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Lab Attendance

--Z3291423 12:59, 28 July 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:48, 4 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:49, 11 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 12:12, 18 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:05, 25 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 12:05, 1 September 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:39, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 1 Online Assignments

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique. Infertility, the biological incapability to contribute towards conception, is a condition that is known to plague one in 10 couples. While studies related to human reproduction had their origins in the first half of the 20th century, majority of work was carried out on aquatic species (non-mammals), rabbits and other mammals, it was only in the late 1950’s that a team of researchers lead by Dr. Robert Edwards at the national institute for medical research, England started working towards development of a technique to alleviate the pain of infertile couples. It was in 1978, after 2 decades of research that the first IVF baby, Louise Brown was born in 1978. IVF or in vitro fertilization allowed practitioners to remove human gametes, fertilize them in a simulated environment and then transfer viable embryos into the female womb. For his development of this technique Dr. Robert Edward was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Edwards research combined both basic and applied medicine to overcome many hurdles in the development of this technique, from in vitro maturation and fertilization of gametes to development of viable embryos for implantation.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings. With the rise in females that are now classified as obese, female fertility has been called into question. The article [1] looks into the effect of obesity on those that are undergoing fertility treatments, in specific the article found that the requirement of specific hormones was larger for somebody of BMI of 32 kg/m2 in comparison to someone of 25 kg/m2 (both receiving Assisted Reproductive Technology). The paper found that women of higher BMI had a lower chance to achieve pregnancy. In addition the article finds, that there is also an increased incidence of early pregnancy loss of those with higher BMI's and that reduction of weight by 5-10% can significantly increase chances of reproduction and hence fertilisation.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies: - Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) and Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA)

References: 1. [Pandey Et Al] Pandey S, Pandey S, Maheshwari A, Bhattacharya S. The impact of female obesity on the outcome of fertility treatment. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2010 May; 3(2):62-7. :

--Z3291423 19:52, 2 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 09:59, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are good for the Lab 1 assessment. I will help you with reference formatting.

Lab 2 Online Assignment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

The protein that the spermatozoa binds to is ZP3 in the Zona Pellucida. After fertilisation, the Cortical Granules are released from beneath the perivitelline space causing the Zona Pellucida to become impenetrable and therefore preventing polyspermy.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Disease proposed: Hypoplastic Left Heart syndrome

Review article:

2001 May-Jun;21(3):705-17. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Bardo DM, Frankel DG, Applegate KE, Murphy DJ, Saneto RP.

Link: [1]


2011 Aug 1;108(3):421-7. Epub 2011 May 31. Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in current era. Kipps AK, Feuille C, Azakie A, Hoffman JI, Tabbutt S, Brook MM, Moon-Grady AJ. Link: [2]


1. Bardo DM, Frankel DG, Applegate KE, Murphy DJ, Saneto RP ""Hypoplastic left heart syndrome.""Radiographics. 2001 May-Jun;21(3):705-17 [1]

2. Kipps AK, Feuille C, Azakie A, Hoffman JI, Tabbutt S, Brook MM, Moon-Grady AJ ""Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in current era."" Am J Cardiol. 2011 Aug 1;108(3):421-7. Epub 2011 May 31 [2]

--z3291423 00:52, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Online Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development? The maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is iodine, with a recomended daily intake of 220µg per day. Without meeting such requirements development of Cretinism may arise.

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project.

Some common effects for patients with Tetralogy of Fallot


Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Lab 4 Online Assessment

1.The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is a slim diverticulum from the cloaca, it extends into the hind gut and endoderm.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

Foramen Ovale connects the right and left atria, in the heart.

Ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta (found in aortic arch).

Ductus venosus connects umbilical and portal veins to the IVC (in liver)

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Treatment/Management, Prognosis & Future directions

Lab Online Assignment 5

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The Left side is the most common for diaphragmatic hernia because the right side of the pleuroperitoneal opening closes earlier than the left and hence left diaphragmatic hernia occurs 80-85% of times.

Lab 6 Online Assessment

1. What week of developmentdo the palantal shelves fuse?

The palantal shelves fuse in week 9

2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

The quail and the chick helped elucidate neural crest origin and migration of cells.

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

If the neural crests do not migrate into the cardiac outflow tract, truncus arteriosus, a failure to divide into a pulmonary and aortic artery. Some other abnormalities include elongation, mispositioning of outflow tract and also cushion hypoplasia

--z3291423 10:31, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Online Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

a) Satellite cells are not neccesary for muscle hypertrophy as other cells can carry out hypertrophication b)Yes, satellite cells are involved in hypertrophy because experiments show that satellite cells increase hypertrophy

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimulation imitates low electrical signals and slow muscle fibers are activated to that similar frequency. If fast fibers are chronically being stimulated by low frequency, their physiological adaptive response would be to activate to a slower frequency. This conversion of fibers follows the next neighbour rule, which states that gradual conversion of fibers occurs in different stages and follows from the following fibre sequence: IIb, IIx ,IIa, I.

  1. <pubmed>11353117</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>21624547</pubmed>