Difference between revisions of "User:Z3289738"

From Embryology
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''Q1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique and add a correctly formatted link to the Nobel page.''
 
''Q1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique and add a correctly formatted link to the Nobel page.''
 
  
 
The idea of In Vitro Fertilization began to formulate in the 1890s, when Walter Heape reported the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits. In 1953 John Rock extracted the first intact human fertilized egg. The first successful attempt at IVF was in 1978 by Steptoe and Edward.
 
The idea of In Vitro Fertilization began to formulate in the 1890s, when Walter Heape reported the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits. In 1953 John Rock extracted the first intact human fertilized egg. The first successful attempt at IVF was in 1978 by Steptoe and Edward.
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''Q2. Identify and add a PubMed reference link to a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings (1-2 paragraphs).''
 
''Q2. Identify and add a PubMed reference link to a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings (1-2 paragraphs).''
 
  
 
This article looks into the process of embryo implantation. It demonstrates how the activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel triggers prostoglandin E(2) release,phosphorylation of teh transcription factor CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, the enzyme required for prostaglandin production and implantation. They detected maximum Epithelial Na(+) channel activation at the time of implantation in mice, and that blocking or knocking down this channel in mice resulted in failure to implant. These results indicate the importance of the Epithelial Na(+) Channel in the process of implantation, and the consequences of defects such as miscarriage and low success rates in IVF.
 
This article looks into the process of embryo implantation. It demonstrates how the activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel triggers prostoglandin E(2) release,phosphorylation of teh transcription factor CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, the enzyme required for prostaglandin production and implantation. They detected maximum Epithelial Na(+) channel activation at the time of implantation in mice, and that blocking or knocking down this channel in mice resulted in failure to implant. These results indicate the importance of the Epithelial Na(+) Channel in the process of implantation, and the consequences of defects such as miscarriage and low success rates in IVF.
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====Trophinin====
 
====Trophinin====
 
Trophinin is an membrane adhesive protein expressed on human trophoblastic cells and on uterine endometrium epithelial cells. The protein mediates apical cell adhesion and activate trophectoderm cells for implantation via proliferation and invasion. <ref><pubmed>17487845</pubmed></ref>
 
Trophinin is an membrane adhesive protein expressed on human trophoblastic cells and on uterine endometrium epithelial cells. The protein mediates apical cell adhesion and activate trophectoderm cells for implantation via proliferation and invasion. <ref><pubmed>17487845</pubmed></ref>
 
  
 
==Lab 2==
 
==Lab 2==

Revision as of 14:29, 7 August 2012

Lab Attendance

Lab 1: --Z3289738 11:49, 25 July 2012 (EST)

Lab 2: --Z3289738 10:12, 1 August 2012 (EST)


Individual Assessments

Lab 1

Q1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique and add a correctly formatted link to the Nobel page.

The idea of In Vitro Fertilization began to formulate in the 1890s, when Walter Heape reported the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits. In 1953 John Rock extracted the first intact human fertilized egg. The first successful attempt at IVF was in 1978 by Steptoe and Edward.

Robert G. Edwards, the physiologist who developed the In Vitro Fertilization treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010. Nobel Prize Page


Q2. Identify and add a PubMed reference link to a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings (1-2 paragraphs).

This article looks into the process of embryo implantation. It demonstrates how the activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel triggers prostoglandin E(2) release,phosphorylation of teh transcription factor CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, the enzyme required for prostaglandin production and implantation. They detected maximum Epithelial Na(+) channel activation at the time of implantation in mice, and that blocking or knocking down this channel in mice resulted in failure to implant. These results indicate the importance of the Epithelial Na(+) Channel in the process of implantation, and the consequences of defects such as miscarriage and low success rates in IVF.


<pubmed> 22729284</pubmed>

Lab 2

Q1. Upload an image from a journal source relating to fertilization or the first 2 weeks of development as demonstrated in the practical class. Including in the image “Summary” window: An image name as a section heading, Any further description of what the image shows, A subsection labeled “Reference” and under this the original image source, appropriate reference and all copyright information and finally a template indicating that this is a student image.

Zygotes showing different distribution of NPB in the 2PN and different PB aligment


Q2. Identify a protein associated with the implantation process, including a brief description of the protein's role (1-2 paragraphs)

Trophinin

Trophinin is an membrane adhesive protein expressed on human trophoblastic cells and on uterine endometrium epithelial cells. The protein mediates apical cell adhesion and activate trophectoderm cells for implantation via proliferation and invasion. [1]

Lab 2

Key Features of Fertilization

  • Fertilization in 1st 1/3 of oviduct
  • Cumulus mass / granulosa cells (?)
    • sperm penetrates through this by wriggling.
    • Cumulus mass holds sperm in place when binding to the zona pellucida.
  • Binds to ZP3 receptor
  • Acrosome reaction (between sperm head and ZP); digests zona pellucida & matures the sperm
  • Sperm head (inner acrosomal membrane) fuses to oocyte membrane. Protein receptors on both membranes are important for fusion as well as the calcium.. exocytosis.. alters ZP to prevent polyspermy.
  • Parthenogenesis- an embryo without sperm contribution, is called parthenogenesis


Key features of Week 1 Development

  • Look at summary diagram
  • Identify names/changes over time
  • Zygote --> blastomere --> blastocyst --> uterine body; via cilia & floating in fluid (secreted by uterine body)
  • Zona Pellucida
    • Pale purple around early conceptors
    • "pale zone" synthesised by oocyte;
    • extracellular matrix;
    • made out of glycoproteins 'ZP proteins 1, 2 and 3'.
    • Each species has its own type of ZP proteins = species specificity.
    • Zp function:
      • 1) Protection of oocyte and blastocyst (like shell around egg).
      • 2) Provides a structure for the blastocyst. Patterns the development of the blastocyst. As the cells proliferate they squish against the ZP and become squamous.
      • 3) Sperm receptor (allows sperm to bind for it).
      • 4) Prevents implantation.
      • 5) Modified by granulosa molecules to prevent polyspermy.
  • Adplantation: egg roles and slowly increases adhesion to surface epithelium (has not yet implanted).
  • Implantation: takes 1 week


Key Features of Week 2 Development

  • Implantation
  • By the end of the week the blastocyst is fully within the uterine wall.
  • Blastocyst:
    • Trophoblast layer;
    • ICM (forms the embryo);
    • Placenta comes from the trophoblasts as well as contributions from the ICM;
  • Carnegie Stages
    • 23 stages of embryonic development
    • Stages 1-5 are 1st week of development
    • Refer to features on the embryos, rather than the size
    • Look at Time line
  • Implantation
    • Trophoblast cells form 2 populations of cells:
      • cytotrophoblasts (single nuclues near ICM)
      • Dividing rapidly mitotically and fused together; multinucleated - synsidiotrophoblasts
  • Stromal area of the uterus:
    • Spiral arteries are held open by trophoblast cells; maintains leaking of maternal blood into the conseptus
    • Uterine glands in epithelium; secrete into surrounding spaces
  • 2 layers of ICM = bilamina embryo
    • ICM mass = epiblast & hypoblast (carnegie stage 4)??
    • stage 5 (invaded the uterine wall)


Week 3

  • Gastrolation = trilamina embryo


References

  1. <pubmed>17487845</pubmed>