--Jasjit Walia 12:59, 28 July 2011 (EST)
Individual assignments #1
1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique. Infertility, the biological incapability to contribute towards conception, is a condition that is known to plague one in 10 couples. While studies related to human reproduction had their origins in the first half of the 20th century, majority of work was carried out on aquatic species (non-mammals), rabbits and other mammals, it was only in the late 1950’s that a team of researchers lead by Dr. Robert Edwards at the national institute for medical research, England started working towards development of a technique to alleviate the pain of infertile couples. It was in 1978, after 2 decades of research that the first IVF baby, Louise Brown was born in 1978. IVF or in vitro fertilization allowed practitioners to remove human gametes, fertilize them in a simulated environment and then transfer viable embryos into the female womb. For his development of this technique Dr. Robert Edward was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Edwards research combined both basic and applied medicine to overcome many hurdles in the development of this technique, from in vitro maturation and fertilization of gametes to development of viable embryos for implantation.
2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings. With the rise in females that are now classified as obese, female fertility has been called into question. The article  looks into the effect of obesity on those that are undergoing fertility treatments, in specific the article found that the requirement of specific hormones was larger for somebody of BMI of 32 kg/m2 in comparison to someone of 25 kg/m2 (both receiving Assisted Reproductive Technology). The paper found that women of higher BMI had a lower chance to achieve pregnancy. In addition the article finds, that there is also an increased incidence of early pregnancy loss of those with higher BMI's and that reduction of weight by 5-10% can significantly increase chances of reproduction and hence fertilisation.
3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies: Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) and Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA)
References: 1. [Pandey Et Al] Pandey S, Pandey S, Maheshwari A, Bhattacharya S. The impact of female obesity on the outcome of fertility treatment. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2010 May; 3(2):62-7. :http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2970793/?tool=pubmed