Template:ICD-11 Placental anomalies table
|KA02 Foetus or newborn affected by complications of placenta
KA02.0 Foetus or newborn affected by placenta praevia - Placenta praevia exists when the placenta lies wholly or in part in the lower segment of the uterus. Diagnosis has evolved from the clinical I-IV grading system, and is determined by ultrasonic imaging techniques relating the leading edge of the placenta to the cervical os. Grade I is a low lying placenta, Grade II is a placenta that meets the edge of the cervical os, Grade III is a placenta that partially covers the os, and Grade IV is a placenta that completely covers the os.
KA02.1 Foetus or newborn affected by placental oedema or large placenta - A large placenta, also known as placentomegaly, is one that weighs greater than 750 g. Placentomegaly can be seen in the following conditions: fetal hydrops, maternal diabetes mellitus, Rh incompatibility, chronic infections (e.g. syphilis, cytomegalovirus), maternal anemia, or acute placental edema with acute chorioamnionitis.
KA02.2 Foetus or newborn affected by placental infarction - Placental infarction is the formation of localised areas of ischemic villous necrosis, usually due to vasospasm of the maternal circulation. The affected regions of the placenta are incompetent, and lead to placental insufficiency if the infarcts are severe.
KA02.3 Foetus or newborn affected by placental insufficiency or small placenta - Placental insufficiency is defined as the inability of the placenta to deliver a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, and therefore, is unable to sustain the growth of the developing baby until term. Placental insufficiency can result in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), pre-eclampsia, abruption, or preterm labour and delivery. A small placenta is defined as a placenta that weighs less that the lower limit of normal for the gestational period. A low placental weight can be the result of a maternal condition that is causing underperfusion of the placenta, such as pre-eclampsia or maternal hypertension. A small placenta may lead to IUGR, fetal malformations, or chromosomal anomalies.
KA02.4 Foetus or newborn affected by placental transfusion syndromes - Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs in monozygotic twins while they are in the uterus. It occurs when blood travels from one twin to the other, and the twin that loses blood is the donor twin, while the twin that receives blood is the recipient twin. Depending on the severity of the transfusion, both infants may experience problems, such as anaemia, paleness, and dehydration in the donor twin, and redness and an increased blood pressure in the recipient twin.
KA03.0 Foetus or newborn affected by prolapsed cord - A prolapsed umbilical cord is when the cord enters the opening cervix and down into the birth canal during labour before the baby has left the uterus. The risk of prolapse is higher if the baby is lying in a transverse position, the mother has had more than one baby, an excess amount of amniotic fluid exists, there is preterm prelabour rupture of membranes, or if membranes are artificially ruptured.
KA03.1 Foetus or newborn affected by other compression of umbilical cord - A group of conditions characterized by findings in the fetus or newborn due obstruction of blood flow through the umbilical cord secondary to pressure from an external object or misalignment of the cord itself not classified elsewhere.
Foetus or newborn affected by abnormalities of umbilical cord length - KA03.20 Foetus or newborn affected by short umbilical cord - An umbilical cord greater than 2 SD in length below mean for the gestational age. At term, this is less than 35 cm. Often associated with fetal hypokinsesia. | KA03.21 Foetus or newborn affected by long umbilical cord - An umbilical cord greater than 2 SD in length above mean for the gestational age. At term, this is greater than 80 cm.
KA03.3 Foetus or newborn affected by vasa praevia - An obstetric complication characterized by fetal vessels crossing or running in close proximity to the internal orifice of the cervix (inner cervical os).
KA04.0 Foetus or newborn affected by chorioamnionitis - Chorioamnionitis is an infection of the placental tissues and amniotic fluid. It can lead to bacteremia in the mother, which is an infection of the blood, and this can cause preterm birth or infection in the newborn. Organisms which are usually responsible for chorioamnionitis include Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Group B streptococcus.
|placenta abnormalities | ICD-11|