Lab 1: --Z3289738 11:49, 25 July 2012 (EST)
Lab 2: --Z3289738 10:12, 1 August 2012 (EST)
Key Features of Fertilization
- Fertilization in 1st 1/3 of oviduct
- Cumulus mass / granulosa cells (?) - sperm penetrates through this by wriggling. Cumulus mass holds sperm in place when binding to the zona pellucida.
- Binds to ZP3 receptor
- Acrosome reaction (between sperm head and ZP); digests zona pellucida & matures the sperm
- Sperm head (inner acrosomal membrane) fuses to oocyte membrane. Protein receptors on both membranes are important for fusion as well as the calcium.. exocytosis.. alters ZP to prevent polyspermy.
- Parthenogenesis- an embryo without sperm contribution, is called parthenogenesis
Key features of Week 1 Development
Key Features of Week 2 Development
Q1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique and add a correctly formatted link to the Nobel page.
The idea of In Vitro Fertilization began to formulate in the 1890s, when Walter Heape reported the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits. In 1953 John Rock extracted the first intact human fertilized egg. The first successful attempt at IVF was in 1978 by Steptoe and Edward.
Robert G. Edwards, the physiologist who developed the In Vitro Fertilization treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010. Nobel Prize Page
Q2. Identify and add a PubMed reference link to a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings (1-2 paragraphs).
This article looks into the process of embryo implantation. It demonstrates how the activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel triggers prostoglandin E(2) release,phosphorylation of teh transcription factor CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, the enzyme required for prostaglandin production and implantation. They detected maximum Epithelial Na(+) channel activation at the time of implantation in mice, and that blocking or knocking down this channel in mice resulted in failure to implant. These results indicate the importance of the Epithelial Na(+) Channel in the process of implantation, and the consequences of defects such as miscarriage and low success rates in IVF.