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Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

--[[User:Z3292953 13:17, 3 August 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

Lab 2- I was here for Lab 2, you saw me but I didn't do lab attendance.

Lab 3- --z3292953 11:03, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4- --z3292953 11:09, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5- --z3292953 11:26, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6- --z3292953 11:26, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7- --z3292953 11:02, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8- --z3292953 11:17, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9- --z3292953 11:12, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10- --z3292953 11:03, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11- --z3292953 11:03, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12- --z3292953 11:18, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Individual Assessment

Lab 1

Question 1

-The first in vitro birth was Louise Brown in 1978 in The UK. The Nobel prize went to Robert G Edwards in 2010

Question 2

- Pregnancy after Age 50: Defining Risks for Mother and Child. Kort DH, Gosselin J, Choi JM, Thornton MH, Cleary-Goldman J, Sauer MV. Am J Perinatol. 2011 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21809262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The paper discusses the risks involved with pregancy for women over 50 years of age. It compares risks such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders and abnormal placentation for women over 50 with women under 50.

Question 3

- Spina bifida and atrial septal defect --z3292953 21:36, 3 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2

Question 1

Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation. The protein that binds sperm is zonapellucida 3. After fertilisation, enzymes affect ZP3 modifying it, which causes it to not be able to bind.

Question 2

Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. Novel concepts in evaluating antimicrobial therapy for bacterial lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis.Rogers GB, Hoffman LR, Döring G. J Cyst Fibros.2011 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Vitamin D receptor agonists inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production from the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis.McNally P, Coughlan C, Bergsson G, Doyle M, Taggart C, Adorini L, Uskokovic MR, El-Nazir B, Murphy P, Greally P, Greene CM, McElvaney NG.J Cyst Fibros. 2011 Jul 22. [Epub ahead of print]

--z3292953 15:43, 9 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3

Image uploaded in Lab 2

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Question 1

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Both maternal dietary folate and choline are important in late neural development. A deficiency in these may result in abnormalities. PMC2869500

Question 2 Upload a picture relating to you group project.

File-Cleft palate in newborn mice.jpg


--Mark Hill 12:13, 16 August 2011 (EST) Better, but you really do not need to call the image "File".

What was wrong with "Mouse - Perinatal lethality and cleft palate deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3" or "Lethality and cleft palate mice homozygous deleted Ube3a to Gabrb3".

--z3292953 12:03, 16 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4

Question 1

The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois extends into the connecting stalk and gives rise to the umbilical cord. It eventually becomes the urachus in the bladder of an adult. The urachus is also referred to as the median umbilical ligament.

Question 2

Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

1. Ductus Arteriosus - connects the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta

2. Ductus Venosus - connects the inferior vena cava and the umbilica

3. Foramen Ovale - connects the two atria

Question 3

Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

For the group project I will be researching Developmental Staging and Abnormality Classification.

--z3292953 11:19, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5

Question 1

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The most common side for diaphragmatic hernia is the left side. This is due to the pleuroperitinal canal being larger on the left side than on the right. It may also be due the fact that the left side closes slightly later than the right.

--z3292953 10:08, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6

Question 1

What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The palatal shelves fuse in week 9 of development.

Question 2

What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

The chicken model.

Question 3

What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot

--z3292953 16:34, 14 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7

Question 1

Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

(a) Studies have shown that satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy (b) They are, however, generally involved as they proliferate and differentiate during muscle hypertrophy.

Question 2

Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

It mimics the impulse patterns of a slow. This impulse pattern induces the transformation of fast to slow.

Trisomy 21 Discussion

  • The introduction is good
  • There are a lot of subheadings, maybe some of them could be combined
  • Recent findings might be better towards the end of the page
  • The links at the end of the subheadings are good
  • The "Screening by Country" section should contain more than one country
  • The Prevalence section could also use more examples
  • Some of the images need to be properly referenced
  • It may have been good to include some backgorund information
  • Some of the images, especially the John Down one, didnt seem to fit in the section where they were placed and would be bettter used somewhere more relevent.

--z3292953 12:13, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8

Peer Assessments

Group 1

  • Overall the page was good. There were only a few mistakes identified.
  • The Intro was good, it described the disease and gave the reader an idea of what to expect of the page. However, it could do with an image.
  • The graph in the epidemiology section is missing the copyright information.
  • There doesnt seem to be enough referencing in the etiology section. However, this section was good and the links to the glossary are helpful.
  • Clinical manifestions was well set out and easy to read. The use of referencing was good, it shows that a lot of research was done.
  • Postnatal Diagnosis appears to be missing an image in the table.
  • A few of the words in the glossary section are missing their definitions.

Group 2

  • Well researched and set out page
  • An image is needed in either Epidemiology or Etiology would be good
  • Diagnostic section tests section is good, however, images are needed for BAC and Amniocentesis
  • Glossary is well set out, maybe links to the glossary would be helpful
  • Subheadings might be useful in the Current/future research section
  • some of the referencing will need to be fixed such as double references

Group 3

  • The introduction is a little text heavy and might need to summarised
  • The timeline could be longer
  • Image in the Aetiology section is lacking a copyright notice
  • The links in Aetiology are good
  • An image would be good in Sign and Symptoms
  • Pathogenesis needs more referencing
  • Some information has been repeated in more than one section
  • Links to the Glossary might be useful
  • Overall its a good job

Group 4

  • Overall the project is good
  • An image could be good in the introduction
  • History and Timeline are good
  • In the History section it might be useful to have the years in bold
  • Well researched
  • Image for "Role in Transciption inhibition" needs to be fixed
  • Good table in treatment
  • Image in Pathogenesis needs copyright info
  • Good use of text/tables/images

Group 5

  • The images might be better all on the same side
  • An image is needed in Development
  • "Signs and Symptoms" is a little text heavy and needs more references
  • Diagnosis appears to be incomplete
  • Glossary needs to be expanded
  • Links to the glossary might be helpful
  • Double referencing needs to be fixed

Group 6

  • The intro needs some referencing
  • An image might be good in the introduction
  • Histroy section is good. A timeline might be helpful
  • Epidemiology section needs more information
  • Good table in Diagnostic Tests, however, images are missing
  • An image would be good in either Prognosis or Future directions to break up the text
  • Good flow to the project
  • Good student drawn picture
  • Glossary needs to be completed
  • Double referencing needs to be fixed

Group 7

  • Introduction is good but needs an image
  • History section needs referencing
  • Epidemiology needs more information
  • Pathogenesis is good, maybe a little text heavy
  • Student images are good
  • More images needed to balance the page
  • Good glossary
  • Double referencing needs to be fixed

Group 8

  • Overall the project is very good
  • Maybe more info in timeline
  • A description of the image "Cross section of the spiral cord" would be good
  • Good balance of text/image/tables
  • No dates are mentioned in the current research
  • Good use of student image

Group 9

  • Introduction is good but an image would be good
  • History and Timeline is a little text heavy
  • Genetic Factors and Etiology section is very good, well written, good use of tables and images
  • Epidemiology is a little text heavy, a image might be good to break it up
  • Structural Differences in the Brain section needs more references
  • Glossary needs more work
  • No references in Phenotype
  • Maybe reorganise headings so it flows better
  • Overall it is a well researched project but could do with some more images

Group 10

  • Overall seems a little short
  • Introduction is good
  • History seems a little text heavy, maybe a timeline or image would be good to break it up
  • Diagnosis needs more detail and maybe an image
  • Glossary needs more work

--z3292953 10:47, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10

Question 1

Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Measles is one of the teratogens that can lead to hearing loss

Question 2

Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

  • The angle of the auditory tube. The tube is more horizontal in infants than in adults
  • In infants the length of the tube is shorter and narrower
  • In infants only one of the muscles controlling the auditory tube is functioning. The levator palati muscle doesnt become functional til later on

Question 3

Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)


Lab 11

Question 1

Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The components include the septum primum, septum secundum and the endocardial cushion. The passages that connect the left and right atria are called the foramen primum and the foramen ovale.

Question 2

Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

  • Transposition of the Great Vessels
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle
  • Coarctation of the Aorta
  • Tetralogy of Fallot

--z3292953 08:47, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12

Question 1

Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

  • Neural system
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Central auditory system

Question 2

Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

Group Assessment


Development of the lip occurs during face development between weeks four and five. During this time the components that contribute to the face morphology come together and are fused to form a complete upper lip. These components include the maxillary processes and the medial and lateral nasal processes [2] At Carnegie stage 15 the medial and nasal processes have started to fuse and the maxillary process lie inferior to them. During stage 16 the maxillary process and the medial nasal processes come in contact with each other and begin to fuse. Stage 18 is the later stage of lip formation. The maxillary process continue to grow and in doing so the force the medial nasal processes medialfrontally. It is between Stages 16 and 18 that a cleft lip is formed, after failure of the processes to fuse completely [3]

Normal palate shelf and key stages of mouse palatal development.jpg

Development of the palate occurs between the seventh and tenth weeks. There are two main stages in palate development, primary and secondary. During the seventh week of development the intermaxillary processes are formed. These processes give rise to the primary palate. This primary palate contributes to the floor of the nasal cavity. Towards the end of the seventh week the palatine shelves, which were lying parallel to the tongue, start to move into a more horizontal position above the tongue. These palatine shelves begin to fuse with each other and with the primary palate. Fusion is complete by week ten and the secondary palate is formed. It is between weeks seven and ten of development that a cleft palate is formed as a cleft palate is the result of the palatine shelves failing to fuse properly. [4]

Types of Cleft Palate/Lip

There are different types of both cleft palates and cleft lips, each with varying degrees of severity. Cleft palates and lips may either occur together or individually. Variations of cleft palate/lips include:

Type Comment Picture
Unilateral Cleft Palate This type of cleft refers to a cleft of the soft palate that occurs on one side of the palate. The cleft starts medially and extends laterally.
Type Unilateral Cleft Palate.jpg
Unilateral Cleft Lip This type of cleft refers to a cleft of the lip that has only occurred on one side of the lip.
Unilateral cleft lip.jpg
Unilateral cleft lip with a cleft hard palate This refers to a cleft that has extended through the lip and into the hard palate. This cleft is on only one side of the lip and palate.
Unilateral cleft lip with a cleft hard palate.jpg
Unilateral cleft lip with cleft hard and soft palate This type of cleft refers to a cleft that extends through the lip, hard palate and into the soft palate. This cleft also occurs on only one side.
Unilateral cleft lip with cleft hard and soft palate.jpg
Bilateral cleft palate This refers to a cleft of the soft palate which occurs on both sides of the palate and appears as a opening medially.
Type Bilateral cleft palate.jpg
Bilateral cleft lip This refers to a cleft of the lip that has occurred on both sides of the lip. There are many variations of this.
Bilateral cleft lip.jpg
Bilateral cleft lip with cleft hard palate This refers to a cleft of the lip that has extended into the hard palate and occurs on both sides.
Bilateral cleft lip with cleft hard palate.jpg
Bilateral cleft lip with cleft hard and soft palate This refers to a cleft that has occurred on both sides of the lip and has extended into both the hard and soft palates resulting in a medial opening of the soft palate.[5]
Bilateral cleft lip with cleft hard and soft palate.jpg

There are many variations of a cleft lip. Cleft lips may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. A unilateral cleft lip presents with only one cleft, either complete or incomplete. As with a cleft palate, a cleft lip may also be incomplete or complete. The bilateral cleft lip may also be further divided into Binderoid bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, Bilateral complete cleft lip and intact secondary palate, Bilateral incomplete cleft lip and Asymmetrical bilateral (complete/incomplete) cleft lip [6]

One in four bilateral cleft lips are asymmetrical. They are incomplete on one side and complete on the other. The incomplete side of the bilateral cleft lip varies in severity and the level of severity impacts on the treatment. These lesser forms of incomplete bilateral cleft lips can be divided into micro-form, microform, and mini-microform depending on the degree of the disruption at the vermilion-cutaneous junction [6]

Minor-form, micro-form and mini-microform are categorised based on defining features. Minor-form and micro-form both have deficient vermilion on the medial side of the cleft whilst the mini-microform has a discontinuous vermilion-cutaneous junction. The level of nasal deformity also contributes to the differences with the range of nasal deformity ranging from visible nasal deformity in the minor-form to only a depressed sill in the mini-microform.

Algorithm for repair of bilateral asymmetrical cleft lip (complete or incomplete) and contralateral incomplete or lesser-form cleft

Other features of the minor-form include:

  • Hypoplastic median tublercle
  • Notched vermilion-cutaneous junction extending 3 mm or more above the normal Cupid’s bow peak
  • Cutaneous groove and muscular depression (accentuated by puckering)

Other features of the micro-form include:

  • Muscular depression along the philtral line, sometimes with a prominent medial component of the philtral ridge
  • Medial vermilion-cutaneous point less than 3 mm above the normal Cupid’s bow peak
  • Variable glabrous strip in the lower cutaneous lip

Other features of the mini-microform include:

  • Variable muscular depression, particularly below the nostril sill
  • Level Cupid’s bow peaks
  • Notched free mucosal margin [7]


  1. <pubmed>2924885</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>16292776</pubmed>
  3. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter Chapter 9 The Pharyngeal Apparatus pp201 - 240.
  4. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter Chapter 9 The Pharyngeal Apparatus pp201 - 240.
  5. <pubmed>21331089</pubmed>
  6. 6.0 6.1 <pubmed>19884685</pubmed>
  7. Yuzuriha, Shunsuke M.D.; Mulliken, John B. M.D. Minor-Form, Microform, and Mini-Microform Cleft Lip: Anatomical Features, Operative Techniques, and Revisions. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Issue: Volume 122(5), November 2008, pp 1485-1493