Difference between revisions of "User:Z3291622"

From Embryology
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==Lab 7 Assessment==
 
==Lab 7 Assessment==
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1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?
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a - No, not necessary. Evidence shows that hypertrophy is possible without satellite cells
 +
b- Yes, satellite cell proliferation is a normal part of the hypertrophic process
 +
 +
2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation (CLFS) cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?
 +
CLFS causes fast fibres to shift to slow fibres to remain "turned "on and active for a prolonged period of time. Slow fibres are usually evident on the postural muscles (e.g erector spinae) and muscles of the posterior compartment of leg (e.g. soleus) that requires continual activity. Th shift from fast to slow occurs as a transition in the myosin heavy chains (which gives muscles it's contractive ability). --[[User:Z3291622|Warnakulasooriya Fernando]] 23:47, 21 September 2011 (EST)
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===Trisomy 21: Review===
  
 
1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
 
1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.

Revision as of 23:47, 21 September 2011


Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)



Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:53, 28 July 2011 (EST)


Lab 1 Assessment

--Z3291622 22:45, 2 August 2011 (EST)

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique

The history of IVF can be dated back as early as the 1890’s when the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits was reported. In 1959, Chang MC produced undisputable evidence of IVF through his work on rabbits. The breakthrough in IVF was the birth of the first successful ‘test-tube’ baby, Louise Joy Brown, born on the 25th of July 1978 in Oldham, England through the work of Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
was awarded to Robert G. Edwards for the development of in vitro fertilization.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings

Copy and paste the reference from a search of Pubmed and write a few lines about the paper.

The effectiveness of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) depends on many factors. Implantation failure has been identified as the main cause of failure. Thus the purpose of this paper was to compare the effectiveness of two IVF techniques; IMSI (intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection) and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) in couples that have already experienced repeated implantation failures. The results indicated that while IMSI did not significantly improve the clinical outcome compared to ICSI, it decreased rates of miscarriage (≈50% reduced). However more research into these techniques is needed to draw out much more concrete and reliable evidence.

21781299[PMID]

Reference:

Oliveira, J., Cavagna, M., Petersen, C., Mauri, A., Massaro, F., Baruffi, R., & Franco, J Jr. (2011). Pregnancy outcomes in women with repeated implantation failures after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 9:99. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-9-99


3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies. Just name them.

Hypospadias Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

--Mark Hill 10:00, 3 August 2011 (EST) These are good answers to Lab 1 assessment.


Lab attendance

--z3291622 12:58, 4 August 2011 (EST)


Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization

The human Oocyte is surrounded by an extracellular coat of gylcoproteins; Zona Pellucida (ZP). This coat is composed of four glycoproteins; ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 & ZP4. Studies show how during fertilization ZP3 acts as a receptor for the capacitated (matured) spermatozoa. ZP4 also binds to the anterior head of the matured sperm. Both these glycoproteins that bind the spermatozoa induce a process known as acrosomal exocytosis (AE). This AE process involves the exocytosis of the acromosal enzymes that digests the substance of the ZP exposing the underlying ZP2 which bind sperm, facilitating the membrane fusion between egg and sperm. Thus ZP2 acts as a secondary sperm receptor. The fusion of sperm and egg leads to an intracellular influx of calcium which triggers the cortical reaction; release of cortical granules (mixture of enzymes and proteases) that alters the ZP3 of zona pellucida to prevent polyspermic fertilization by cross linking and solidifying the zona pellucida.

Reference:

Ganguly, A., Bansal, P., Gupta, T., Gupta, S. (2010). ‘ZP domain’ of human zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 binds to human spermatozoa and induces acrosomal exocytosis. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. Ch 8:110.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Research Article:

Greer, P., Hanayama, R., Bloodgood, B., Mardinly, A., Lipton, D., Flavell, S., & Greenber, M. (2010). The Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3A Regulates Synapse Development by Ubiquitinating Arc. Cell, 140(5), 704-716. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.026

The aim of this research paper is to find out how the Ube3A gene mutation causes cognitive impairment in individuals with Angelman Syndrome. The research is specifically looking into the role of Arc (synaptic protein) and AMPA (subtype of glutamate receptors). The experimental data suggests a relationship between the disruption of Ube3A activity and decrease in AMPA expression and how this can be utilised in the treatment of AS by using drugs that promote AMPA receptor expression.

Review Article:

Pelc, K., Cheron, G., & Dan, B. (2008). Behaviour and neuropsychiatric manifestations in Angelman Syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(3), 577-584.


Lab attendance

--z3291622 12:50, 11 August 2011 (EST)


Lab 3 Assessment

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

The maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is Iodine. The most severe effect of iodine deficiency is congenital hypothyroidism (also known as Cretinism), which is characterized by a combination of mental deficiency, motor rigidity and deaf mutism. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy not only results in brain damage to the developing fetus, but also in low birth weight, prematurity and increased infant mortality. The recommended dietary intake for pregnant women (according to the FAO/WHO) is now 250μg/day.

References:

1. Haddow, J., Palomaki, G., Alan, W., Williams, J., Knight, G., Gagnon, J., & Klein, R. (1999). Maternal Thyroid Deficiency during Pregnancy and Subsequent Neuropsychological Development of the Child. The New England Journal of Medicine, 341:549-555 2. World Health Organization. (2005). Iodine Deficiency. Retreived from http://www.who.int/en/

Upload a picture relating to your group project

Subtle Finger Tremors-A five months old boy with Angelman syndrome and drug resistant infantile spasms

Subtle Finger Tremors-Angelman Syndrome

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865483/

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. --z3291622 00:11, 16 August 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 13:07, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with which anatomical structure?

The allantois, originating from the endodermal layer of the trilaminar embryo is continuous with the urinary bladder. Specifically it is the intra-embryonic part of the allantois that is continuous with the bladder. (The extra-embryonic part of the allantois degenerates during the second month).

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation:

Foramen Ovale: between left and right atrium Ductus Arteriosus: between pulmonary artery and aortic arch Ductus venosus: connects the umbilical and portal veins to the Inferior Vena Cava.

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching

Angelman Syndrome:

History

Diagnosis

--z3291622 23:58, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic herniation is more common on the left side of the diaphragm towards the back of the body and is referred to as a Bochdalek Hernia. The herniation occurs through the posterolateral defect caused by the failure of pleuroperitoneal hiatus to close during development. This type of hernia is more common because it is more likely to allow organs such as stomach, intestines or spleen to protrude into the chest cavity. In contrast, on the right side, the position of the liver decreases the chance of organ herniation by blocking the hole. --z3291622 19:01, 31 August 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:44, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assessment

1.What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The palatal shelves fusion, also known as fusion of secondary palate occurs during week 9 in the development of human embryo.

2.What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

The origin and migration of neural crest cells were confirmed in 1987 by using quail to chicken chimeras, utilizing the distinctness of the transplanted quail nucleoli and host chicken nucleoli. This process was pioneered by Nicole Le Douarin.

3.What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot: a congenital heart disease which is also classified as a cyanotic heart defect because the condition causes low levels of oxygen in the blood leading to cyanosis (child appears blue). The condition involves four related defects of the heart; ventricular septal defect (opening between R/L ventricles), aortic override (blood exits to rest of body from both ventricles instead of just the LV), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and right ventricular hypertrophy. The tetralogy of Falot is the most common form of cyanotic heart disease and has an overall incidence of ~10% congenital heart disease. --z3291622 23:53, 14 September 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:50, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy? a - No, not necessary. Evidence shows that hypertrophy is possible without satellite cells b- Yes, satellite cell proliferation is a normal part of the hypertrophic process

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation (CLFS) cause a fast to slow fibre type shift? CLFS causes fast fibres to shift to slow fibres to remain "turned "on and active for a prolonged period of time. Slow fibres are usually evident on the postural muscles (e.g erector spinae) and muscles of the posterior compartment of leg (e.g. soleus) that requires continual activity. Th shift from fast to slow occurs as a transition in the myosin heavy chains (which gives muscles it's contractive ability). --Warnakulasooriya Fernando 23:47, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Trisomy 21: Review

1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Good distribution and placement of information into different sub headings. However some sub headings seemed to be a bit out of place and sub headings such as "history" were missing; the image of John L Down was out of place and did not correspond with any information in the page.

2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Yes each section was clearly and concisely explained. Good use of tables and flow charts to explain difficult concepts. The images also helped 'brighten' the page and attract reader's attention. The image of John L Down was placed in the wrong section and seemed a bit out of place in the 'prevalence' and 'screening' section because there was no appropriate section to add it to.

3. Content is correctly cited and referenced. Yes

4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. The inclusion of more student drawings, tables and flow charts is a good way to show the depth of understanding and knowledge of the disease.

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. The use of pubmed research articles and information from recently published articles is evidence of significant amount of research done relating to topic.

6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.

7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.

8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.

9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.

10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines --Warnakulasooriya Fernando 23:36, 21 September 2011 (EST)