Welcome to the 2014 Embryology Course!
- Each week the individual assessment questions will be displayed in the practical class pages and also added here.
- Copy the assessment items to your own page and provide your answer.
- Note - Some guest assessments may require completion of a worksheet that will be handed in in class with your student name and ID.
|Individual Lab Assessment|
|Lab 12 - Stem Cell Presentation Assessment||More Info|
- 1 Lab Attendance
- 2 Lab Assessment 1 - Fertilization References
- 3 Lab Assesment 2 - Uploading a Research Image
- 4 Lab Assessment 3 - Project Researching
- 5 Lab Assesement 4
- 6 Online photo submission for Group Project (Lab 8)
- 7 Lab Assesment 7
Lab Assessment 1 - Fertilization References
- Predictive factors in in vitro fertilization(IVF): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Article focused on acquiring data from previous case studies and research papers, collaborating data to determine the success rate of pregnancy prior In-vitro fertilization and certain factors which play a part in a successful pregnancy from the procedure.
The articles which were used in the data pooling were eligible to be used if they evaluated the association between one or more of the pre-identified factors (listed below) and its effect on pregnancy after the use of IVF in an unselected patient group and were not considered if they reported on a specific patient group within the sub fertile IVF population or if no association was drawn between eh predictive factors and pregnancy or could not be determined. From the data the following factors were carefully analysed to determine if they play a part in the success rate of pregnancy post IVF; Age, Type of Infertility, Duration of Infertility, Basal Follicle stimulating hormones, Oocytes present, Fertilization method and Embryo Quality
From the 14 studies that were used in the data pooling, it was found that ‘women aged 35 years or older had significantly lower pregnancy chances compared with women who were younger than 25’ (Loendersloot et al., 2010) as well as studies showing that women who were aged above 30, in comparison to those in their mid-twenties had a lower chance of pregnancy. Age was recognised as a ‘continuous variable’ throughout the studies which showed decreasing chances of a successful pregnancy as the patients age increases. Further studies showed the relationship between the amount of bFSH (Basal Follicle Stimulating Hormones) and pregnancy. In 2 case studies, it was revealed that pregnancy chances were higher post IVF in patients with a lower level of FSH in comparison to women with a higher level of FSH concentration. Oddity Rates confirmed that ‘increasing bFSH values were associated with lower pregnancy rates after IVF’ 3 of the studies determined the correlation of embryo quality to pregnancy after IVF. It also found that women with embryos with higher development stage and morphology scores had higher pregnancy chances compared to those which scored lower and also, embryos which showed delayed or appropriate development stages had lower pregnancy chances compared to women with advanced development stages.
Lab Assesment 2 - Uploading a Research Image
Immunofluroescent labelling of embryo for Immunoreactive 5 - Methylocytosine
Lab Assessment 3 - Project Researching
Historical/Historic Finding for Neural Development
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Lab Assesement 4
1. Identify a paper that uses cord stem cells therapeutically and write a brief (2-3 paragraph) description of the paper's findings.
This study researched on the safety and efficacy of the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 172 patients who had been diagnosed with RA who were not recovering from use of traditional medication were chosen, then divided into two separate groups for different treatments, one group recieving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) plus medium without UC-MSCs and DMARDs with UC-MSCs via intravenous injection. Serum levels of inflammatiry chemokines.cytokines were measured and lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood were analyzed. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 decreased after the first UC-MSCs treatment (P<0.05). The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells of peripheral blood was increased (P<0.05). The treatment induced a significant remission of disease.
The therapeutic effects maintained for 3-6 months without continuous administration, correlating with the increased percentage of regulatory T cells of peripheral blood. Repeated infusion after this period can enhance the therapeutic efficacy. In comparison, there were no such benefits observed in control group of DMARDS plus medium without UC-MSCs. In conclusion, there were no benefits recorded in the control group who recieved DMARDS plus medium withouth US-MSCs, indicating that treatments with DMARDs plus US-MSCs provides a safe, significant and persistent clinical benefit for patients with RA.
2.There are a number of developmental vascular "shunts" present in the embryo, that are closed postnatally. Identify these shunts and their anatomical location.
3 developmental vascular ‘shunts’ are present in the embryo which are closed postnatally
1) Foramen Ovale
In the foetal stage, the Foramen Ovale is the opening in the inter-atrial septum which allows the blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. This opening closes at birth when lung gains function, the pulmonary pressure decreases and the left atrial pressure exceeds that of the right atrium, forcing the septum primum against the spectrum secundum closing the foramen ovale
2) Ductus Venosus
In the foetus, the ductus venosus shunts blood from the left umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava and therefore allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liverIt is critical in shunting oxygenated blood to the fetal brain. The remanent of the ductus venosus is found as ligamentum venosus attached to the left branch of the portal vein
Online photo submission for Group Project (Lab 8)
Arachnoid cyst with Hydrocephalus
Lab Assesment 7
1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.
The journal focuses on the further understanding of genetic aetiology of some of the several forms of adrenal failures which can be present in childhood or infancy. Disorders which affect the adrenal development are termed 'adrenal hypoplasia'.
Conditions occuring in the adrenal glands are grouped into: 1) Secondary form of adrenal hypoplaisa due to panhypopituitarism / abnormality in ACTH synthesis 2) Adrenal hypoplasia as part of an ACTH resistance syndrome 3) Primary defects in the development of the adrenal gland itself
Adrenal hypoplasia is most commonly found occuring in X-linked form due to mutations in the nuclear receptor DAX1.
2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.
Teeth develop from the ectoderm and the endoderm. Enamel of teeth develops from the ectoderm of the oral cavity whereas all other tissues come from the assosicated mesenchyme. Development of teeth is in continuous stages
1) Dental lamina and bud stage - early in week 6 as U-shaped thickenings of the oral epithelium
2) Cap Stage - Deep surface of ectodermal tooth bud is invaginated by mesenchyme called 'dental papilla' which gives off 'dentin'. Ectodermal cap covering the papilla is called 'enamel organ' as it produces the future enamel of teeth
3) Bell Stage - invagination of the enamel organ where the teeth forms the shape of a bell