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Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)


Fleur McGregor 11:38, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 12:51, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 12:17, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 11:25, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 11:29, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 12:17, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 11:07, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 11:41, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 11:17, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Fleur McGregor 11:31, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

-The origin of IVF was in the UK in 1978 -The 2010 Nobel Prize winner was Robert G. Edwards for the development of this technique

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Recent Paper: "Trends in delivery and neonatal outcome after in vitro fertilization in Sweden: data for 25 years". B Klln, O Finnstrm, A Lindam, E Nilsson, K-G Nygren, P Otterblad Olausson. Hum. Reprod.: 2010, 25(4);1026-34 PMID:20139431

Key Findings: -The decrease in unwanted outcomes can be explained by a. the reduced rate of multiple births b. changes in the characteristics of patients undergoing IVF

3. Identify 2 congenital abnormalities.

-Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome) -Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

ZP3 is a zona pellucida protein that spermatozoa binds to. Enzymes digest the zona pellucida after fertilisation which alters ZP3 so it will no longer bind sperm plasma membrane.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Group topic: cystic fibrosis

Review article: H.A. Tiddens, Detecting early structural lung damage in cystic fibrosis, Pediatr Pulmonol 34 (3) (2002), pp. 228–231.

Research article: Wang SS, FitzSimmons SC, O'Leary LA, Rock MJ, Gwinn ML, Khoury MJ, Early diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the newborn period and risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition in the first 10 years of life: A registry-based longitudinal study, Pediatrics, 2001 Feb, 107(2):274-9.

--Fleur McGregor 12:51, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg

Lab 3 Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Folate is essential in the maternal diet for late neural development. There is evidence that suggests that it has been associated with a decrease in neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.

--:Z3308965 10:57, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Cleft Palate Maxillary View.jpg

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is an extension from the early hindgut which connects to the superior end of the developing bladder.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

a. Vitelline: yolk sac; including vitelline vein and artery (branch off the dorsal aorta) b. Embryonic – body of the embryo; including anterior, common and posterior cardinal veins, ventral and dorsal aortas and aortic arch arteries. c. Placental – primordial placenta; including umbilical artery and left umbilical vein

3.Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page) Group 11: Surgical timeline and Etimiology

--Fleur McGregor 12:17, 23 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic hernia is most common on the left side. It occurs when the pleuroperitoneal foramen fails to close which allows the viscera to enter the thorax.

--Fleur McGregor 10:14, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assessment

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

Primary palate: between stage 17 and 18 Secondary palate: week 9

2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

Chicken model

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot

--Fleur McGregor 13:46, 11 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

(a) No, it has been proven that satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy.

(b) Satellite cells, however, are generally a normal part of the process of hypertrophy.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimulation causes a fast to slow fibre type shift as it induces satellite cell activity in the muscle which produces adaption and change in the fibres.

3. Trisomy 21 Peer Review

  • Introduction does not seem to flow. Maybe restructure paragraphs?
  • Good links, could be placed somewhere else other than introduction?
  • Some heading were too specific eg. Heart defects
  • The order of headings should be revised so that it is in a logical order that builds on the previous heading
  • Some pictures did not have correct referencing eg. Associated congenital abnormalities. Is this picture relevant?
  • Understandable-language not too technical
  • No student drawn diagrams or figures
  • Adequate research-lots of references
  • Overall, good level of content
  • Good balance of text and pictures

--Fleur McGregor 10:26, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8 Assessment

Peer Reviews

Group 1 Peer Review

  • Introduction gives brief history-is there any timeline or more detailed history available?
  • Sub headings are in a logical order, flows well
  • Picture next to epidemiology is too small
  • Prenatal diagnosis-well done. Good use of information
  • Needs to be proof read especially introduction. Some structuring of sentences and paragraphs throughout page needs work
  • Images need to be checked for correct referencing and copyright
  • Glossary is well structured however it could be extended a little, especially in relation to the first half of site
  • Overall referencing is well done however some duplication
  • Overall, well researched. Most of the content is there, need to finalise presentation eg. Spelling, grammar, layout, etc.

Group 2 Peer Review

  • Well structured page in terms of headings, good choice of topics covered
  • Do not need to define congenital abnormality. If you want to define it perhaps add it to the glossary instead?
  • Symptoms in introduction would probably be best in another section
  • Great images. Some need to be made bigger in order to easily read the detail on it
  • Most images are on the right side of the page. Could you move them around a bit to make it visually more appealing?
  • Faint colour highlighting under treatment needs to be made darker or deleted
  • Some duplication in referencing
  • Well researched-great
  • Overall, an informative and well presented page. Just some minor details which need to be adjusted to finalise page

Group 3 Peer Review

  • Well structured and organised
  • Timeline seems odd that it ends at 1970? If further information cannot be found, try to present this in a different way
  • Figure 2 and 3 could perhaps be a little bigger
  • Should a copyright statement be included in some of the images?
  • Signs and symptoms table is great
  • Some duplication of information throughout page-unnecessary
  • Video link is a nice extra
  • Well balanced text, images, and tables/graphs
  • Overall, a well written page and visually appealing

Group 4 Peer Review

  • Punchy introduction-well done
  • Timeline under history was excellent
  • Seemed very scientific and wordy at times-a lot of detail is unnecessary; “less is more”
  • Great balance of text and images-very readable
  • Page flowed well in a logical manner
  • Diagnosis section is very well done however there seems to be too much content/focus relative to the rest of the page. Perhaps add some more to other sections or make this section more concise?
  • An extensive glossary and reference list-thorough research
  • I learnt a lot from this page so well done!
  • Overall, an impressive page. A few more things to tweak to make it excellent

Group 5 Peer Review

  • Introduction does not entice the reader to read the rest of the page. Maybe less scientific language in the introduction?
  • Table under history is well presented and visually appealing
  • “Postnatally” and “postpubescent” need to have “development” added to the subheadings
  • Well referenced
  • The consistent colour scheme throughout is a nice touch
  • Another image under signs and symptoms would make this section look more balanced
  • Diagnosis seems brief-add information or perhaps merge with another subheading
  • Glossary needs to be expanded
  • Logical, clear and organised structure
  • Overall, a good page. The bulk of it is there. If each section just changed some minor things, this page would improve greatly.

Group 6 Peer Review

  • Majority of page is in a logical and organised manner however maybe switch aetiology and signs and symptoms to make it flow better?
  • History section had good, clear subheadings
  • Epidemiology seems brief relative to other sections-perhaps merge with a section or expand on this if possible
  • Table in Diagnostic tests-great however an image would help break up the text
  • Glossary could be extended further
  • Referencing inconsistent
  • Image/text ratio is good however layout could be improved
  • Overall, a very informative and interesting page. Visual appeal could be worked on but once a few things are adjusted, it will finish it nicely

Group 7 Peer Review

  • Well written introduction
  • Great structure of headings
  • An image in history would help make this look a bit more interesting however the use of a table is great
  • Epidemiology could be expanded
  • Pathogenesis looks really well researched and put together-well done
  • Not sure that the genetic counselling section adds anything to the page
  • Fantastic, extensive glossary
  • Referencing looks great
  • Overall, a well researched and structured project

Group 8 Peer Review

  • The headings are well chosen and ordered
  • Epidemiology-well done
  • Student drawings need to be more defined
  • The gene expression image could be larger
  • All the images are on the right side of the page-you could reformat a little to make it a bit more interesting
  • Little confusing between main headings and subheadings under aetiology-just an issue of font size or bolding
  • External links-really good
  • Glossary was great however could be placed before referencing-at first wasn’t sure if it was present as it was at the end
  • Well referenced

Group 9 Peer Review

  • Introduction is well written however a simple image would make this more appealing
  • Epidemiology should be earlier in the page
  • Needs an image in history to break up the text. Even the timeline put into a table would help
  • Some headings could be more general as not to confuse the reader with scientific jargon
  • Text/image ratio is not quite balance. Less text and more images would be better
  • Phenotype section is well written-well done
  • Glossary needs to be extended
  • Referencing is fine
  • Overall, a well researched project however better organisation of text and images will help with the presentation of this information

Group 10 Peer Review

  • Headings are well organised and structured
  • Too much text in history section-a table or image would be good
  • Information is there however images/graphs/tables would help break up large chunks of text
  • Diagnosis seems brief-perhaps merge with treatment section?
  • Signs and symptoms could be expanded
  • Great table in treatment
  • Needs to be proof read-grammar and spelling mistakes
  • Double referencing
  • Glossary needs to be extended

--Fleur McGregor 09:58, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9 Assessment

Not required

Lab 10 Assessment

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Rubella (German measles)

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

Auditory tube: 1.Short in length 2.Narrow 3.Almost horizontal

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)


--Fleur McGregor 17:21, 7 October 2011 (EST)

Dr Mark Hill,

I was identified as a red region student in the edit count of the group page and discussion page when the data was done. This was due to the fact that I was having difficulty in uploading and formatting my information. Therefore, I emailed my information to Tahmina Lata and she uploaded my text/images/tables for me. I also was not aware that communication had to be done via the discussion page and hence was using email, text messages and talking to my group in person. Since this data was released, you can see that I made use of the discussion page and made an effort to attempt in uploading/formatting/editing the page.

My contribution to the final page included:

  • Aetiology section
  • Treatment section
  • A substantial amount of the glossary
  • Contributed to pathophysiology
  • Contributed to epidemiology including pie graph
  • Edited the whole wiki including spelling, grammar, sentence structure, page structure/organisation/headings

If you have any issues or doubts with my equal contribution, please feel free to discuss with my fellow group members.


Fleur McGregor

Lab 11 Assessment

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The components that give rise to the interatrial septum are the septum primum and septum secundum. The passages that connect the right and left atria are the foramen ovale, foramen primum then the foramen secundum.

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

  • Transposition of the Great Vessels
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus
  • Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • Coarctation of the Aorta

--Fleur McGregor 10:50, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12 Assessment

1.Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

  • Neural eg. A change in head shape and sutures.
  • Respiratory eg. The lungs at birth are collapsed and fluid-filled and are then replaced with air by powerful inspiratory movement.
  • Cardiovascular eg.The foramen ovale closes which separates the atria of heart.

2.Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

The Guthrie Test detects markers in a newborn’s blood for a variety of disorders such as phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis.

--Fleur McGregor 17:31, 20 October 2011 (EST)