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-Z3332629 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST) Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

The first In Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) was performed in 1978 by Dr. Edwards (an embryologist) and Dr. Steptoe in England. In 2010, Robert G. Edwards was awarded with a Nobel Prize “for the development of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy”.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Title: Enzymatic isolation of human primordial and primary ovarian follicles with Liberase DH: protocol for application in a clinical setting Authors: Julie Vanacker M.Bio.Sc.a, Alessandra Camboni M.D., Ph.D.a, Catherine Dath M.D.a, Anne Van Langendonckt Ph.D.a, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans M.D., Ph.D.a, Jacques Donnez M.D.,h.D. a, and Christiani A. Amorim V.M.D., Ph.D.a

Key findings: - The aim or objective of the experiment was to isolate human preantral follicles with a particular enzyme (Liberase Dehydrogenase) in order to use these follicles in a clinical setting. - After the follicles were isolated, they were analysed in terms of their morphology and structural preservation. - In conclusion, it was founded that Liberase DH is an extremely useful enzyme for the isolate of human preantral follicles as it helps to maintain their viability and ultrastructure. This enzyme can be produced in good manufacturing practice conditions and hence is a great contribution to clinical applications.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Two congenital anomalies include: - Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome): a chromosomal abnormality caused by the event of an additional copy of chromosome 21 - Cleft palate: caused by the failure of the mouth parts to join up during early foetal development which results in an open space or ‘cleft’ that can occur on one or on both sides of the face.

 http://www.ivf.com/ivffaq.html
 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2010/press.html
 http://www.sciencedirect.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0015028211008600
 http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Lecture_-_Fertilization
 http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Cleft_palate_and_cleft_lip

--z3332629 11:25, 29 July 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 14:59, 29 July 2011 (EST) Well done Ashleigh. I will show you how to format the references correctly for the group project.

Something about the reference.[1]

References

  1. <pubmed>21719006</pubmed>

--Z3332629 07:38, 3 August 2011 (EST) Oh okay! Sorry I wasn't sure if references were necessary, so I just popped them in quickly at the end. The example that you have given, is that the exact way in which we should incorporate it in our group project? Should we use the Harvard or Endnote system? --Z3332629 07:36, 3 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332629 10:52, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Online Assessment 1.Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization.

The zona pellucid glycoprotein ZP-3 functions as a sperm receptor. After fertilization, it is believed that enzymes act to digest the entire zona pellucid, hence inactivating the ZP3 protein to prevent polyspermy.

Additional information of interest: “The sperm-binding activity of ZP3 is mediated by the oligosaccharide side chains of ZP3”... This observation suggests that “the oligosaccharides on ZP3 trap incoming sperm at the zona surface of unfertilized eggs and that this activity is lost after fertilization” . After ZP3 binds to the sperm, it then triggers the sperm’s acrosome reaction that enables the selected spermatozoon to penetrate the zona pellucida .

 Innovate us – Innovation and information for sustainable living. 2006-2011. What is a Zona Pellucida. InnovateUs.net. Viewed 04/08/2011 < http://www.innovateus.net/health/what-zona-pellucida>
 L.Browder and L.Iten (Ed.) 1998. (Dynamic Development). Fertilization: Sperm/Egg Recognition and Contact. USA. Viewed 04/08/2011 < http://people.ucalgary.ca/~browder/fertiliz.html>
 Keyon College, D.Marcey Chapter 13B: Animal Fertilization and Cleavage. Viewed 04/08/2011 < http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap13/Chapter_13B.html>

--z3332629 15:16, 4 August 2011 (EST)


Review article: Functional characteristics of dystrophic skeletal muscle: insights from animal models. Jon F. Watchko1, Terrence L. O'Day1, and Eric P. Hoffman2 http://jap.physiology.org/content/93/2/407.long

Research article: The common missense mutation D489N in TRIM32 causing limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H leads to loss of the mutated protein in knock-in mice resulting in a Trim32-null phenotype Elena Kudryashova1, Arie Struyk2,†, Ekaterina Mokhonova1, Stephen C. Cannon2 and Melissa J. Spencer1,* http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/07/28/hmg.ddr311.long --Ashleigh Pontifex 13:31, 10 August 2011 (EST) --z3332629 13:34, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab sign in --z3332629 12:22, 11 August 2011 (EST)

[[Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 2

Pone.0018493.g006.jpg

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080369/

Figure 6 Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21. (A) Standard MA-plot of the normalized global observed counts per each RefSeq gene. (B) shows the percentage of RefSeq genes classified as strong, good, acceptable evidence of DE with respect to those not showing any statistical evidence.

Copyright Costa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

[[

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Lab 3 Online Assessment

1. • Iodine is also significant, as iodine deficiency is the biggest cause of mental retardation.

References:

Living Strong. 2011. Healthy Food to Help Brain Development in Early Pregnancy. Accessed 11/08/2011. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/296096-healthy-food-to-help-brain-development-in-early-pregnancy/#ixzz1Ughcky2w> Living Strong. 2011. Vitamins for Fetal Brain Development. Accessed 11/08/2011. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/297928-vitamins-for-fetal-brain-development/> Living Strong. 2011. Healthy Food to Help Brain Development in Early Pregnancy. Accessed 11/08/2011. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/296096-healthy-food-to-help-brain-development-in-early-pregnancy/#ixzz1Ughcky2w>


File:Asj-5-43-g001.jpg

--Mark Hill 15:20, 11 August 2011 (EST) OK, so you have uploaded the image OK and included all the information requested. Except the last and most important step I described, how is "File:Asj-5-43-g001.jpg" an appropriate description of the original image? Why not rename this image to "Surgical correction of Spinal Curvature" or "Surgical Spinal Deformity Correction" something descriptive so that the image can be easily identified. You will not get full marks until this has been corrected.

X-ray examination of an 11-year-old boy, wheelchair bound for 8 months with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

A 11-year-old boy, wheelchair bound for 8 months with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

A) Preoperative antero-posterior radiograph right sided showing 60° curve. (B, C) Two year post-operative antero-posterior and lateral radiographs showing sublaminar wiring instrumentation with Luque rods and distal fixation to pelvis with L-rod configuration.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047897/

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1532-429X-12-14-3.jpg

--Mark Hill 15:26, 11 August 2011 (EST) Same comment as above for this image.

T2 histograms

Examples of normalized (i.e. area under curve = 1) T2 histograms of DMD (Group A, B and C) and Normal control (N1) subjects show that DMD patients with normal EF but impaired εcc has higher heterogeneity in T2 compared to other groups.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846924/

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

X-ray examination of an 11-year-old boy, wheelchair bound for 8 months with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Surgical correction of a 11-year old patient suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy.jpg

Surgical_correction_of_a_11-year_old_patient_suffering_from_Duchenne_muscular_dystrophy.jpg‎ (568 × 376 pixels, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047897/

A 11-year-old boy, wheelchair bound for 8 months with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (A) Preoperative antero-posterior radiograph right sided showing 60° curve. (B, C) Two year post-operative antero-posterior and lateral radiographs showing sublaminar wiring instrumentation with Luque rods and distal fixation to pelvis with L-rod configuration.

Results of the AGEP analysis of microarray data from two Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples against the reference database.

File:Results of the AGEP analysis of microarray data from two Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples against the reference database.jpg

Figure 2

Results of the AGEP analysis of microarray data from two Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples against the reference database.

A) The sample from patient 3 resembles most closely striated muscle among the 44 reference tissues. B) Alignment of the patient's transcriptome at the level of individual genes. On the x-axis are genes (17 330) and on the y-axis the three most similar tissues. Green color indicates that the genes have an expression level typical for that tissue, whereas red indicates atypical expression levels. Genes have been ordered according to their level of similarity against the most similar tissue (striated muscle). C) View of distinct gene sets and pathways for the most similar tissue (striated muscle). Relative enrichment of atypical genes is shown on the right side to illustrate aberrant gene expression levels for individual patient samples. Genes involved in inflammation response, complement mediated immunity and muscle contraction had more atypical expression levels as compared to healthy striated muscle (198.6, 70.9 and 7.1 fold enrichment of atypical genes, respectively), indicating that these processes were altered in DMD in comparison to healthy muscle. D-F) The gene expression profile from patient 4 resembled mostly striated muscle (primary match), but revealed adipose tissue as the second best matching tissue. As compared to patient 3, this patient had a larger number of muscle typical genes involved in inflammation response, complement mediated immunity and muscle contraction suggesting a less severe disease for patient 4.

Copyright Notice

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/pmc/articles/PMC3080808/

Mark Hill, I have been having implications uploading files! I correct the file name, however I have uploaded 3 files and they have all come up with a little red cross symbol. I'm not sure as to what has happened, I have attempted the task multiple times with different images and it keeps occuring. Please take this into account for my marks for the online lab submission.

Kind regards

--z3332629 13:20, 17 August 2011 (EST)

DMD patients and causes of higher heterogeneity

DMD patients and causes of higher heterogeneity.jpg

T2 histograms.

Examples of normalized (i.e. area under curve = 1) T2 histograms of DMD (Group A, B and C) and Normal control (N1) subjects show that DMD patients with normal EF but impaired εcc has higher heterogeneity in T2 compared to other groups.

Accessed via: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846924/

Copyright Notice

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Lab week 5 sign on --z3332629 11:02, 18 August 2011 (EST)


Lab 5, Week 6 Online Assessment 1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why? A diaphragmatic hernia is a condition where there is a hole in the diaphragm and organs from the abdomen go up into the chest cavity. It is most common on the left side as the contents such as the stomach, spleen and intestines (that are all positioned to the left side of the body) move up into the chest region displacing the chest organs to the contralateral side, leaving very little room for lungs to grow and develop properly.

--z3332629 22:00, 26 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332629 11:18, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Individual Assessment – Week 7

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse? Week 9. 2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells? The chicken model. 3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract? Tetralogy of Fallot --z3332629 12:32, 10 September 2011 (EST)

Lab Week 8 Sign on

--z3332629 11:01, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7, Week 8 Online Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy? A) No B) Yes they are generally involved and proliferate during hypertrophy – satellite cells are important for sustaining hypertrophy by increasing the amount of myonuclei present.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres contain a larger number of myonuclei and satellite cells in comparison to fast-twitch muscles. Chronic low-frequency stimulation (CLFS) causes a fast to slow fibre type shift by imitating the “electrical discharge pattern of slow motoneurons innervating slow-twitch muscles” resulting in the recruitment of satellite cells.

Lab 8, Week 9 Sign on

--z3332629 10:41, 22 September 2011 (EST)