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Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

--Z3288827 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

Hello, I'm a student currently enrolled in the embryology course at UNSW. I'm really enjoying the course so far and think it's really great that we get to study the origins of where we came from, and plus the developing embryo looks cute! It's amazing to think that the entire human body forms so seamlessly from this series of events.

Also a member of the group [1] researching DiGeorge Syndrome:

Lab Attendance

Sorry Mark I forgot to do it in the first half of semester! --Leonard Tiong 12:12, 15 September 2011 (EST) --Leonard Tiong 11:11, 22 September 2011 (EST) --Leonard Tiong 11:36, 29 September 2011 (EST) Hi Mark, sorry again I forgot to do it last week as well :\ --Leonard Tiong 12:03, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Week 1 Online Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilisation and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) was being explored in the 1950's by a scientist named Robert G. Edwards, who decided to investigate the possibility of fertilisation occurring outside of the body. Robert G. Edwards developed the theoretical technique and the media which would allow fertilisation to occur, and with the oocytes obtained by gynaecologist Patrick Steptoe, managed to develop the technique of IVF. Success was granted in 1969, when he first observed successful fertilisation within the test tube. Further success followed in 1977, with the birth of a healthy baby, Louise Brown, through the use of IVF.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

The article: "Obstetric outcome after in vitro fertilization with single or double embryo transfer", written by Sazonova A. et al, published in the journal of human reproduction in December 1, 2010. Generally, children that are born using the technique of in vitro fertilization (IVF) have a poorer outcome when compared to children born without assisted treatment. However, with a new technique, known as single embryo transfer (SET) in which a single blastocyst is implanted into the uterine wall, this poor outcome may be resolved. This paper observed the study of several subtypes of SET and double embryo transfer (DET) used amongst the general Swedish population. The most common complications were premature births and low birth-weights in the babies. The results indicated that any method of IVF, irregardless of whether SET or its variants, or DET were used, still had a higher rate of premature birthdays (<28 weeks) when compared with natural pregnancy.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Congenital anomalies are defined as variations from the normal physical structure in a baby that are present at birth. They have a varying range of severity and have the potential to be lethal. A couple of examples of congenital anomalies include anencephaly, where the rostral end of the neural tube fails to develop in utero, resulting in the failure of the brain to develop. This particular condition is lethal. Another congenital anomaly is Sirenomelia, a rare and usually fatal condition in which the legs are formed together. The name of this condition indicates the physical appearance of the child, in which the legs are fused together, similar to that of a mermaids tail. There are usually severe complications associated with this condition, as the lower gastrointestinal system, bladder, and reproductive organs are also fused in a single tube. However, there have been a few instances where the baby is able to survive for a few years after birth.

--Mark Hill 09:38, 3 August 2011 (EST) All 3 questions need to be completed before Lab 2.

--z3288827 22:51, 9 August 2011 (EST)

Week 2 Online Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds to and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

The ZP protein that the spermatozoa binds to is ZP3. This results in the release of an enzyme known as acrosin, which allows the sperm to penetrate through the oocyte cell membrane. Once the sperm has penetrated the cell membrane, this triggers two key events within the oocyte. Firstly, cortical granules, which are filled with enzymes and located just beneath the cell membrane, release their contents into the space located between the oocyte cell membrane and the zona pellucida. Secondly, a calcium wave spreads along the surface of the oocyte from the point of fertilisation. This changes the nature of the zona pellucida to other sperm, preventing multiple sperm from reaching the oocyte (polyspermy).

2. Review/Journal article - Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Hey guys, just found a review article that I thought was rather interesting, it's an animal model for Duchenne's muscular dystrophy[2]. I also found a primary journal article that discusses drug delivery for the condition [3]. I will print these articles for myself tonight and give them a quick read tomorrow and then paste a quick summary of the articles here just for you guys to consider :)

Week 3 online assessment

--Leonard Tiong 00:08, 17 August 2011 (EST)

1. The maternal dietary supplement required for late neural development is folate. A lack of folate can result in failure of closure of the neural tube, leading to either spinal bifida (failure of the caudal end to close) or anencephaly (failure of the rostral end to close).


FISH to detect DiGeorge syndrome[3]

FISH carried out to detect DiGeorge syndrome. FISH is abbreviated as fluorescent in-situ hybridisation and is carried out to detect abnormalities whilst babies are still developing in the womb.

Week 4 Online Assessment

1. The allantois is a structure located in the developing umbilical cord, and is connected to the developing bladder.

2. The three vascular shunts are present mainly because the lungs of the embryo are useless until parturition. They are generally located around the liver and heart to bypass the lungs, and are named as follows:

  1. The Ductus Arteriosus, which is located between the aorta and pulmonary artery;
  2. The Ductus Venosus, which is located between the portal vein and inferior vena cava; and
  3. The Foramen Ovale which is a direct shunt between the right and left atria of the heart.

3. The sections that I am covering for my group project include epidemiology and the pathophysiology of DiGeorge syndrome.

Week 5 Online Assessment

1. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are most common on the left hand side of the body. This condition is caused by the failure of the pleuroperitoneal foramen to fuse, resulting in an opening through which the viscera of the gut can directly articulate with the left lung, resulting in compression.

Week 6 Online Assessment

1. The palatal shelves fuse in week 9 of human development, and are associated with the fusion of the secondary palate. This fusion event occurs between both secondary palates and the primary palate which is formed around week 6 (Carnegie stage 17/18)

2. The quail-chick chimera model helped to identify the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells.

3. The abnormality that results from the failure of neural crest cells to migrate to the cardiac outflow tract is known as Tetralogy of Fallot and has numerous presentations including Persistent Truncus Arteriosus in which the pulmonary trunk and aorta fail to divide properly.

Week 7 Online Assessment

1. Satellite cells are not normally necessary for muscle hypertrophy, as it has been shown that this can occur even without satellite cells present. However, they have been associated with muscle hypertrophy as we see their hypertrophy during normal hypertrophy.

2. Fast muscle fibres generally use anaerobic metabolism pathways to generate the energy necessary for a fast, explosive contraction; slow muscle fibres utilize oxidative pathways to generate energy for slower and more sustained contractions. Muscle fibre types are able to transition between fast and slow muscle, but through intermediate stages. Due to the physiological pathways in the muscle fibres, chronic low frequency stimulation will stimulate the slow muscle fibres and cause a shift from the muscle fibre types from fast to a slow muscle type.

Trisomy 21 comments

• The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.

This is generally well done, except that the introduction relies a lot on the external links that are provided. Perhaps there should be more elaboration of the history of Downs syndrome, and specific sections on etiology and epidemiology; these sections require more written on their specific section given the importance of this disease.

• The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.

It is well covered, and there is a large number of diagrams tables and graphs which make the information easily accessible. However, at times it seems that the content relies on dot points and diagrams; there are no sections of text that have bodies of text and this makes the information feel artificial; there is not much flow in the information and seems to skip from point to point. Otherwise, the selected images are appropriate; perhaps graphs for each specific section (such as a graph for epidemiology) might be appropriate as well.

• Content is correctly cited and referenced.

Unfortunately the first diagram present on the page isn’t correctly cited or referenced, and there are a few sections which lack references altogether, such as the Heart Defects section. The picture of John Langdon Down also lacks a proper reference.

• The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

The information is highly information and quite interesting, but I feel lacks a written paragraph to link all of the information together. There is a severe lack of information on treatment and future research directions, as well as the physiological mechanisms that underlie the disease process.

• Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

There is extensive research past the formal teaching activities as can be seen by the content provided by the external links; however, it still seems like these links are relied on as opposed to having the critical information presented within the project itself.

• Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.

It would be nice to see that the sections are a little better explained, such as the basic mechanisms of growth and development been outlined, followed by a discussion of how the disease process of Downs syndrome alters and changes these basic growth processes. Whilst this information is provided as external links it would be nice to see it elaborated on the actual page, keeping the relevant information specific to the project.

Week 8 Online Assessment

Peer Assessment

Group 1

Group 1 Assessment

  • Key Points: Clinical manifestations could probably have a better explanation, as opposed to a list? Perhaps try discussing the presentation of the disease, etc. Is there any history of the disease? Generally sections are of good length and the information is relevant.
  • Content is difficult to assess because there are sections that are lists of terms. Many items in the project rely heavily on this point-form, especially the clinical manifestations. Perhaps try using more images to support the clinical presentation/complications of the disease, as well as the prenatal diagnosis. The diagrams are used well when they are used.
  • Referencing is generally fine, although the first image doesn't seem to have a correct copyright license. As for the double references in the reference section, we have the same problem too!
  • The student-drawn diagram is simple but effective, and the images chosen are adequate to the project. However, the entire project seems a little brief in each section; try to ensure that you've written everything that you can!
  • All of the information is well-cited with a large number of sources and clearly shows that further research has been done. However, to make the project flow a bit better maybe have some more images and phrases to allow an explanation as opposed to just dot points on the work.

--Leonard Tiong 09:18, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 3

Group 3 Peer Assessment

  • Try to link your sentences in general - at times the reading is quite disjunct and difficult to read. Try to rewrite sections and see if it can be written in a more succinct manner.
  • In general, keep the images on the right hand side of the page - I know you want to break things up, but if images are kept on the left then it disrupts the paragraph lining and makes the information difficult to track with the eye (just a minor thing, this is my opinion anyway)
  • Some subsections just appear too short; is it really necessary to make a subsection for one or two sentences, as is the case of karyotyping? Try to implement all of the information into one paragraph
  • The first image requires a proper reference to the work; is there any copyright information? And also protect your hand-drawn images - they are drawn excellently, but have no copyright information (unless you are happy with the images been used straight away by other students! :) )
  • The current research section and possible treatment options section is far too brief; if this is a syndrome that causes many problems, then there should be a fair amount describing our direction of research and methods in which we can combat this syndrome. Try to find more information here!
  • Overall, a good balance of the images and format, but reconsider the structure of paragraphs and subheadings so that the entire project has a better feel. Many sections feel like they have been started with great enthusiasm, but this has burnt out over time, giving the project a feel that some sections are just left incomplete. Try to fix this!

--Leonard Tiong 09:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 4

Group 4 Peer Review

  • Good introduction, history seems adequate - although the timeline stops at 2002? Is there anything after this?
  • Nice table for epidemiology; although some terms require explaining
  • Excellent student-drawn diagrams and genetics section with a good balance between the text, bullet points and images. One image has been removed so be sure that that is re-uploaded!
  • Video section: Formatting is a bit of a pain to read when the left hand margin keeps shifting with the images being placed here. Fix this please so that it is easier to track the page with our eyes.
  • Treatment section is overwhelming, whilst some might have said that it looks great (and it really does), to suddenly be hit with such a huge table is exhausting. Perhaps shorten this section by mentioning that there is only treatment available for the symptoms, list them, and then link to an image containing the table in its entirety.
  • Current/Future research section seems a bit short.
  • Overall, it looks like an excellent project that has had a lot of thought put into it. Well done guys :)

--Leonard Tiong 10:26, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 5

  • First student figure has no explanation as to what it's all about, and is a pretty simple diagram. What does it contain? Where is your copyright information? The same can be said with the second student-drawn figure. Make sure this is fixed!
  • The introduction section appears to be pretty short. Try to keep away from using the brackets and just enter your information in a continuous format.
  • The headings and subheadings work quite well. However, the lack of images in the signs and symptoms section make this difficult to read; it seems like a large block of text without anything to assist in the breakup of the page (making it difficult to read and easy for us to lose attention).
  • Subheadings are used quite well. The treatment section is well presented in table format, but once again, any images to help break things up?
  • The recent and future research section doesn't seem to be completed. Is there anything that can be done for the future of the disease? Is it related to any other disease processes? The glossary also seems short and isn't in alphabetic order. Please add all the terms to the glossary to ensure that there is completeness of the project! There are many terms that are difficult to understand, so slot them in here.
  • There just needs to be more work done overall to ensure that the project flows smoothly and all the smaller details are accounted for. At the moment there is still a large part of the project that feels quite sketchy and requires more work.

--Leonard Tiong 10:32, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 6

  • Good introduction, although an image straight up would be nice!
  • History is presented well, although a table format at the end that summarises everything you have said would be nice. Also, does the history stop around the 1950's? It seems like there has been nothing done on it until 1970/1980? Hence, the table format would be nice if it appears that I've missed information.
  • Epidemiology section is really quite short. Is there nothing more that can be said on it? Does it have preference to specific race?
  • Signs and symptoms - from the way that the page is formatted it appears that you've gone down onto the level 4 headings with 4 ='s paraphrasing each heading. Try to use 3 or so just to make sur e the headings are larger and each subsection can be identified.
  • The genetics/aetiology section should be explained better; whilst this is aimed at academics, it is almost impossible to understand the information pertaining to the genetics section.
  • The pathophysiology and abnormalities section is well explained, and the diagram is excellent to show exactly where the problem lies. A well done section, and a well-selected image for the blood flow patterns.
  • Diagnostic tests: Still need to insert those images on the right hand side column! Also, ensure that the referencing is done in the correct format - this section still needs work.
  • Treatment/Management section is done well, with a good balance between text and table.
  • Current and Future research: Perhaps more dates? The formatting here also needs to be fixed up, and try to have dates on the papers that you are quoting from (although I understand it's difficult without the references in place)
  • The glossary section needs more terms added to it! Especially from the genetics/aetiology section which is already terribly difficult to understand.
  • Referencing section is quite short - but understandably the whole project feels like the referencing just needs to be finished.
  • Overall a nice-looking project with a lot of promise. The spacing and format of the project makes it easy to read - perhaps more images and the use of some tables might also assist in the presentation of this project.

--Leonard Tiong 10:49, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 7

  • Introduction is pretty short, and there is no image in the intro nor the history section. It makes it difficult to read. However, the information is quite adequate; perhaps mention the incidence in the introduction?
  • History section is well presented, perhaps have an image or two around here. It'll help out :)
  • Epidemiology section seems to just have the figures copied and pasted from these two presented papers. Can you explain the reasons as to why the current population is unknown? Surely there will be papers presented on these findings? Are there contributing factors to epidemiology and incidence; for example, why is the incidence so much higher in Denmark and Sweden; and are two countries directly comparable to Western Australia, as opposed to the whole of Australia? There seems to be almost no thought placed in this section.
  • Aetiology is sketchy, but will do. Is there more that can be said under this section?
  • Pathogenesis section is well described and many of the terms are present in the glossary. There is a nice balance of diagrams and test images, and good referencing throughout these sections. Once again, a pet hate is the presence of the images on the left hand side of the page which breaks up the margin that is traced by the eye when reading the page, making it unnecessarily difficult to read the information. Also make sure that there is enough space left at the bottom of your section so that the signs and symptoms section isn't axed by the image.
  • Signs and Symptoms is well described, and the use of the images also makes things much easier to observe. The subsections make it easier to observe as well. There are a few typos here and there; re-read your project and I'm sure you'll find them ;) Perhaps consider making complications an extension of the signs and symptoms section; it is too short to be a section by itself.
  • Diagnosis is well presented - try using bold text for headings as it's simply easier to read. Once again, left-aligned images are a pet hate. Consider the related diseases section as a sub-section of diagnosis.
  • Treatment and Management: Once again, absorb the next two sections and make them subsections. The information becomes a bit sketchy once we reach this stage of the project again.
  • The current and future research would do well to link to some articles that have been published quite recently.
  • Glossary has a nice layout and there are still some small issues in the referencing section that need to be addressed.
  • Overall the project starts and finishes quite sketchily, but the detail in the middle of the project is impressive. Try to balance the entire project and ensure that each section has an even weighting. There is also a distinct lack of images in sections other than the pathogenesis section, and more information (let alone detail) needs to be added many sections. Images! Keep at it guys! :)

--Leonard Tiong 11:13, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 8

  • Introduction and History are well presented, and structured well. It's quite easy to read. The history section could perhaps have a little bit more substance, and your findings end around 1996; does this mean that there has been nothing done since 1996? What is the situation now? It's also slightly lacking in the time period between 1907-1988; surely some significant discoveries would have been made in this period.
  • Epidemiology is well structured and covers all aspects of epidemiology. Perhaps a graph or table will structure the information slightly better, but otherwise, good.
  • Protect your student-drawn image with the copyright statement, unless you're happy to let it go around! The subheadings in the aetiology section are appropriate and the bold words make it easy to read. The images help break up text and this section is very well outlined.
  • Perhaps a little more could be written on the pathogenesis section? After all, this is the section where you can take the time to discuss the disease process and how it manifests itself into the form which presents with the condition in the clinic. Therefore, just a little bit more? Try explaining how it affects normal physiology (since patho- (disease) -physiology (normal function)); how disease state alters normal function.
  • Excellent Neuropathology section with imaging and referencing all well outlined. The previously mentioned point about the pathophysiology section has to just refer to the neuropathology section to see how it is done!
  • Clinical presentation is well set out with the tables used to break up the information. Diagrams and tables in the diagnosis section still require linking to the videos? Perhaps get an image snapshot of the video and link through there.
  • Treatment section would be better with a diagram, otherwise it is adequate
  • Current research doesn't really give me any dates as to the information, but otherwise is set out well.
  • Reference section is extensive and well done - consider putting the glossary before the reference section to make it more accessible.

--Leonard Tiong 12:52, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 9

  • Interesting introduction, however it's difficult to appreciate without a diagram of sorts. The introduction is succinct and leads well into the project. The history of the disease is also well presented, and the timeline quite clear - in general, these sections only require an image (if possible) to be complete!
  • The section on genetic factors and etiology is well explained, and the variation of formats makes the information easy to obtain.
  • Diagnosis section is also well laid out; perhaps more referencing in this section could explore different methods (if there are any?).
  • Epidemiology is outlined well, although I don't think you want to put management and treatment in the same section as epidemiology; they should be on their own independent sections. I think you may have slightly misunderstood epidemiology (occurrence, bias to sex/age/gender/race, etc.).
  • Phenotype is well set out, and the student-drawn image has been well chosen for this section!
  • Cardiac Conditions, Genitourinary conditions, Endocrine, Other Associated Medical Conditions etc. <-- make these sections subsections of Clinical presentation, etc. In general these sections might benefit from the occasional table, as well as diagrams to help break up the information; large blocks of text are difficult to read and maintain interest of the readers.
  • Current research and developments section, compared to the rest of the project is not of the same standard; it could do with some well-placed research! Try to place some emphasis on this section as these areas outline whether we can hope for a cure in the future and give the reader some direction as to where the condition/disease is heading.
  • Glossary is still incomplete; but this is obvious and something which (I'm sure) everyone needs to complete! The references are generally well used; see if you implement more in your research.
  • Overall, a pleasing product; try for more images, but otherwise there is more than enough information required for the project. Try to distribute it over the sections and ensure the information presented under each subheading is relevant; you may want to also consider absorbing some sections and re-classifying them as sub-sections.

--Leonard Tiong 22:14, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 10

  • Interesting introduction, with a good amount of information. The history is also quite well outlined, although as you have no doubt seen with many of the other groups by now, a timeline woud be adequate in the history section (this also helps to break the text up and help us get a "break" from large blocks of text!)
  • Epidemiology section is short but sweet - all the required information is there and summarised well. Perhaps mention the rate of mortality? (although this may be obvious)
  • The student-drawn image in the aetiology section doesn't have your own copyright notice, so this should be added to the description. There also might be more to write in this section, but only if you wish to seek out the information. Diagrams can be helpful in summarising excessively detailed material.
  • Pathogenesis simply needs to be longer; a lot can be written on this section and there should also be the use of diagrams throughout. Explain why the pathogenesis of DMD is so destructive; it has more than just the function of securing the sarcolemma to the cytoskeleton and is also present in other parts of the body, so make sure you explore this completely! :) (for example, dystrophin which is affected also is found in different areas of the body which may help explain some of the other symptoms of DMD).
  • General signs and symptoms could have a diagram to assist in the signs and symptoms.
  • Clinical manifestations and complications could have more written and explaining some of the other symptoms that aren't purely based upon the muscle damage observed in DMD.
  • Diagnosis needs to have more written, especially images regarding the methods of imaging and therapy.
  • Treatment; and Current and Future Prospects are different sections and shouldn't be integrated. Think carefully about the implications that current and future directions of research will have on this disease - they are huge! Try to write more and make an individual section on current and future prospectives of research for DMD; as you know from your research so far, DMD is a very important disease requiring a lot of research.
  • Glossary is incomplete; References have a lot of repeats, but these are problems that are common to almost all projects.
  • Generally, you just need to find better ways of altering the information in your project. Try to add tables and images to help break up the information and make sure you've discussed all the sections in the guidelines for the project properly. Keep at it! :)

--Leonard Tiong 22:28, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 11

  • Introduction is brief; and that's about all. Please try to write more; from what you have written here, it sounds more like an epidemiology section. The history section is slightly better although the timeline shouldn't be a new section of the page but a subheading of the history is inadequate. Also, don't double space, because there isn't enough important information here to justify the spacing.
  • The section on Diagnosis is well set out, and is discussed well. The information in the table is well explained and those images that you have obtained with regards to the syndromes and anomalies associated with the cleft are very interesting images that summarise your information well. I like the layout of this particular section!
  • Development section requires some text; the aetiology section could actually explain those indirect genetic factors with environmental factors or possibly just environmental factors. How do these come about? Also make the types of cleft palate/lip a subsection of the development or slot it into pathophysiology; where it is at the moment is in a place where it doesn't exactly belong. THe information in cleft palate/lip is quite extensive and very interesting though!
  • Still waiting for a student-drawn diagram, but this is understandable and make sure you copyright it when you do draw it!
  • Genetic configuration; try to fix your formatting a little. Some bits of the formatting just need a better layout (and don't forget to space in your nutrition and drugs sections). Consider using more ====== <-- to get new subsections, which will also help.
  • The neuroembryology section is truthfully the only section in all the projects which I have seen that relates the development back to the embryology course - well done! It is well explained and also seems to be the only section in which I actually don't mind the left-aligned image. Well done - I recommend this section stay the same! :)
  • Treatment is well laid out; however, back to the pet hate - right-align the second image here because it doesn't look correct in the way that it has been set out now. Also try to explain the surgery slightly better as opposed to just dot-point the information and hope that we understand it.
  • Problems associated with cleft palate - please try to write some more and explain as to why these problems occur due to variations from the normal morphology. eg. Speech issues due to the cleft palate because resonance cannot be achieved properly due to the continuity of the oral/nasal cavities.
  • Current and Future research needs a lot more written on it - remember, this is where the research is headed and what can be hoped from people in the future who may suffer from this disease.
  • Glossary is incomplete; references are repeated, and have you used more references than the number quoted? However, no worries about these issues as they are common across all projects.
  • Overall, a project that has mixed amounts of contributions throughout it. Please ensure the quality of the project is uniformly excellent! Have you considered using tables and graphs to get some information across as well? Some sections also lack referencing; please make sure this is corrected as it is difficult to read any project without good scientific evidence.

--Leonard Tiong 22:47, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Week 10 Online Assessment

  1. Another teratogen that can lead to hearing loss is Cytomegalovirus (CMV).
  2. The auditory tube is the main method in which the middle ear is drained. The neonate has poorer drainage of the middle ear mainly due to the fact that it is narrower than the adult auditory tube, runs more horizontally (and therefore drainage by gravity will not be as great), and is only opened by a single muscle (tensor palatini).
  3. A genetic abnormality that affects hearing development is Treacher Collins Syndrome[4], OMIM reference [5] in which malformation of middle ear structures can lead to deafness.

Week 11 Online Assessment

1. The components that give rise to the interatrial septum come from the primary and secondary septa. The primary septum (septum primum) is an initial thickening of the heart wall between the atria, and leaves a small opening known as the ostium primum. Before this primary septum closes completely, a secondary more muscular septum (septum secundum) begins to develop. These will eventually overlap and fuse at birth to form the interatrial septum, with the fossa ovalis being the embryological remnant of the foramen ovale. During fetal life, the passage that connects the right and left atria is the foramen ovale, which is made of the foramen primum and foramen secundum.

2. Cardiac defects that arise as a result of abnormal outflow tract development include ventricular septal defects, in which the interventricular septum fails to close; atrial septal defects, in which the interatrial septum fails to close; aortic stenosis, in which the diameter of the aorta is decreased, possibly due to muscular obstruction of the aortic valve; double-outlet right ventricle, in which the aorta may receive some of its blood from the right ventricle, and hence will lead to a mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the aorta; and tricuspid atresia in which the tricuspid valve between the right atria and right ventricle will fail to form, resulting in a hypoplastic right ventricle.

Week 12 Online Assessment

1. Three systems that continue to develop postnatally include the central nervous system, which undergoes extensive gyrification and sulcation to increase its surface area; the musculoskeletal system, which goes noticable changes in remodelling of bone length, increase in muscle mass, and the relocation of hemopoietic stem cells into the bone marrow of the long bones; as well as the genital system which does not reach final development until puberty.

2. The Gutherie test is used to detect for markers in the blood for disorders caused by defects in metabolism. An example is the test for hyperphenylalaninemia, usually caused by a metabolic disorder such as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)[6]


[1] Nakamura A., Takeda S.; Mammalian Models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Pathological Characteristics and Therapeutic Applications, J. Biomedicine and Biotechnology Vol. 2011, Article ID 184393

[2] Yukihara et al; Effective Drug Delivery System for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using Hybrid Liposomes Including Gentamicin along with Reduced Toxicity, J. Biol. Pharm. Bull, Volume 34, No. 5 pp. 712-716

[3] Mol Cytogenet. 2011; 4: 6. Published online 2011 February 23. doi: 10.1186/1755-8166-4-6, Link: