From Embryology
Revision as of 11:22, 6 October 2011 by Z3290618 (talk | contribs)

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab One

Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

  • In 1973 the Monash University team achieved In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). However, it only lasted a few days. On 25 July 1978, the first IVF baby was born in the UK.

Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the development of in vitro fertilization"

Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

  • Hansen et al. (2002). The Risk of Major Birth Defects after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and in Vitro Fertilization. The New England Journal of Medicine" 342:725-730
  • In a comparison of IVF conceived, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and naturally conceived children, the rate of major birth defects was seen to be double in assisted conception. At one year of age, the ratio of birth defects in the IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injected children was 2.0. This figure was derived after adjustment for maternal age, sex of infant etc. Before adjustment the figure was higher (9:4.2).

Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

  • Spina bifida
  • Hydrocephalus

--Mark Hill 09:54, 3 August 2011 (EST) You need to answer these 3 questions before Lab 2.

Lab Two

Lab Three

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

  • Iodine: 400-600mg through course of pregnancy. A deficiency can cause cretinism and hypothyroidism.

Upload a picture relating to you group project.

Fragile site appearance and distribution File: Fragile site appearance and distribution

--Mark Hill 23:41, 20 August 2011 (EST) Why did you upload this image as a screen shot? It has a lower resolution and may not accurately show the original image. It should have been downloaded from this page ( as a jpg file (CG-11-447_F7.jpg). Then renamed and uploaded to the site. Please do not use screenshots for uploading files. Repeat this exercise if you wish to get the marks for this part of the question.

Lab Four

The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is continuous with the Urachus to connect to the fetal bladder.

Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

Ductus Arteriosus is located between the Arch of Aorta and the pulmonary artery. In adulthood, this shunt closes, forming the Ligamentum Arteriosum. Similarly, the Foramen Ovalis allows blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation by shunting blood from the right to left atria. The Ductus Venosus (later Ligamentum venosus) shunts fetal blood from the umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava.

Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

I will be doing Signs and Symptoms of Fragile-X syndrome.

Lab Five

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The left side is the more common for diaphragmatic hernia due the early closure of the right side of the pluroperitoneal cavity.

Lab Six

Lab Seven

Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

a) Satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy. b) They are however generally involved as their numbers increase during this pathology.

Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Under chronic low frequency stimulation, fast-twitch fibres receive the same input as slow-twitch fibres. Over a period of stimulation, the fast-twitch fibres will undergo changes in their protein structure, responding to the cronic low frequency stimulation. These protein changes will result in the fast-twitch fibres resembling the slow-twitch fibres. Effectively, giving fast-twitch fibres prolonged slow-twitch stimulation causes the shift.

Trisomy 21 Assessment Criteria

The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.

This has been done fairly well. The key areas of Trisomy 21 have been well described. However, I would have liked to see a section on what proteins are over produced and what genes are over transcribed due to the trisomy and how this translates into the pathology.

The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.

The content, headings and sub-headings are appropriate. The diagrams and graphs are useful. A better explanation is needed for some (the growth charts for example) while others have been over-used (three diagrams of the karyotype is a little excessive).

Content is correctly cited and referenced.

The parts that have been referenced, are referenced well. However, there is no reference for the Heart Defects section. Furthermore, I feel there are too many large blocks of quote. The recent studies appears to all be copy + pasted as does the start of the growth charts section (though they are correctly referenced). A summary of this content would have been more appropriate.

The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

The wiki is clearly set out, well explained and the useful terms are defined to assist in learning. The diagrams and figures are basic, but I feel need explaining. They seem to just have been put there in order to have pictures.

Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

Again, I would have preferred a gene - protein - pathology explanation. However, it appears that a lot of research has gone into the wiki.

Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.

The wiki has been developed to illustrate the effects of Trisomy 21. No great emphasis has been placed on the development of the disorder. A stage by stage breakdown of the apparent pathology would be helpful and relate greater to the sequential nature of the embryology course.

The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.

As written above, the wiki appears to be well researched. I would have expected more than 20 references though. The key areas of Trisomy 21 are covered and adequately "inform peers in their learning". Further depth would be appreciated. Having said that, there are links available throughout the wiki if one is interested in further research.

Lab Eight

Group One

Look of the presentation - A little work needs to be done on your formatting. Your pictures need to be aligned with the text better. "Stats abnormal.jpg" intrudes into the text. It makes the page look a little sloppy. Further, You have large blocks of texts that would be better put into tables to break down and simplify the information presented.

Your clinical manifestions is very basic. It looks like you have read a number of articles and just listed terms. It would be better if each manifestation was coupled with the reason for that sign/symptom. For example, write down the term, what it means and how the non-disjuntion causes it at a protein/molecular level.

Positives - Your topic is very well researched. You seem to understand and convey that understanding very well. The body of the work is done. I would suggest looking at other pages and presenting/formatting yours so that it looks a little neater. GOOD JOB!

Group Two

WOW! This page looks fantastic. The editing is great. All of the information is presented neatly and concisely. However, just look in "historical background" and make sure all of the lines are edited uniformly. Some have ":" some don't. Obviously that is nothing major, I'm just nit-picking. I think you may want to redraw your "pathology of Di George syndrome". It seems quite cluttered.

Overall: Excellent. There really isn't much to say about this page.

Group Three

You need to break up the large amount of text with more tables. The amount of text is quite overwhelming up until 'Signs and Symptoms'. Speaking of this section: The table looks FANTASTIC. Really neat, simple, love it! However... you haven't alternated the colours correctly. You need to end with light purple... you have two dark blocks next to eachother.

Your 'Action of inhibitors' picture needs to be better segregated. Put a border around it or something.

Try to keep your formatting of headings consistant. In further research, the headings do not appear in the contents, but in Diagnosis, they do.

Group Four

The page is laid out really well. The formating is basic but effective. Make sure your pictures are all working e.g. Mutant Huntington Disease.

Group Six

The first striking feature is the long block of text from the start. You need to break this up with more tables. Your Genetics/Aetiology section could be laid out more simply. A table with columns for the Gene, gene profile and then description. In Pathophysiology, you already have the numbered list. Don't put the numbers next description and format this so that each of the following:

Pulmonary stenosis Overriding aorta Ventricular septal defect Right ventricular hypertrophy

are a subheading in your contents.

In treatment and managment, I would suggest that you colour each row of the table differently. I agree that tables without borders look better. However, if is hard to see which bit of information is associated with Pott's shunt, Watersons shunt etc.

Lastly: only 41 references? I would have expected a lot more. The average number for the other groups is in the 125-150 region. You might want to do a bit more research.

Group Seven

Group Eight

Group Nine

Group Ten

Group Eleven

Lab Nine

Lab Ten

Lab Eleven

Lab Twelve


--z3290618 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 12:38, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 12:22, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 11:29, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 11:37, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 12:50, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 11:49, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 11:56, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290618 11:22, 6 October 2011 (EST)