From Embryology
Revision as of 19:32, 21 August 2012 by Z3374173 (talk | contribs)

Lab Attendance

Lab 1 --Z3374173 11:49, 25 July 2012 (EST)

Lab 2 --Z3374173 10:05, 1 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 3 --Z3374173 10:09, 8 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 4 --Z3374173 10:17, 15 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 1 Assessment

Part 1

The first successful In Vitro Fertilisation occured in 1973, at Monash University, though it lasted only a few days. In 1977 the first IVF baby would be conceived, with Louise Brown as the first human ever to be born using the method of IVF in 1978. Later on in years Robert G. Edwards was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with his development of the technology.

Part 2

Improved implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates after single-embryo transfer with an optimized protocol for in vitro oocyte maturation in women with polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome

This paper's objectives was to find an optimal way for oocyte in vitro maturation that would improve the implantation and successfulness of the pregnancy for women that have/had Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome. Using FSH priming, larger sized follicles, hormone therapy and blastocyst stage transfers, they found that the maturation and implantation rates were improved compared to that of previous studies, and that it compares to that of IVF of women without Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome. 29 pregnancies were resultant of the IVM and 28 live births occurred. There was one loss as it was an ectopic pregnacy, and there was no congenital birth defects. [1] Journal Article

Lab 2 Assessment

Part 1

Critical stages of the development of the primitive streak in the chick embryo..png

Part 2

Oct-4 is a protein that is important for pre-implantation development as well as being a necessary part in endoderm formation. Without Oct-4 the endoderm would not form properly and cause problematic repercussions. [2]

Lab 3 Assessment

Part 1

Gestational age is a term most commonly used to describe at how far along the pregnancy is. This is usually determined by measuring the size of the thigh, head and abdomen of the fetus. Described from the first day of last menstrual cycle to the current date in weeks. [3] This compared to Post-fertilization age which describes the approximate point at which the ovum was fertilized. Usually it occurs two weeks after the menstrual period and is calculated by deducting two weeks off the Gestational age. Gestational age is used in clinical areas because it is measured by size of limbs and development of the fetus, this would allow a better understanding of the development of the fetus but also the development of the placenta and surrounding tissues. As the Gestational stage is measured from the first day of the last menstrual cycle, the whole process of the ovum being released from the ovary as well as fertilized is included within the age, as is the cycles of the endometrium of the uterus. Rather than having an age that excludes these important processes that happen for total conception.

Part 2

Part of each somite goes onto forming skeletal muscle, a dermis of the skin and a vertebra cartilage.[4] They can also form the limbs and abdominal wall.

Lab 4 Assessment

Part 1

Amniocentesis involves taking a small sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and the DNA is scanned for any abnormalities that could have arisen. Usually it is taken with the use of a ultra-sound device for guidance into the sack from the abdominal wall. The from the fluid, cells are extracted and grown as a culture. Using this technique it is possible to find abnormalities such as Downs Syndrome, Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18, Neural tube defects as well as developmental issues such as abnormalities that may lead to infant respiratory distress syndrome. Chorionic Villus Sampling is used to determine if there are any chromosomal abnormalities or any genetic disorders within the growing fetus. It is done by sampling and then testing the placental tissue, the chorionic villus. [5]


  1. Stephen M. Junk, Ph.D., Doreen Yeap, M.B.B.S., F.R.A.N.Z.C.O.G. Improved implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates after single-embryo transfer with an optimized protocol for in vitro oocyte maturation in women with polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome Fertility and Sterility: 2012 Journal Article
  2. Szczepańska K, Stańczuk L, Maleszewski M. Oct4 protein remains in trophectoderm until late stages of mouse blastocyst development. Reproductive Biology:2011 Jul;11(2):145-56. Article
  3. Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Gestational age Medline Plus [1]
  4. Richard L. Drake et al. Gray's Anatomy For Students 2nd ed. pg35
  5. <pubmed>16533654</pubmed>