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Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab Assessments

Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of in vitro fertilisation and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) technique was conceptualized by Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards when he first managed to fertilise a human egg successfully in the laboratory in 1968. This led to the birth of the first baby conceived through IVF, Louise Brown, on 25th July 1978. Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards is also the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with in vitro fertilisation.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

A recent paper on fertilisation is titled “Women with high telomerase activity in luteinised granulosa cells have a higher pregnancy rate during in vitro fertilisation treatment”[1] by Hong Chen et al. It was reported in the paper that telomerase activity (TA) in the luteinized granulosa cells is positively correlated with clinical pregnancy rate. Clinical pregnancy rate increases with level of TA. This would mean that the success rate of the IVF treatment (resulting in pregnancy) can be predicted by measuring the levels of TA in the granulosa cells.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

The two congenital anomalies are spina bifida, in which the embryonic neural tube is only partially closed, and hydrocephalus, in which there is an unusual accumulation of fluid in the brain.

--Mark Hill 00:44, 30 July 2011 (EST) Good wiki coding. Though I am not a fan of Wikipedia linking, should seek scientific references where possible, nobel prize link is better.

Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.
The ZP protein that spermatozoa binds is the zona pelucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3), also known as the sperm receptor.[2]
Once fertilisation occurs, the oocyte releases enzymes which will alter the terminal carbohydrate residues of ZP3. ZP3 loses the ability to bind sperms, preventing polyspermy.[2]

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Review: Bassuk AG, Kibar Z. Genetic basis of neural tube defects. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Sep;16(3):101-10[3]
Research: De Marco P, Merello E, Cama A, Kibar Z, Capra V. Human neural tube defects: Genetic causes and prevention. Biofactors. 2011 Jun 14. [4]

--Nur Sharalyn Abdullah 14:20, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?
The maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is iodine. Iodine is essential in the production of thyroid hormones which play a role in brain development.[5]
Lack in iodine intake can result in cretinism. The recommended iodine intake during pregnancy is 200-250 micrograms per day.[6]

2. Upload a picture relating to your group project.

Melatonin levels in Huntington's disease patients and controls

Melatonin levels in HD patients and controls.jpg

The diurnal melatonin rise was significantly delayed in HD patients by about 01:30 h (p = 0.048). The black bar on the abscissa indicates the dark period (23:00–7:30 h).

--Nur Sharalyn Abdullah 12:47, 16 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
The allantois, which originates from the hindgut, is continuous with the bladder.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

  • Ductus arteriosus: located between pulmonary artery and aortic arch
  • Ductus venosus: located between umbilical vein and inferior vena cava
  • Foramen ovale: located between left atrium and right atrium

3. Identify the group project sub-section that you will be researching.

  • History
  • Treatment
  • Epidemiology

--Nur Sharalyn Abdullah 21:47, 20 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?
The left side is the most common for diaphragmatic hernia. It is thought that this is due to the earlier closure of the right pleuroperitoneal opening.[7]

--Z3389806 19:10, 31 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assessment

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?
The fusion of palatal shelves fuse during week 9 of embryonic development.

2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

The animal model which helped elucidate neural crest origin and migration of cells is the quail-chick chimeras.[8]

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot will be resulted.[9][10]

--Z3389806 22:52, 13 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?
(a) No, satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy.
(b) Yes, satellite cells are generally involved in hypertrophy.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimulation subjects the fast muscles to activity of low frequency and thereby, changing the pattern of motor activity imposed upon them. This alters the contractile characteristics of the fast muscles, making it to contract more slowly. This corresponds to the fast to slow fibre type shift.[11]

3. Write a comment about the online page on Trisomy 21 based upon the group assessment criteria.

  • The frequency of trisomy 21 in the population is approximately 1 in 650 to 1,000 live births, in Australia between 1991-97 there were 2,358 Trisomy 21 (Down) infants.: it would be better to put this statement under the heading "Prevalence".
  • It would be clearer to put the data under "Prevalence" in the form of a table.
  • The caption for the table on detection rate of various procedures, "Table data from United Kingdom" is too vague and not clear.
  • Choice of headings/sub-headings can be improved. For example, the headings, "Heart Defects" & "Limb Defects" can be sub-headings under "Associated Congenital Abnormalities".
  • The sequence of the headings can also be improved. For example, the heading "Recent Findings" should probably be one of the last few headings and should not be just after the introduction as it gives a disjointed feel to the page.
  • Reference No. 20 was not formatted properly.

--Z3389806 16:00, 18 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8 Assessment

Comments on Group Project 1


  • The alphabetisation of the glossary helps readers to search for terms more easily. I really like this bit.
  • The link of some of the words under Etiology to Glossary is really good. The reader can directly find out the meaning of a particular word without scrolling down much.
  • All the characteristics and diseases are supported by scientific articles.
  • The summaries given for each of the articles under Research gives the reader a gist of each article. It gives the reader a rough idea of where research for Turner Syndrome is heading towards.
  • Overall: It has a good flow to the page with headings and sub-headings appropriately placed.


  • The wikipage needs to be vetted. There are quite a few grammatical and punctuation errors.
  • The placements of some images are disrupting the format of the page e.g the image of “22+23=45”.
  • There are duplication in referencing. It will be good to combine the references to only one reference number per article to avoid duplication
  • Some of the images did not include copyright statements which allow wiki users to reuse the images e.g. the karyotype image & image on abnormalities.
  • Some of the references are just website links. This will need to be corrected.
  • History of Turner Syndrome is not available. How was the syndrome first discovered? When was it discovered?

Specific corrections:

  • The second sentence of introduction “It is caused by…survive to term” is a bit too long. Breaking it into two sentences might be better.
  • “During normal fetal development, each ovary contain as many as 7 million oocytes”. The word “contain” should be “contains”.
  • “The oocytes gradually reduced to 400,000 during menarche and during menopause fewer than 10,000 remains.” Insert the word “are” after “oocytes”.
  • Standardise the term “Turner Syndrome”. Either all should be “Turner Syndrome” or “Turner syndrome”
  • “…which is complete by the time the infant, is aged 2.” The word “complete” should be “completed”.
  • “Genetically menopause” I’m not sure what this means. Is it supposed to be “Genetically-induced menopause”?
  • “For example short stature is caused by a deletion of the Xp chromosome and the deletion of Xq causes gonadal dysfunction”. There should be a comma after the word “example”.
  • The image on abnormalities associated with Turner Syndrome might be more suitable to be placed under clinical manifestations.

Comments on Group Project 2


  • Good placement of sub-headings and headings.
  • I like how the introduction gives an overview of the syndrome.
  • All images have copyright statements.


  • The epidemiology and etiology sections seem like really wordy, overwhelming to read. It is paragraphed but maybe the paragraphs could be more distinct.
  • It would be good to link the words that is defined the glossary to the glossary.
  • Some of the references are not formatted properly.

Specific corrections:

  • It would be good if introduction immediately started with what is DiGeorge Syndrome instead of leading up with the definition/characteristic of congenital disorder. This definition can be shifted to the glossary
  • Just curious, it will be interesting to hear how different the first sound of a DiGeorge baby differs from a normal one.
  • ”Dianostic Tests” is spelt incorrectly.
  • Instead of the sub-heading “Based on symptoms”, it could be “Symptomatic diagnosis”.
  • What is “clinodactyly” in the description of the image under “based on symptoms”?
  • The link under images for BAC subheading could go under external links section?
  • Maybe the table under “Tetralogy of DiGeorge Syndrome” could be vertical instead of horizontal? It will look neater.

Comments on Group Project 3


  • Smooth flow between headings and subheadings throughout the page.
  • Timeline included provides a good summary of the block of text above it. Gives a reader a choice to read the summarised timeline or the block of text containing more details.
  • The video links under Aetiology/Non-disjunction is very appropriate.
  • The overall formatting of the page is well-done and neat.


  • Introduction is a little bit too detailed. It should clear but concise.
  • There is a lot of duplication of references.
  • Some of the images did not include copyright statement which allows wiki users to re-use the image e.g. Figure 1

Specific corrections:

  • What is aetiology?
  • ”These are anaphase lagging and nondisjunction. The latter of the two, nondisjunction, takes place more often.” Any statistics for this? If there is, it will be good to include it.
  • Some of the signs and symptoms are not referenced.

Comments on Group Project 5


  • The use of same reference for different part of the page is good.
  • The treatment section is put together.
  • Images are appropriate and useful.


  • Formatting is not as best as it can be.
  • For some sections, punctuation is a slight problem.
  • The flow under the epidemiology section doesn’t seem quite right. Seems to give a disjointed feel.
  • The section under Diagnosis could be further elaborated.

Specific corrections:

  • Maybe testing and counselling can go under a new heading, “Management”.
  • The subheadings “Post Natally” & “Postpubescent” could be changed to “Post Natal Development” & “Post Pubescent Development” instead to give it a uniform formatting.
  • Some of the words in the page should be in the glossary section e.g. tactile defensiveness and face encoding.
  • Improve format for some of the references.
  • Include explanations and the copyright statements on student images allowing for re-use for wikiusers.

Comments on Group Project 6


  • The flow between sections and sub-sections is good with appropriate placements of headings and sub-headings.
  • Some of the references have good use of multiple referencing so as to avoid duplication.
  • The external links under signs and symptoms is very apt and will interest readers.


  • Almost half of the references are not properly formatted.
  • Some of the words that should be in the glossary are not under that section e.g. Velocardiofacial, Conotruncal, Hypothyroidism, nengoitrous, embryotoxon.
  • Punctuation in some sections can be better.

Specific corrections:

  • ”muattional” under 22q11.21 sub-heading is spelt incorrectly.
  • ”cyamnosis” under signs and symptoms is spelt incorrectly.
  • ”enlargenemt" under clubbing is spelt incorrectly.
  • Insert a timeline under history to provide a summary.
  • It might be better to have genetics section before signs and symptoms.
  • Under Treatment/Management, it will be good to put “medical therapy”, “palliative procedures” and “surgery” as sub-headings.

Comments on Group Project 7


  • The history section was very well done. The block of text above the timeline provided just enough information and captured my interest. The timeline provided adequate summary of the major milestones in research of Angelman Syndrome.
  • The glossary section seems decent.
  • The student images are really good, especially the mechanism illustrations.


  • Lack of use of subheadings. More subheadings can be used to break some of the sections up. It would not look so overwhelming then.
  • Format of the overall page is not the best as it can be.
  • There is some duplication in references.

Specific corrections:

  • Just curious, why are males more predisposed to early developmental delay?
  • It would be good to make the format of the stats under epidemiology consistent. Either fraction or ratio (I prefer ratio :D).
  • Maybe for some of the tables, it will look better with an outline border so it is easier to see when the text in the table ends and when text in paragraphs starts.
  • Use more subheadings e.g. Under Signs & Symptoms, the subheadings would be “Behavioural Characteristics”, “Communication Skills”, “Clinical & External Characteristics”, etc.
  • Section under genetic counselling should come with an explanation or a paragraph of text. It will be good to elaborate further than just a table.

Comments on Group Project 8


  • Smooth flow to the page due to good placements of headings, subheadings and subsubheadings.
  • The referencing is well-done with correct formatting and there seemed to be no duplication.
  • The external links section is good.


  • There are some inconsistencies in formatting.
  • Some of the images do not come with descriptions and copyright statements allowing wikiusers to use images, especially for student drawn ones.

Specific corrections:

  • Maybe include “frataxin” in the glossary?
  • Reference 38 is missing.
  • The image on the frataxin gene is a bit faint, maybe it would be better to make the outline darker?

Comments on Group Project 9


  • Good use of subheadings. It gives the page a structured feel to it.
  • For most part of the references, it is good with the initiative to prevent duplication of references.
  • I really like the “Specialised Facilities and Supportive Associations” section. Parents who just found out about their child’s condition would probably want to know more and seek help and this would be good for them.


  • The history section looks really overwhelming.
  • The glossary section is poorly done, with missing definitions for some words. There are other words that should be included in the glossary but was not.
  • The image of the typical facial feature of an individual with WS looks similar to the one shown during lecture by Dr Palmer. It would be good to acknowledge what the image drawn was based on.

Specific corrections:

  • It will be good to include an image in either the introduction or history section. At least it will be able to grab some attention.
  • Reference 23 is missing its source.
  • It will be good to elaborate more on some of the research studies being done to give the readers a feel of the direction in which the research for Williams Syn is gearing towards.

Comments on Group Project 10


  • The flow of the page is smooth with appropriate placement of the various headings.
  • Clinical manifestation section looks really decent without appearing too verbose but yet sufficient information is given.
  • The last image has correct referencing and the copyright statement is also included.


  • Some of the references are not formatted properly. There are also a couple of duplications under References.
  • Glossary is not complete.
  • The formatting for the overall page is not as consistent as it can be.

Specific corrections:

  • Maybe it would be better to have a heading for the genetic condition just on its own and not put it with the introduction heading.
  • Maybe future treatments can come under a new heading “future research”?
  • It will be good to elaborate more on current treatments.
  • Diagnosis can be more detailed.
  • Include a timeline under history to summarise that section.
  • The copyright statement that allows wikiusers to use the student image after 6 months is not included.

Comments on Group Project 11


  • Good use of tables especially under Diagnosis.
  • Some of the images are quite good especially on the correcting process (surgery) for cleft palate.


  • Placement of headings is not quite appropriate. It gives the page a disjointed feel to it.
  • There is a lack of use of subheadings.
  • The introduction did not give an overview of the condition.

Specific corrections:

  • Timeline should be a subheading under History section
  • Introduction should answer these questions: What is it characterised by? How does it appear on individuals with this condition? What causes it? etc. It will be good to include a picture/ cartoon of an individual with cleft palate and lip.
  • Duplication of references should be avoided.
  • Some of the references are not formatted correctly.

--Z3389806 12:21, 27 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10 Assessment

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.
Another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss is congenital cytomegalovirus infection.[12]

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

The 3 factors are:
  • inflammation (and hence swelling) in the middle ear
  • damage of the tensor palate muscle
  • the (almost) horizontal running of the Eustachian tube

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record.

A genetic abnormality that affects hearing development is paragangliomas.OMIM - Paragangliomas

--Z3389806 22:24, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11 Assessment

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.
  • Septum primum formation from the roof of the atrium separates the right from the left atrium.
  • Perforations of the septum primum gives rise to the foramen secundum which allows blood flow from right to the left atrium.
  • Septum secundum then forms to the right of the septum primum and incomplete partition of the septum primum gives rise to foramen ovale.

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

  • Ventricular Septal Defect
  • Transposition of the Great Vessels
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle

--Z3389806 13:04, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12 Assessment

1. Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.
  • Genital development
  • Neural and brain development
  • Musculoskeletal development

2. Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

  • Biotinidase Deficiency
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH)
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
  • Galactosemia (GAL)
  • Homocystinuria
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
  • Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCAD)
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) OMIM - PKU
  • Sickle Cell Disease

--Z3389806 09:42, 21 October 2011 (EST)


--Z3389806 18:01, 29 July 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 12:55, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:41, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:07, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:12, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:11, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:13, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:09, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:11, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:19, 6 October 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:19, 13 October 2011 (EST)

--Z3389806 11:08, 20 October 2011 (EST)


  1. Chen H, Wang W, Mo Y, Ma Y, Ouyang N, Li R, Mai M, He Y, Bodombossou-Djobo MM, Yang D. Women with high telomerase activity in luteinised granulosa cells have a higher pregnancy rate during in vitro fertilisation treatment. J Assist Reprod Genet.: 2011 PMID:21717175 [1]
  2. <pubmed>9369183</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>19778707</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>21674647</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>15107513</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>19088150</pubmed>
  7. Moore, K.L. & Persuad, T.V.N. (2008). The Developing Human: clinically oriented embryology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders, p. 153
  8. <pubmed>3058162</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>3568286</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>3791607</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>4736724</pubmed>
  12. <pubmed>16209862</pubmed>