From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab 1 Questions

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

The technique of In Vitro Fertilisation of (IVF) was developed by a Robert G. Edwards which was awarded the 2010 Nobel prize for this technique of fertilisation. Although the origin and reason for this technique is when all assisted reproduction has failed, the term IVF can be defined as being a process which fertilisation occurs outside the body instead occurs within a testube or petri dish( where the female egg(unfertilised) and male sperm is place together until fertilisation occurs and returned to the uterus (in zygote stage) to continue development as a usual pregnancy(New York Times).

However the origins of IVF was mainly for women unable to give birth, this can be due to damage either in the fallopian tubes or problems with the ovaries which leads to infertility. For these reasons the technique of IVF was developed where the first IVF or test tube baby was born in 1978.


New York Times, health section "Pioneer of in Vitro Fertilization Wins Nobel Prize" (2011) from

Medical dictionary medicine net, "definition of IVF" (2011) from

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Paper 1 Outcome of cycles of oocyte in vitro maturation requiring testicular sperm extraction for nonobstructive azoospermia.

Depicted the rates of fertility and of pregnancy cycles of the implantation and transferring of azoospermia. Where not much research is done in this area and though IVM (in vtro maturation) within the research paper being a alternative which has low rates of OHSS (ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome)where results of whether the oocyte rescues the affects sperm by NOA (non obstructive Azoospermia) which relates to perm motility where 4 pregnancies where achieved and 2 were give birth. though its inconclusive that the IVM method increases the chances of pregnancies where sperm affected by NOA, though still has small percent off births as experiment showed 2 births still were achieved

Biogenesi, Reproductive Medicine Center, Istituti Clinici Zucchi, Monza, Italy, (2011)

Paper 2 Prognostic value of triploid zygotes on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes.

describes the influences which affect 3 complete sets of chromosomes on how embryos from same cohort are fertilised. this resulted in the 50% lower risk of pregnancy and 3.5 fold more risk of miscarriage

Fertility-Assisted Fertilization Center, Av. Brigadeiro Luis Antônio

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.


which is the hereditary condition which causes bone formation unable to mature and develop properly where bones of limbs become smaller and shorter may also affect the facial region, this is sometimes know as dwarfism

Marfan syndrome:

A condition which affects the connective tissues and causes the limbs to develop this serve disorder can affect more than just limbs reaching to connective tissue through out the body which can cause issues with the heart and the vales.

lol (ok to sign you add (-- + ~ ~ ~ ~) )

--z3332250 00:28, 6 August 2011 (EST) --Z3332250 10:08, 3 August 20111 (EST)

Lab 2 Questions

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

The Zona Pellucida Protein (ZP) required for sperm to bind is ZP3 this glycoprotein is needed to activate the acrosome reaction where by the sperm fusing with the oocyte plasma membrane to allow actual fertilisation.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)



  1. <pubmed>21358192</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>3124302</pubmed>

---z3332250 11:20, 9 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Questions

1.What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Two dietary requirement are folate, Omega 3 fatty acid and iodine which affect the neural development during embryo development. Where there is clear evidence that Folic acid decreases chances of neural defects, studies by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine has shown through the increase in folic acid causing a reduction in neural abnormalities such as Spina bifida where the neural tube doesn't close properly. However another important component in the maternal diet is Omega 3 fatty acid seen to be a component in neural development and differentiation his is observed in rat stem cells by (Ma,D et al 2011).

Where as Iodine affects the thyroid gland via hypothalamus to produce iodine uptake where research has shown that iodine deficiency is problem in third world countries. this is a issue due to iodine being salt is required in the general diet.(Andersson et al 2011). Where iodine deficiency causes impairment of the hypothalamus due to the negitive feedback system seen by.(Zimmermann MB.2011).


1).London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK PMC2845867

2).Ma D, Zhang M, Larsen CP, Xu F, Hua W, Yamashima T, Mao Y, Zhou L.(2011)DHA promotes the neuronal differentiation of rat neural stem cells transfected with GPR40 gene.PMID: 20211608

3).Andersson M, de Benoist B, Rogers L.Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.(2011)PMID:20172466

4).Zimmermann MB.(2011)Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland; The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), Zürich, Switzerland.PMID: 21802524

2.Upload a picture relating to you group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.

Original Name:Pgen.1000812.g002.jpg

Gene expression responses of Friedreich's ataxia

Gene expression responses of Friedreich's ataxia

z3332250 00:55, 16 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Questions

1). The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is found to continue with the hind-gut

2).Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

the three shunts of the embryonic circulation are:

  • Ductus arteriosus: Which is the connection of pulmonary artery and the aortic arch
  • Ductus venosus: is shunt between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava
  • foramen ovale: is the shunt located in the right atrium of the heart

3)Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

Treatment, physiological component of pathogenesis, physiological component of cardio and musculature

z3332250 12:36, 23 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Questions

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic hernia is most common on the left side of the diaphragm where the contents of the abdomen enters the chest region.

z3332250 00:55, 27 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Questions

What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The fusion of the shelves occur during week 9 of development of the embryo, this fusion occurs and become one structure.

What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

The early animal used for improving knowledge of neural crest was the chick embryos, experiments were done on chick embryos on the nervous system development which enable greater understanding of neural crest origin and development into this area of study.

What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Neural crest development are a major component in the cardiovascular development, without the neural crest migration can lead to major disorders such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) this congenital disorder is a cardiac defect and a example of neural crest not migrating to cardiac outflow affecting aorta and pulmonary arteries which affect flow.

z3332250 10:42, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Questions

Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

Satellite cells are involved in regeneration of the muscles cells, where injury cause the satellite cell to activate from basal membrane.

  • (a) However satellite cells are not required for hypertrophy due to satellite function is to regenerate new fibres.
  • (b) Although satellite cells are minutely involved causing slight hypertropic increase during repair increasing more muscle mass when proliferating during repair.

Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Over expression of trans-gene has cause this transmission. where knock out of gene experiment would confirm fibre type change.

Trisomy 21 Discussion

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
 10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. 

Peer Assessment:

Key points clearly described:

  • Within the Introduction there are definition of terms such as "Aneuploidy" which should be added to the glossary not the introduction, sudden change of subject cause confusion and not enough information within the introduction only so key features.
  • heart defects was not expanded only presenting statistics no detain explaining statistics
  • heading of recent findings would be placed further down instead at the beginning to create sense of flow and building of the subject
  • heart and hand defects should be placed under same sub heading "defects"
  • The sub heading "American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Recommendations" should be placed as recent findings
  • terms should be placed under heading of glossary and joined together with all the definitions instead of seperated
  • referencing link to paper "PLoS One" is not correct method of referencing only a link
  • Picture found in the introduction contains no verification of allowing usage due to incorrect referencing
  • images within the "Associated Congenital Abnormalities" and the "Introduction" contain no description of the image and the what is being conveyed.

Ryan Tran 20:39, 21 September 2011 (EST)

z3332250 12:22, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

z3332250 12:04, 28 July 2011 (EST)

z3332250 11:03, 04 August 2011 (EST)

z3332250 11:01, 11 August 2011 (EST)

z3332250 11:05, 18 August 2011 (EST)

z3332250 11:03, 25 August 2011 (EST)

z3332250 11:08, 1 September 2011 (EST)

z3332250 11:38, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg

This is the area to add text and information about the image

--Mark Hill 10:08, 3 August 2011 (EST) Where are your answers to first lab assessment? Need to be completed before Lab 2.