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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  
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==T2 histograms==
 
==T2 histograms==

Revision as of 14:05, 11 August 2011


Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)



--Z3332629 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST) Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

The first In Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) was performed in 1978 by Dr. Edwards (an embryologist) and Dr. Steptoe in England. In 2010, Robert G. Edwards was awarded with a Nobel Prize “for the development of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy”.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Title: Enzymatic isolation of human primordial and primary ovarian follicles with Liberase DH: protocol for application in a clinical setting Authors: Julie Vanacker M.Bio.Sc.a, Alessandra Camboni M.D., Ph.D.a, Catherine Dath M.D.a, Anne Van Langendonckt Ph.D.a, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans M.D., Ph.D.a, Jacques Donnez M.D.,h.D. a, and Christiani A. Amorim V.M.D., Ph.D.a

Key findings: - The aim or objective of the experiment was to isolate human preantral follicles with a particular enzyme (Liberase Dehydrogenase) in order to use these follicles in a clinical setting. - After the follicles were isolated, they were analysed in terms of their morphology and structural preservation. - In conclusion, it was founded that Liberase DH is an extremely useful enzyme for the isolate of human preantral follicles as it helps to maintain their viability and ultrastructure. This enzyme can be produced in good manufacturing practice conditions and hence is a great contribution to clinical applications.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Two congenital anomalies include: - Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome): a chromosomal abnormality caused by the event of an additional copy of chromosome 21 - Cleft palate: caused by the failure of the mouth parts to join up during early foetal development which results in an open space or ‘cleft’ that can occur on one or on both sides of the face.

 http://www.ivf.com/ivffaq.html
 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2010/press.html
 http://www.sciencedirect.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0015028211008600
 http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Lecture_-_Fertilization
 http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Cleft_palate_and_cleft_lip

--z3332629 11:25, 29 July 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 14:59, 29 July 2011 (EST) Well done Ashleigh. I will show you how to format the references correctly for the group project.

Something about the reference.[1]

References

  1. <pubmed>21719006</pubmed>

--Z3332629 07:38, 3 August 2011 (EST) Oh okay! Sorry I wasn't sure if references were necessary, so I just popped them in quickly at the end. The example that you have given, is that the exact way in which we should incorporate it in our group project? Should we use the Harvard or Endnote system? --Z3332629 07:36, 3 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332629 10:52, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Online Assessment 1.Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization.

The zona pellucid glycoprotein ZP-3 functions as a sperm receptor. After fertilization, it is believed that enzymes act to digest the entire zona pellucid, hence inactivating the ZP3 protein to prevent polyspermy.

Additional information of interest: “The sperm-binding activity of ZP3 is mediated by the oligosaccharide side chains of ZP3”... This observation suggests that “the oligosaccharides on ZP3 trap incoming sperm at the zona surface of unfertilized eggs and that this activity is lost after fertilization” . After ZP3 binds to the sperm, it then triggers the sperm’s acrosome reaction that enables the selected spermatozoon to penetrate the zona pellucida .

 Innovate us – Innovation and information for sustainable living. 2006-2011. What is a Zona Pellucida. InnovateUs.net. Viewed 04/08/2011 < http://www.innovateus.net/health/what-zona-pellucida>
 L.Browder and L.Iten (Ed.) 1998. (Dynamic Development). Fertilization: Sperm/Egg Recognition and Contact. USA. Viewed 04/08/2011 < http://people.ucalgary.ca/~browder/fertiliz.html>
 Keyon College, D.Marcey Chapter 13B: Animal Fertilization and Cleavage. Viewed 04/08/2011 < http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap13/Chapter_13B.html>

--Ashleigh Pontifex 15:16, 4 August 2011 (EST)


Review article: Functional characteristics of dystrophic skeletal muscle: insights from animal models. Jon F. Watchko1, Terrence L. O'Day1, and Eric P. Hoffman2 http://jap.physiology.org/content/93/2/407.long

Research article: The common missense mutation D489N in TRIM32 causing limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H leads to loss of the mutated protein in knock-in mice resulting in a Trim32-null phenotype Elena Kudryashova1, Arie Struyk2,†, Ekaterina Mokhonova1, Stephen C. Cannon2 and Melissa J. Spencer1,* http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/07/28/hmg.ddr311.long --Ashleigh Pontifex 13:31, 10 August 2011 (EST) --Ashleigh Pontifex 13:34, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab sign in --Ashleigh Pontifex 12:22, 11 August 2011 (EST)

[[Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 2

Pone.0018493.g006.jpg

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080369/

Figure 6 Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21. (A) Standard MA-plot of the normalized global observed counts per each RefSeq gene. (B) shows the percentage of RefSeq genes classified as strong, good, acceptable evidence of DE with respect to those not showing any statistical evidence.

Copyright Costa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

[[

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Lab 3 Online Assessment

1. • Folate and choline are important to prevent neural tube defects (NTD). • Vitamin B-12 is also necessary for late neural development, as it is necessary for making DNA and blood cells. A deficiency in this vitamin can cause possible neural system disturbances. • Iodine is also significant, as iodine deficiency is the biggest cause of mental retardation.

References:

Living Strong. 2011. Healthy Food to Help Brain Development in Early Pregnancy. Accessed 11/08/2011. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/296096-healthy-food-to-help-brain-development-in-early-pregnancy/#ixzz1Ughcky2w> Living Strong. 2011. Vitamins for Fetal Brain Development. Accessed 11/08/2011. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/297928-vitamins-for-fetal-brain-development/> Living Strong. 2011. Healthy Food to Help Brain Development in Early Pregnancy. Accessed 11/08/2011. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/296096-healthy-food-to-help-brain-development-in-early-pregnancy/#ixzz1Ughcky2w>


File:Asj-5-43-g001.jpg

X-ray examination of an 11-year-old boy, wheelchair bound for 8 months with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

A 11-year-old boy, wheelchair bound for 8 months with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

A) Preoperative antero-posterior radiograph right sided showing 60° curve. (B, C) Two year post-operative antero-posterior and lateral radiographs showing sublaminar wiring instrumentation with Luque rods and distal fixation to pelvis with L-rod configuration.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047897/

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1532-429X-12-14-3.jpg

T2 histograms

Examples of normalized (i.e. area under curve = 1) T2 histograms of DMD (Group A, B and C) and Normal control (N1) subjects show that DMD patients with normal EF but impaired εcc has higher heterogeneity in T2 compared to other groups.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846924/

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.