research as these sections must be in more depth and more explanations. Most of the sections have great amount of detail with a number of in text citations and this is great to see. However I do notice that there is no videos what so ever, not sure if you are having trouble finding, or if you have left this until the last thing. Consider some youtube videos. This could help balance the amount of text you have, making the page more interesting. The project could also benefit from having a ‘Glossary’ list so that viewers can understand some uncommon words. A glossary list should be incorporated in a separate subheading. If you are having a plan to add more information to the page, splitting it into bullet points from now on might be a better way of organising it so peers get a more effective learning experience when they read it.

Overall, this is a good project page, well done group and best of wishes!!

Group Project 4

Male Infertility

The introduction is a really important part of the project so it’s important that you get that down. The introduction is well written but it is not done yet as it does not give me a clear idea of the scope of the project. You need to explain the topic in more depth to give readers overall understanding of the male infertility. Maybe think about adding an image to make it a bit more appealing.

Overall this is a well-produced project so far, very impressed. First thing noticeable on the page is the amount of information you have which is great. Only minor changes to polish up some sections are needed which I will explain as we go on. The project as a whole is not text heavy with some good images, tables, diagrams and a short video included which again are helpful in guiding the information. The table in “Diagnosis” section is great and really well done. One thing you could maybe do here is add a few diagrams or images related. I know you have added 2 images down below but I think it’s something that might make it even easier to follow. Try to add more related images to the content of the table. For the “Male infertility disorders”, I believe you can find more information and add to the table as this topic is a big vague and broad. Most of the sections have great amount of detail with a number of in text citations and this is great to see except for the table used in “Male infertility disorders”. Try to fix this up as citations should be carried through the entire page. Other than that, all the citations formatted correctly and it is good that all the references appear in one long list at the end of the page. Well done!

Some sections like “Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)” or “IVF” seems to be untouched. I’m assuming you are still in the process of adding content. However, the “Treatments” section is extensive and well researched. Good job.

To sum up, in terms of improvement, my suggestions are:

• There is no hand drawn image yet .You may only have 1-2 weeks to complete this project so don’t leave it until last minute.

• Add more related videos to create the balance.

• The project could benefit from having a ‘Glossary’ list so that viewers can understand some uncommon words.

• You have not shown animal model so this can be a potential subheading as well as “future research” or “current research”. Just some tips, when researching on pubmed, there's an option to look at recent articles by customising dates to say 2012-onwards

• In text-citation

• Simplify some of your paragraphs into bullet points. This can be done for “Causes of Infertility” or “Treatments”.

• Finish those untouched topics

Overall, the project page is interesting, easy to comprehend and follow, however certain changes should be addressed and more information added.

Group Project 6

Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis for ART

There is no introduction, not having an introduction would mean there is no overview of what this page would be about and what it will discuss in detail. If an introduction could be uploaded maybe consider an image or a short video that would be able to sum the introduction up. This must be done instead of just going straight into the “History “.It would make your page more appealing and professional if you followed through with an introduction. Other than that, I appreciate the detail that went through. There is great amount of reference at the end of each section which is great, however there is no in- text referencing in some sections like procedure of “Genetic Techniques”. Having in-text referencing will allow the audience to know exactly where the information was read from and for the interest of the audience can read that specific paper in detail. There is a great amount of information in almost every section with great detail however, consider more subheadings to make the sections easier to read and allows the audience to navigate the page effortlessly. This was the case for ““Polar Body Analysis” section”. The information here is quite dense therefore you could split or organize information into more subheadings.

I also noticed that there is not enough information in historic findings; this is an important key point that needs to be addressed. Present some online research, add some images, some in text referencing and maybe a table or timeline, this should help shape the historic findings section. Finding information on historic findings might be a little challenging. A suggestion I can make is to search for old articles in PubMed (by adjusting the year). Review articles that summarise historic findings related to Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis may also be helpful. You also need to find information on current research as well. Other subheadings that are either incomplete or missing are “Ethics “and “Future/Current Research”. This can to be done in the same manner as the historic findings. The tables displayed in the other sections are great as they simplify information and is an effective way for students to study so well done! Keep in mind this is meant to be informative and easy to comprehend, so try and find that balance. Thus, consider some more images, diagrams, graphs and tables in each section, to make it more inviting and not overwhelming with just content. Captions should be added on the page for some of the images to state what the images are showing.

Try and look for a youtube video that can help summaries the content on your page. If possible try adding hand drawn images too. A glossary list should be incorporated in a separate subheading to define some of the technical words so that viewers can fully grasp the information.

Having said all those down side points, this page is coming along nicely with many positive aspects:

• Great amount of references at the end

• Concise in text citation except in some paragraphs

• Good use of images

• The use of dot points in different sections to format the info is very useful and provides clarity

• Great table of advantages and disadvantage in section “Biopsy Methods”

• The key points have been clearly described

• Having Future/Current Research” sub heading which is great

Overall, I can appreciate the difficulty of this topic. However if you work on the subheading within each section and add some images, videos and diagrams as well as some in text referencing I think that should make a significant difference by making this page more inviting, easier to navigate and also appear greatly organized. GOOD LUCK

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:45, 7 November 2015 (AEST) You have provided comprehensive and balanced peer review feedback. Try and avoid non-specific feedback. (18/20)

Lab 9 Assessment

link to permalink image:| Semicircular Canal

The semicircular canals are part of the inner ear.They are lined with cilia and filled with endolymph which is a liquid substance. Every time the head moves, the endolymph moves the cilia and this movements of the cilia are communicated to the brain. As a result, the brain knows how to keep the body balanced, regardless of the posture.

embryology link Sensory - Balance Development -- Inner Ear

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:45, 7 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

--Mark Hill (talk) 08:37, 1 November 2015 (AEDT) Catei submitted (5)


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