Lab 4 Online Assessment
- The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
- Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
- Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)
--Z3279511 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)
Lab 1: Assessment
1. The origin of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) lies in 1950s, where Dr. Robert G. Edwards started to work on his idea for the treatment of infertility. He was the first to show, that the human oocyte can undergo fertilization, grow into an embryo and blastocyst in vitro and then be implanted into the mothers womb to develop into a healthy infant. On the 25th of July 1987 Louise Joy Brown, the first child conceived via IVF was born. Dr. Robert G. Edwards received the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of IVF.
2. Özer et al. showed in their study published in the Turk Arch Pediatri, that children conceived through assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have a higher risk of premature birth and multiple gestation in comparison to children conceived naturally. The study evaluated neonatal morbidity, mortality, congenital abnormalities, prematurity and multiple pregnancies in 123 ART babies. It was found that ART babies in comparison to normal babies have higher rates of mortality and abnormalities and lower birth weight.
Reference: Özer, E. A., Türko?lu E., Ball?, T., Sütçüo?, S., Erdemir, A., Co?ar, H., Kahramaner, Z., Kan?k, A., Men, G., Yaprak, I., Neonatal mortality and short term prognosis in newborns born after assisted reproductive techniques. Turk Arch Pediatri (2011), 46, pp. 37-38.
3. Congenital abnormalities are conditions existing at birth, for example trisomy 21 and spina bifida. Trisomy 21 is an genetic abnormality where the chromosome 21 exists in three copies instead of the normal two. These children have a number of physical and mental symptoms collectively called Down's Syndrome. Spina bifida is a neural tube defect which occurs when the neural tube fails to close at the caudal end during embryonic development. There are several subclasses of spina bifida. For example spina bifida cystica and spina bifida occulta. In spina bifida cystica either the meninges only herniate through the opening of the spinal canal (meningocele) or the spinal cord as well (myelomeningocele). These herniations do not occur in spina bifida occulta and it is therefore less severe.
--Z3279511 20:18, 2 August 2011 (EST)
Lab 2: Assessment
The capacitated spermatozoa binds to the zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP 3). ZP 3 functions as receptor and induces the acrosome reaction. In the acrosome reaction the spermatozoa releases enzymes from the acrosome which facilitate the penetration of the zona pellucida. ZP 2 acts as second spermatozoa receptor. Once membrane fusion occurs, where the spermatozoa and oocyte membranes fuse allowing the sperm nuclei to enter into the oocytes cytoplasm, membrane depolarization functions to prevent polyspermy. This is facilitated by enzymes that alter ZP3, which in turn will no longer bind to spermatozoa.
--Z3279511 12:38, 4 August 2011 (EST) --z3279511 15:38, 4 August 2011 (EST)
--Z3279511 12:17, 11 August 2011 (EST)
--Z3279511 13:02, 11 August 2011 (EST)
Lab 3: Assessment
1. An important maternal dietary requirement for neural development is foliate. The incident of spina bifida and anencephali became much less since foliate is a component of the normal diet in Australia. Another maternal dietary requirement, particular in late neural development, is iodine. It is for the prevention of congenital hypothyrodism.
2. Facial manifestations of patient with DiGeorge Syndrome
File:Facial manifestations of patient with DiGeorge Syndrome
--z3279511 21:00, 17 August 2011 (EST)
--z3279511 11:21, 18 August 2011 (EST)
Lab 4: Assessment
1. The allantois is an invagination of endoderm and surrounding extra-embryonic mesoderm into the connecting stalk. It forms an extension of the yolk sac into the connecting stalk (umbilical cord). In the human fetus, the fetal bladder is connected to the allantois via the urachus, which aids as passage for nitrogenous waist from the bladder.
2. The three vascular shunts are:
1) Ductus venosus: it connects the portal and umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava
2) Foramen ovale: it connects the right and the left atrium
3) Ductus arteriosus: it connects the left pulmonary artery with the arch of the aorta
3. Group project plan - DiGeorge Syndrome: I will be working on the following:
1) Clinical manifestation and explanations of these
2) Treatment options
3) Drawing of images
The distribution of the tasks to the individual group members can be found on the group discussion page under project plan. --Anna Marx 16:09, 21 August 2011 (EST)