From Embryology

Lab Attendance

Lab 1 --Z3374173 11:49, 25 July 2012 (EST)

Lab 2 --Z3374173 10:05, 1 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 3 --Z3374173 10:09, 8 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 4 --Z3374173 10:17, 15 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 5 --Z3374173 10:05, 22 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 6 --Z3374173 10:09, 29 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 7 --Z3374173 10:21, 12 September 2012 (EST)

Lab 8 --Z3374173 10:05, 19 September 2012 (EST)

Lab 10--Z3374173 10:05, 3 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 11--Z3374173 10:04, 10 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 12--Z3374173 10:31, 17 October 2012 (EST)

Full lab attendance logged. --Mark Hill 07:41, 18 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 1 Assessment

Part 1

The first successful In Vitro Fertilisation occured in 1973, at Monash University, though it lasted only a few days. In 1977 the first IVF baby would be conceived, with Louise Brown as the first human ever to be born using the method of IVF in 1978. Later on in years Robert G. Edwards was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with his development of the technology.

Part 2

Improved implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates after single-embryo transfer with an optimized protocol for in vitro oocyte maturation in women with polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome

This paper's objectives was to find an optimal way for oocyte in vitro maturation that would improve the implantation and successfulness of the pregnancy for women that have/had Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome. Using FSH priming, larger sized follicles, hormone therapy and blastocyst stage transfers, they found that the maturation and implantation rates were improved compared to that of previous studies, and that it compares to that of IVF of women without Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome. 29 pregnancies were resultant of the IVM and 28 live births occurred. There was one loss as it was an ectopic pregnacy, and there was no congenital birth defects. [1] Journal Article

Lab 2 Assessment

Part 1

Critical stages of the development of the primitive streak in the chick embryo..png

Part 2

Oct-4 is a protein that is important for pre-implantation development as well as being a necessary part in endoderm formation. Without Oct-4 the endoderm would not form properly and cause problematic repercussions. [2]

Lab 3 Assessment

Part 1

Gestational age is a term most commonly used to describe at how far along the pregnancy is. This is usually determined by measuring the size of the thigh, head and abdomen of the fetus. Described from the first day of last menstrual cycle to the current date in weeks. [3] This compared to Post-fertilization age which describes the approximate point at which the ovum was fertilized. Usually it occurs two weeks after the menstrual period and is calculated by deducting two weeks off the Gestational age. Gestational age is used in clinical areas because it is measured by size of limbs and development of the fetus, this would allow a better understanding of the development of the fetus but also the development of the placenta and surrounding tissues. As the Gestational stage is measured from the first day of the last menstrual cycle, the whole process of the ovum being released from the ovary as well as fertilized is included within the age, as is the cycles of the endometrium of the uterus. Rather than having an age that excludes these important processes that happen for total conception.

Part 2

Part of each somite goes onto forming skeletal muscle, a dermis of the skin and a vertebra cartilage.[4] They can also form the limbs and abdominal wall.

Lab 4 Assessment

Part 1

Amniocentesis involves taking a small sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and the DNA is scanned for any abnormalities that could have arisen. Usually it is taken with the use of a ultra-sound device for guidance into the sack from the abdominal wall. The from the fluid, cells are extracted and grown as a culture. Using this technique it is possible to find abnormalities such as Downs Syndrome, Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18, Neural tube defects as well as developmental issues such as abnormalities that may lead to infant respiratory distress syndrome. Chorionic Villus Sampling is used to determine if there are any chromosomal abnormalities or any genetic disorders within the growing fetus. It is done by sampling and then testing the placental tissue, the chorionic villus. [5]

Part 2

Conversion of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Wharton's Jelly to Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro: Potential Therapeutic Application for Parkinsonism

In this study, mescenchimal cells were taken from the Wharton's Jelly of the Umbilical cord and transplanted, after being properly cultured, into the striatum of rats that had previously been made Parkinonism. The results that were found, show that the it can help with the rebuilding of the cells. [6] As Parkinson's disease is one that effects the mind not the body, its sufferers usually last a lot longer than that of other diseases. Consequences of these mean that the drugs that used to help with this become ineffective as the years roll on and then are rendered useless. These findings could help in the future with relief from this disease. However, in this study, and many others, ethical and technical issues arise from obtaining the samples and graft tissues used in this type of technique.

Lab 7 Assessment

Part 1

(a)A Muscle Satellite Cell is a mononucliated cell that lies within the basement membrane of a striated muscle fiber, it is able to regenerate quickly and contributes to myoblasts for growth, repair and regeneration and is also the stem cells of which skeletal muscles originate from. [7] [8] [9]

(b)Satellite cells are usually activated after an injury or exercise, in which various mediators are released to activate them so they are able to supply extra nuclei to the muscle fibers otherwise cell death would occur. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I, IGF-I has been implicated to be involved with the activation of these cells [10] as has Nitric Oxide [11]

I'm not quite sure what the questions asking actually.

Part 2

After nerve damage or complete loss of motor control of a muscle, the muscle fiber begins to decrease in size and ability. Both type-I and type-II decrease and show signs of atrophy, If complete loss of nerve impulse to the muscle, the muscle goes into permanant flaccid peralisis and atrophies, soon the muscle can turn to connective tissue. Usually there is a change within the first 14 days, a decrease of 16%-39% in muscle fiber weight. [12]

Lab 8 Assessment


Overall the detail within Group 1's page is very informative and very well set out, having each individual part of the eye named with information about the development of that certain feature is great. The information about the iris, cornea, choroid and sclera, eyelids and lacrimal glands were undeveloped compared to that of the retina and optic nerve. Even though the retina and optic nerve are the sensory receptors, the other components of the eye should have an equal amount of information about the development because without these parts the sensory part would not function at its best.

I would recommend having developmental pictures that you have placed at the beginning of the page places around the block of writing in the iris, lens, and chamber area just to break up the text and to show the development of each part in stages. The History section, as they stated has more to come, and I hope there is more to come for the current research as well as both sections need more information. I feel that the images, while being hand drawn, were not sufficient enough to communicate the full detail of the developmental process and there were not enough references to validate the statements that were made throughout the page. Overall however it was a very well written project with a well thought out progression from introduction to finish.


Sectioning off the touch, pain, hot/cold and pressure was a very well thought out idea, but wouldn't hot/cold come under a temperature? Just an idea to change the heading to something a bit more formal. Overall the content was very well written. And most sections were referenced properly. Other sections were not, such as the introduction and pressure. The content in these paragraphs is so well written, I fell it is left down by the referencing problem. I found that there were only a few references used in some sections, and sometimes being only one. That may be because there is not enough information out there, I'm just not entirely satisfied with the amount of references. I feel there's more out there. The hand drawn picture was very well done and I like it. The Touch section was well done but had no developmental development, current research is lacking and as is the glossary. There needs to be more pictures also.


LOVE the opening paragraph! The introduction is very well written, quite easy to read and understand. Very well drawn tongue and the overview of structure and function quite a good way to ease the reader into the page. The histories of the discoveries was really well set out, but i feel like there needs to be a bit more content so that the reader can fully understand what is going on. But it is an overview/glance at the history. The developmental table is very easy to read and very well set out. But because this is the main developmental timeline, should there be more references to really show the evidence? There seems to be a few but not enough to truly show the process. The Abnormalities section, I feel is very well done, (just like most of the page) but the images could be off to the side instead of taking up the amount of space there. I really enjoyed reading this page, not only was it informative but it wasn't painful to read. It was at a level that someone who hasn't yet looked into the area can understand.


Lab 9 Assessment

Part 1

Lack of the Ventral Anterior Homeodomain Transcription Factor VAX1 Leads to Induction of a Second Pituitary conducted by Kapil Bharti, Melanie Gasper, Stefano Bertuzzi and Heinz Arnheiter This research article states that an absence of a homeodomain transcription factor, Vax1, can lead to the development of a second normal functioning, pituitary gland. Vax1, most commonly is associated with that of the eye development and the optic chiasm development. They found that mice with an abnormality or mutation in Vax1 not only show abnomalties with the development of the eye and its chiasm but have also found that there is a secondary Rathke's pouch. It is a fully functioning pouch which will differentiate into an adenohypophsis and a neurohypophysis. They found that Vax1 plays a major role in limiting the area in which FGF10 can act, which would ultimately form a correctly positioned, singular pituitary is formed. [13]

Part 2

The tooth is composed of tissues and embryonic layers formed from the ectoderm, the mesoderm and the neural crest ectomesenchyme. At the lamina stage the oral ectoderm/epithelium is up against the neural crest ectomesenchyme. This epithelium then proliferates and becomes a tissue layer, with dental placodes and dental lamina. The dental placodes proliferate further and begin to migrate into the mesenchyme forming what is known as the tooth buds. This folds in to form a cap and later on a bell shape in which there is a hollow on the underside of the bud

Lab 11

The study researched created a new cell line from fibroblasts to form new iPSCs that expressed markers that were cabable of differentation to the 3 different germ layers. With the addition of motor neruon signalling factors, the neurons formed from iPSCs showed the expression of transcription factors that is associated with the differentiation of motor neurons. These factors include HB9 and ISLET1. This research states that the SSEA4 expression is essential for the differentiation of iPSCs into neurons, astrocytes and further subtypes of neurons. [14]


  1. Stephen M. Junk, Ph.D., Doreen Yeap, M.B.B.S., F.R.A.N.Z.C.O.G. Improved implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates after single-embryo transfer with an optimized protocol for in vitro oocyte maturation in women with polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome Fertility and Sterility: 2012 Journal Article
  2. Szczepańska K, Stańczuk L, Maleszewski M. Oct4 protein remains in trophectoderm until late stages of mouse blastocyst development. Reproductive Biology:2011 Jul;11(2):145-56. Article
  3. Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Gestational age Medline Plus [1]
  4. Richard L. Drake et al. Gray's Anatomy For Students 2nd ed. pg35
  5. <pubmed>16533654</pubmed>
  6. Yu-Show Fu Et Al Conversion of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Wharton's Jelly to Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro: Potential Therapeutic Application for Parkinsonism Stem Cells: Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 115-124 [2]
  7. Juergen Scharner Et Al The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years Skeletal Muscle 2011, 1:28 [3]
  8. Judy E. Anderson The satellite cell as a companion in skeletal muscle plasticity: currency,conveyance, clue, connector and colander The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 2276-2292 [4]
  9. Ashley L Siegel1 Et Al Muscle satellite cell proliferation and association: new insights from myofiber time-lapse imaging Skeletal Muscle 2011, 1:7 [5]
  10. Maria Hill,1 A Wernig,2 and G Goldspink1 Muscle satellite (stem) cell activation during local tissue injury and repair Journal of Anatomy. 2003 July; 203(1): 89–99. [6]
  11. Judy E. Anderson The satellite cell as a companion in skeletal muscle plasticity: currency,conveyance, clue, connector and colander The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 2276-2292 [7]
  12. Myoung-Ae Choe, Kyung Hwa Kim, Gyeong Ju An, Kyung-Sook Lee and Margaret Heitkemper Hindlimb Muscle Atrophy Occurs From Peripheral Nerve Damage in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model Biological Research for Nursing 2011 13: 44 [8]
  13. Kapil Bharti, Melanie Gasper, Stefano Bertuzzi and Heinz Arnheiter Lack of the Ventral Anterior Homeodomain Transcription Factor VAX1 Leads to Induction of a Second Pituitary Development 138. pg 873-878
  14. <pubmed>23043799</pubmed>