Lab Attendance

Lab 1 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Attendance:

--z3293267 13:03, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:43, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Attendance:

--z3293267 11:51, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Attendance:

--z3293267 11:40, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Attendance:

--z3293267 11:10, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab7 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:12, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 1: Online Assessment

Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique.

John Rock, an American obstetrician and gynecologist, was a pioneer in in vitro fertilization and sperm freezing. He helped many of his patients achieve pregnancy and became known as a "ground-breaking infertility specialist." In 1977, Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards successfully carried out a pioneering conception which resulted in the birth of the world's first baby to be conceived by IVF.
Robert G. Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

The article, Correlation of Body Mass Index with Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization in a Developing Country[1], examined individuals in a developing country, examining the relationship between their body mass index and the outcome of in vitro fertilization. It correlated ovarian response to stimulation and IVF outcome according to the women's BMI. The conclusion came to an increased BMI is associated with poorer IVF outcome.[1]

Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

  • Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  • Turner's syndrome

--z3293267 22:45, 1 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 10:03, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are fine.

Lab 2: Online Assessment

Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization.

The ZP protein that binds to the spermatozoa is the ZP3. Plasma membranes of the spermatozoa and oocyte fuse, during fertilisation, and the head and tail of the spermatozoa enter the oocyte, leaving the spermatozoa's plasma membrane attached to the oocyte's plasma membrane.

Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Turner Syndrome[2] can be defined as loss or abnormality of the second X chromosome in at least one cell line in a phenotypic female.[2]
The article, Optimising management in Turner syndrome: from infancy to adult transfer[3], reviewed that there is a potential for increased height with growth hormone treatment. Also discussed is the spectrum of gonadal function, ranging from the onset of spontaneous puberty and the potential for fertility to complete gonadal failure.[3]

--z3293267 21:01, 7 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3: Online Assessment

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Edit:--z3293267 10:26, 17 August 2011 (EST)

A maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is iodine.
Iodine deficiency can lead to goiter(an enlargement of the thyroid gland) development when the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood is low. It can also cause cretinism, a condition of hypothyroidism during fetal life, infancy, and childhood. Characteristics include both severe stunted body growth and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in lesser developed countries.
The primary dietary source of iodine nowadays is iodized salt (table or sea salt that has been fortified with iodine). It can also be found in certain seafood e.g, shellfish, sardines, tuna, clams, herring and lobster.

Upload a picture relating to your group project.

Chromosome segregation defects associated with abnormal spindles in UBE3A shRNA knockdown clones.jpg
Chromosome segregation defects associated with abnormal spindles in UBE3A shRNA knockdown clones.[4]

--z3293267 22:11, 16 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 09:34, 17 August 2011 (EST) The answer to dietary requirement is not the answer I sought, the component required prevents cretinism. The second part with the image is exactly as requested.

Lab 4: Online Assessment

The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois, an endoderm in origin extending from the early hindgut, is continuous to the superior end of developing bladder.

Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

  • Ductus arteriosus: located between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta.
  • Ductus venosus: located between the portal vein, umbilical vein and inferior vena cava.
  • Foramen ovale: located between the left and right atria.

Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

  • Progonsis
  • Treatment
  • Management

--z3293267 18:08, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5: Online Assessment

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The most common side for diaphragmatic hernia is the left side. This may be due to the right side of the diaphragm, during embryonic growth, closing earlier than the left side, exposing it to more risks of herniation.

--z3293267 14:44, 30 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6: Online Assessment

What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The development week which palatal shelves fuse together is week 9.

What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

The earliest animal model which helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells is the quail/chicken chimeras model.

What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

The abnormality that results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract is called the Tetralogy of Fallot.

--z3293267 10:18, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7: Online Assessment

Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

Satellite cells are not required for skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, satellite cells are necessary for both the formation of new fibers and fiber regeneration.

Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

A chronic low frequency stimulation (CLFS) causes a fast to slow fibre type shift when a muscle that is inhabited by a satellite cell population, the primary role of satellite cells is to maintain the long-term stability of activity-induced fibre-type transitions. Thus, satellite cells appear to play a direct role in fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions that is quantitative in nature.

--z3293267 13:28, 15 September 2011 (EST)


  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>21792549</pubmed>
  2. 2.0 2.1 <pubmed>2029883</pubmed>
  3. 3.0 3.1 <pubmed>2082783</pubmed>
  4. 4.0 4.1 <pubmed>21633703</pubmed>