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Int. J. Dev. Biol. 53: 1165-1177 (2009) doi: 10.1387/ijdb.072492ja


  • Address correspondence to: Prof. Juan Aréchaga. Department of Cell Biology and Histology. Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque

Country, E-48940 Leioa, Vizcaya. Spain, Fax +34 94-601-3266. e-mail: juan.arechaga@ehu.es

Final author-corrected PDF published online: 4 September 2009.

www.intjdevbiol.com

A glance at Spanish Embryology and Teratology during the XX Century through the academic life of Francisco Orts-Llorca (1905-1993)

JUAN ARECHAGA*1, JUAN JIMENEZ-COLLADO2 and DOMINGO RUANO-GIL3

'University and Royal Academy of Medicine of the Basque Country, Bilbao, 2Complutense University of Madrid and Royal National Academy of Medicine, Madrid and 3University of Barcelona and Royal Academy of Medicine of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

ABSTRACT Francisco Ort-Llorca (1905-1993) was one of the most outstanding Spanish embryologists of the XX century. He was disciple of Henri Rouviere in Paris (France), Alfred Fischel in Vienna (Austria), Walther Vogt in Munich (Germany) and Pedro Ara in Madrid (Spain). From 1935, he was professor of Human Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz, belonged then to the University of Seville (accidentally, in the University of Valencia, during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939) and, later on, at the Faculty of Medicine of Madrid (Complutense University) from 1954 to 1975. He was internationally recognized in anatomical sciences and stood out for his contributions to descriptive and experimental Embryology and Teratology, particularly in those aspects connected to the normal and pathological development of the heart and visual organs.

KEY WORDS: Francisco Orts-Llorca, Spanish Embryology, Spanish Developmental Biology, Spanish

Anatomy, History of Biology in Spain

One of the more unjust facts on the history of Developmental Biology in Spain lies in believing that the interest for this subject has only recently started. Specifically, with regard to the introduction of the modern developmental genetics methods in some new model organisms like the fruit fly, atask where the Spaniards have made relevant contributions in the last half of the XX century (see Ghysen, 1998, 2009, Martinez-Arias, 2009). Something similar has happened with other scientific areas in Spain. For instance, the disdain or unconscious hiding of the Spaniards contributions to Cytology and Histology before the great accomplishments of Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) as it has been revised ina previous article is in this issue (see Marco-Cuellar and Aréchaga, 2009). In this regard, it must be reminded that, talking about Science, nothing and nobody emerge due to svontaneous generation, by chance or as result of a 7/rac/e, as erroneously wrote the great Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset (1906, 1908) or the Spanish Nobel Prize Severo Ochoa (1995) to emphasize the merit of Cajal at his time. Such kind of opinions, only try to justify deficient historic information and to insist on them is nothing more than a futile exercise of sanctimoniousness (Lain-Entralgo, 1978) or masochistic lamentation (LOpez-Pinero, 2006). Nevertheless, it is also true that the appropriate historical research about the origin and development of the embryological and teratological studies in Spain is still to come, since their approaches up to now has only been sporadic and very superficial (i.e.: Arechaga ef a/, 1976 a,b; LOpez-Pinero, 1971; LopezPinero efa/, 1979, 1983). Particularly, we have paid no attention to the long process of introduction of their experimental methodology and the new conceptual orientations during the XIX and XX centuries. The scientific biography and contributions of Francisco Orts-Llorca (1905-1993) can be a significant example of what the mythologizing process of some today Spanish developmental biologists hides.

Scientific biography

Francisco Orts-Llorca was born in 1905 at Tampico, in the Atlantic cost of Mexico, where his father, a Spanish merchant navy officer, developed his professional work as harbor pilot. Some time later, he moved with his family to Veracruz, the most important Mexican harbor. However, the father had to leave the job very soon because of the difficulties imposed to the foreigner workers by the Mexican Revolsution (1910-1917). So, the hole family had to come back definitely to Spain, when the little Francisco was only seven years old, and they provisionally settle down in their ancestors land, Benidorm, a small fishing village then in the south of the province of Valencia, very different from the present mega tourist city. Soon after, they moved to the province capital city, Valencia, where they could count with a better job for the father and good scholar centers for the children.

Thanks to a fellowship offered by an aristocrat, the Count of Altea, friend of the family, the young Orts-Llorca moves later to the prestigious Jesuit School of £/ 2/0, name of a residential neighborhood of Malaga (Andalusia), where he finishes his studies previous to University and acquires a sense of order and discipline so useful in his future professional activity. Later, as it also happened at a time with the adolescent Santiago Ramon y Cajal, his father obstinacy to avoid an early romantic vocation to go along another way (he intended to continue the family tradition of being a seaman and, therefore, to study at the Military Naval Academy of San Fernando, Cadiz) and thanks to his good relationships with the rural doctor of Benidorm, where he used to go on holidays, finally decides to study Medicine at the University of Valencia between 1921 and 1928. There he finds an excellent team of teachers, particularly the professor of Topographic and Surgical Anatomy Jesus Bartrina-Capella (1864-1974) who will have a great influence in his professional future. During that period, Francisco Orts-Llorca obtained excellent marks and some student awards, apart from being an active collaborator of the Chairs of Anatomy and Surgery.

In 1928, after finishing his studies at the University of Valencia, the father firm decision is present again in his life financing a staying in Paris to specialize with the prestigious French surgeon Armand Gosset (1872-1944), professor of Surgery at the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, in the Hdo/ta/ de /a Sa/pétriére,; stage which brings a great economic effort for the family. Simultaneously, he started to prepare his doctoral thesis under the guidance of Henri Rouviére (1875-1952) (Fig. 1), professor of Anatomy at the same Faculty of the Universite de la Sorbonne, who was at that moment working in his important monograph A/natomie des Lymphatiques de /Homme(1932). The staying in Paris of Orts-Llorca should be, in consequence, very active and fruitful, since in the mornings he usually went to the operating room and to the surgery clinic and, in the afternoons, he hard worked at the Anatomy laboratory. But, his cooperation with professor Rouviére gains increasing importance and decides definitively his professional future towards Anatomy, giving up the Surgery, although, some years later, he will be forced to retake it again. Thus, Francisco Orts-Llorca makes a great professional, scientific and researching effort in Paris, taking part even in teaching at the Uyniversity and presenting his research results at the Academy of Medicine. As result of this French stage, he also publishes a dozen of scientific articles in French journals and some more in Spanish ones, which appeared between 1929 and 1933. These publications deled on descriptive anatomy of the human lymphatic structures and on the biological meaning of the polygastric muscles (Fig. 2). Simultaneously, Orts-Llorca gets fascinated by the collection of serial histological sections of human embryos at different stages of development, that Prof. Rouviere was getting ready at that time and which will leave an imprint for his future career as independent researcher.


Fig. 1. Henri Rouviere (18751952) (A), Pedro Ara-Sarria (1891-1973) (B) and Walther Vogt (1888-1941) (C), together with Alfred Fischel (1868-1938), were the main researchers who shaped the scientific personality of Francisco Orts-Llorca in the areas of Anatomy and Embryology.

Francisco Orts-Llorca comes back to Spain in 1930 and joins the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Valladolid as an Assistant of one of the Chairs of Anatomy. In 1931, he finally defends his doctoral thesis under the title “L/nfaticos de los organos anexos del aparato de /a vision” (Lymphatics of eyeassociated organs) at the Central University of Madrid, which at that time, was the only Spanish university that granted the academic title of Doctor. Lately, he decided to specialize in Embryology and, for that, he did two short postdoctoral stages between 1931 and 1932 at the Medical Schools of Paris and Berlin. Later, from 1933 he spent more than a year in Vienna, with the scientist of Czech origin Alfred Fischel (1868-1938), professor of Embryology at the Faculty of Medicine, who had recently published his well-known Le/frbuch der Entwicklung des Menschen (1929). In all these postdoctoral stages, he was awarded with fellowships from the Junta para Ampliacion de Estudios e Investigaciones Crentificas, an entity founded and presided over many years by Santiago Ramon y Cajal and, after him, by the prestigious entomologist Ignacio Bolivar y Urrutia (1850-1944), who introduced genetical studies in Spain (see Martinez-Arias, 2009), until the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. This organization was then the only Spanish public agency granting researchers to be trained abroad. In order to obtain this, Orts-Llorca counted with the support of two well-known scientists who recommended him for the stipend: Pio Del Rio Hortera (1882-1945) and Pedro Ara Sarria (1891-19793).

In Vienna, Francisco Orts-Llorca has the occasion to deeply study different aspects of the human embryo development, since the Second Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty had then


Fig. 2. Images corresponding to representative anatomical works of F. Orts-Llorca, under the direction of Henri Rouviére, during his first stage in Paris (1928-1930). His studies mainly deal with ocular lymphatics and the biological significance of polygastric muscles. In one of his publications, the peripheral lymphatic vasculature of the cornea is described for the first time. This is frequently referred to by ophthalmologists with

his eponym (limphatic annulus of Orts-Llorca).

the largest embryological collection in the world. There he learns, among others, the Gustav Born’s wax plate method (1883), with their subsequent improvements (specially, those of Karl Peter, 1922), for the plastic three-dimensional reconstruction of embryo structures from the piled two-dimensional layers of wax plates cut out (Fig. 3). This was already done from an objective point of view, far away from the subjective “projective method” of Wilhelm His (1887), which required a great ability to draw and was exposed to many errors of interpretations, like happened in his models of human heart development (see Hopwood, 2002). Orts-Llorca also comes into the knowledge of comparative embryology, and learns how to use and interpret the embryo development tables; particularly the great encyclopedic work in 16 volumes edited by Franz Keibel (1861-1929) under the title of Normentafe/n zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbe/tiere (see Hopwood, 2007). The same author had published too an excellent and well illustrated Human Embryology textbook (1910-1912) together with Franklin P. Mall (1862-1917).

In the prestigious Viennese Second Institute of Anatomy at Wahringerstrasse Was at the time, besides the great anatomist and embryologist Ferdinand Hochstetter (1861-1954), his successor at the Institute direction from 1933 Eduard Pernkopf (1888-1955) (Fig. 4), who was then starting to prepare his famous Av/as of Topographic Anatomy (Pernkopf and Pichler, 19371960; Williams, 1988; Angetter, 2000). Both circumstances, makes us suppose that both also would had


Fig. 3. Plastic reconstruction by the Born-Peter method of the central nervous system and the chondrocraneus of the Rx human embryo of 23.5 mm, under the direction of Prof. Orts-Llorca in the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz (MartinezRovira, 1947).

equally a great influence in the embryological and anatomical training of Orts-Llorca, who, as a result of his staying in Austria, would publish his first embryological articles in German journals (1933, 1934a, 1934b, 1934c, 1934d).

At that time, the city of Vienna still lived on the age of great scientific and artistic splendor from the old Austrian Empire (its University even still counted with six Nobel Prize winners) in spite of the difficult politic situation that existed since the decade of the 20s, and especially after the great depression of 1929. Thus, street riots, promoted be Marxist organizations at the so-called ‘Fred Vienna’, were frequent and lead to Parliament dissolution and the instauration of an authoritarian regime in March of 1933. However, the Faculty of Medicine was still one of the best in Europe regarding the clinical practice and biomedical research as well. Vienna was besides, a cosmopolitan city where youths from all over the world went to be educated, both in science and in music or art and, therefore, our young Spanish embryologist enjoyed an excellent cultural atmosphere for his personal and professional development. Orst-Llorca, who kept along his life a 1168 J. Aréchaga et al.


Fig. 4. Eduard Pernkopf (18881955), Director of the Second Institute of Anatomy of the Vienna Medical School at the time of the visit of F. Orts-Llorca in 1933-34. Pernkopf was a member of the NSDAP, the Austrian Nazi party, forbidden by Canciller Dolfuss in 1934. (A) Lecturing in 1938, as Dean of the Vienna Medical School, after the German Anschluss, under a portrait of Adolf Hitler. (B) As Rector of the University of Vienna from 1943.

After the war, Prof. Pernkopt w was imprisoned near Salzburg for two years and lost all his official academic positions, although he was still working on his famous anatomic Atlas until his death. His disciple, Alexander Pichler, published the last volume of this magnificent work in 1960.

great love for the chamber music, met there several Spanish youngsters under identical circumstances and who later would be famous names in the Medicine of his country as, for example, the surgeon Mariano Fernandez-Zumel, the historian Pedro LainEntralgo, the otorhinolaryngologist Rafael Bartual-Vicéns (son of the first disciple of Santiago Ramon y Cajal) or the psychiatrist Juan Rof-Carballo, among others. Vienna was also the city where he met to his future wife.

At the beginning of 1934, the Austrian political situation starts to deteriorate to a great extent in the way of a real civil war, with frequent riots in the streets between Marxist or National-Socialist groups and the Government troops from the Valer/andaische Front, founded as an association of conservative parties by Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss. He would, finally, become a prisoner and assassinated by the Austrian W/azs in July of that year, as a prelude for the later hitlerian A7sch/ussof 1938. Due to these serious circumstances, even some members of the Viennese Second Institute of Anatomy were enthusiastic supporters of Vaz/ policies (Angetter, 2000) (Fig. 4), Orst-Llorca decides to go back to Spain at the end of his fellowship and joins the Faculty of Medicine of the Central University of Madrid as Assistant of the Chair of Anatomy of professor Pedro Ara (Fig. 1), who precisely had recommended him, some time before, to go to Vienna (Dr. Ara had been itself a former pupil of Prof. Hochstetter in 1924). A bit later, at the beginning of 1935, he obtains the Chair of Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz, at that time dependant of the University of Seville, getting married immediately after to his Austrian girlfriend.

But, Francisco Orts-Llorca considers that his embryological education is still insufficient according to the experimental point of view, which was then an up-to-date topic. For this raison, in the summer of 1935, he went to the Department of Zoology at the University of Munich in order to do a stay with Walther Vogt (18881941) (Fig. 1), who had described in 1929 his famous technique of ‘Yale mapping’, marking superficial regions of amphibian blastulas with vital stains and observing later their displacements during gastrulation (Fig. 5). Vogt was besides, since 1925, co-editor of the influential journal Wi/he/m Roux Archiv fur

Entwicklungsgmechank der Organismen, together with Hans Spemann (1869-1941), who would receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1935 for his discovery of primary embryonic induction phenomenon, together with Hilde (Préscholdt) Mangold (1898-1924); see in this regards Fassler (1996), Hamburger (1996) and Sander and Faessler (2001). Orts-Llorca was so interested in continuing his training on experimental techniques, that in 1936 7he Rockefeller Foundation granted him a fellowship in order to do research with Johannes Holtfreter (19011992), a former disciple of Hans Spemann in Freiburg, who had just join the Zoology Department at the University of Munich. In order to do this, Orts-Llorca should go to Germany on the 21° of July that year, but... the 18" of the same month the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) breaks out followed by the Second World War (1939-1945), so his important scientific plans in Germany definitively failed.


Fig. 5. Vital staining of an amphibian embryo according to Vogt’s technique /n order to study its prospective areas after gastrulation (OrtsLlorca, 1975).


Fig. 6. Francisco Orts-Llorca, in the center, at home with four of his main collaborators (ca. 1964). From /eft to right: Narciso Murillo-Ferrol, Domingo Ruano-Gil, F. Orts-Lorca, José M. Genis Galvez and Juan Jiménez-Collado. All, with the exception of Murillo-Ferrol were former students of his at the Medical School! of Cadiz (University of Seville).


During the Spanish Civil War, Francisco Orts-Llorca had to joint the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Valencia as professor of Anatomy, the nearest one to Benidorm (where he was spending his holidays during the summer of 1936) because the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz was then in the so-called “National Zone” and he would not travel there without going through the war front. For that reason, he was also obliged to cooperate with the “Heoub/ican Side” in the “Red Zone’, working as war surgeon in Valencia and Altea and suffering, because of that, some reprisals at the end of the conflict, although not very important ones (see Otero-Carvajal, 2001). In spite of these serious circumstances, Orts-Llorca did not interrupt his research activity at the Faculty of Medicine of Valencia and was even able to publish some articles during the war (1936a, 1936b, 1937a, 1937b, 1938). Finally, when the Spanish conflict comes to an end, he occupied his former Chair at the Faculty of Medicine in Cadiz, where he will suffer the hardship of the postwar period. Thus, publications by OrtsLlorca until 1954, date when he moves to the Central University of Madrid, show the scant resources he counted on to develop his academic work which. Additionally, had to combine it with his private practice as surgeon to increase his low academic salary. Nevertheless, he succeeded in making up a group of enthusiastic young collaborators (Fig. 6); enlarge his histological serial collection of embryos of different ages (a work he had started in Valencia, during the war!), doing some significant contributions to the area of descriptive embryology and assays dealing with experimental embryology. He takes advantages too, from these circumstances, to write his important treaty on Human Anatomy (1944-1952). The change to the Central University of Madrid (Fig. 7) will mean for Orts-Llorca his consecration as the most important embryologist of the country, as well as his international renown. He also starts there his most prolific period as experimental embryologist, which had been delayed by the previously mentioned circumstances. This way, intentionally he starts that period in Madrid with a series of lectures financed by Fundacion Va/decilla (1955) about what at that time was still called Deve/oomenta/ Physiology according to the terminology suggested by Hans Spemann (Entwicklungsphysiologie), who preferred that name to Entwicklungsmechanik, used by Wilhem Roux (see Fassler, 1996). Later, those lectures were captured in a small monograph (1956) underthe title ‘La Fisiologia de/ Desarrollo y su /mportancia en Biologia” (Developmental Biology and its role for Biology) which was very influential in Spain, since it was the first monograph dealing with the experimental embryology published in our country (Fig. 7). At that period, he also translated from Germana well-known text written by the Swiss anatomist and embryologist Gian Tdéndury (1958). We know from that time he completed a research stage in Baltimore, Maryland (USA), at the Department of Embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, during three months, from July 1959. The purpose of this stage was the study the outstanding Co/ection of Human Embryos collected by Franklin P. Mall at the beginning of the XX century and, later, significantly increased and organized by George L. Streeter and Ronan O’Rahilly (see Hopwood, 2007). In the same journey, Orts-Llorca also visits and meet personally some important American embryologists and anatomists at the Departments of Zoology (Dr. Twitty) and Anatomy (Dr. Greulich) of the Stanford University in California, at the Rockefeller Institute (Dr. Weiss) and the Department of Anatomy (Dr. Copenhaver) of Columbia University of New York and in the Department of Zoology of the Washington University at Saint Louis, Missouri (Dr. Hamburger). Some time later, in 1962, he went again to the Carnegie Department of Embryology in Baltimore (to visit Dr. De Haan) and, in 1968, he also visited the Department of Zoology of the Northwestern University at Chicago (a stage with Dr. Moscona) and the Department of Anatomy of the Medical University of Ohio at Toledo (to visit Dr. Di Dio).


Fig. 7. Portrait of Francisco Orts-Llorca (ca. 1954) at the time of his arrival to the Chair of Anatomy of the Madrid Medical School and cover page of his influential monograph "La Fisiologia del Desarrollo y su importancia en Biologia" (Developmental Physiology and its role in Biology). (1956). 1170 J. Aréchaga et al.


Along his professional career, professor Orts-Llorca supervised more than sixty doctoral theses, mainly about embryological topics and he also published, besides the previously cited textbook and monograph, almost two hundred articles in professional and circulated journals and newspapers (see a selected bibliography on Embryology and Teratology at the end of this article). The international impact of his work is well reflected in the great number awards he received, as well as invitations to visit universities and other scientific institutions, or to take part in congresses, curses and seminars in Argentina (Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Rosario, Corrientes), Belgium (Brussels), Finland (Helsinki), France (Paris), Greece (Zante), Israel (Jerusalem), Mexico (Mexico City) Nederland (Leyden), Panama (Panama City), Portugal (Lisbon), United Kingdom (London), Switzerland (Interlaken) USA (San Francisco, Minneapolis, New York, Baltimore, Chicago, Toledo) and Venezuela (Caracas), apart from his cooperation in several courses organized by Universities and research centers in Spain. In the same way, he received a great number of academic distinctions and decorations, among which should be highlighted the Honoris Causa doctorate by three Universities and his appointment as a member of the Spanish Aoya/ National Academy of Meaicine (Fig. 7) and other prestigious national and foreign institutions, as well as being invited to joint to the Editorial Board of influential journals of Anatomy and Embryology. In his last active academic period, he was even appointed academic Director of the Hospital of the Central University of Madrid (1969-1975), a position Orts-Llorca still combined with his research activity. After his official retirement in 1975, Don Francisco, as respectfully and lovely we used to call him, kept on going to the laboratory in his former Chair, and develop besides different academic activities, almost until his death in 1993, at the age of 88 years.

Contributions to Embryology and Teratology

The analysis of the scientific production by Francisco Orts


Fig. 8. Francisco Orts-Llorca at the National Royal Academy of Medicine of Madrid (25 February, 1975) giving the traditional reception speech under the title “Los finos mecanismos de regulaci6n en la morfogénesis ocular” (fine regulatory mechanisms in ocular morphogenesis). Beside him, in the picture on the right, is Prof. José Pérez-Llorca, former professor of Ophthalmology in the Central University of the Madrid Medical School and General Inspector of the Spanish Navy Medical Corp, who, in the same act, read the habitual welcome speech.

Llorca reveals three periods very well defined. In the first one, between 1928 and 1931, his activity is focused exclusively on the specific aspects of the descriptive human anatomy, mainly in relation to his doctoral thesis about the lymphatic organs of the eye and associated structures. Inthe second one, after his postdoctoral training in Paris, Berlin, Vienna and Munich (1932-1936), he concentrates on the specific aspects of descriptive Embryology and Teratology. Finally, following the forced long pause of the Spanish Civil War plus the Second World War (1936-1945) and the difficult post-wars years, he starts his most prolific activity in the field of experimental Embryology and Teratology, particularly after 1954. However, he never left the study of descriptive aspects, derived from the careful microscopic analysis and modeling reconstruction of his extensive collection of human embryos and other mammals.

The importance that had, at that time, to work in Human descriptive Embryology and Teratology, particularly during the first phases of development, can be easily understood if we take into account the important fact that, until 1954 (Hertig e¢ a/), the best-preserved human embryo studied was that described by Wilhelm von Mollendorff (1921) of about 18 days of age. At that moment, it was only possible to get embryos in a fortuitous manner, after spontaneous abortions, hysterectomies or histopathological exams of endometrium samples. In those circumstances, the human embryos normally arrived to the embryological laboratories under bad preservation conditions. Even, the rareness of the youngest human embryos under study, implied that those were known by the name of the gynecologist or the researcher who obtained or described them in a publication; i.e.: the A/einhans embryo, tne Hochstetter embryo, the TeacherBryce embryo, the Miller ovum, etc. ltwas even doubted about the existence or not of the blastocyst stage in human embryos! (Grosser, 1922). A very different situation from what happens nowadays after the arrival of the techniques of /7 v/frofertilization and culture of human embryos or the legal authorization of the


Fig. 9. Histological sections of two representative human embryos at the Embrytheca Orts-Llorca of the Medical School of the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain). (A) CA embryo with 4 pairs of somites. (B) Cano embryo with 14 pairs of somites.

abortion techniques in many countries. Therefore, the knowledge about the first phases of human egg pre and post-implanted or about the early human organogenesis was incomplete in many aspects until very recent times. Only under this perspective we can be understood Orts-Llorca’s great interest, and of the rest of embryologist of his time, in creating a wide histological collection of serial sections of human embryos (Embryotheca) and to promote its constitution in other laboratories to be able to fill the gaps between human developmental stages. Due to this, the important Ermbryotheca Orts-L/orca from the Department of Anatomy and Embryology at the Complutense University of Madrid, keeps on being at present the most important one in the country (Fig. 9). An estimation about the number of the histological slides of it showed, at the beginning of the seventies in the XX century, the number of more that one hundred thousand slides, coming from a hundred or so human embryos at different stages of development, some of them very young and, generally, in a quite acceptable preservation state. There, we can found excep tional specimens like a human embryo with three pairs of somites and a 10 mm anencephalic embryo. In the selected bibliography at the end of this article, there are references to the Orts-Llorca main contributions to descriptive Embryology and Teratology, fields in which he was very interested in all along his scientific career. Among them, can be highlighted the descriptions of normal human embryos from the Streeter horizons XI and XII and several kinds of congenital malformations at early development stages (1934d, 1937a, 1938, 1948b, 1949, 1950, 1952d, 1953a, 1954a, 1955a, 1955b, 1957a, 1957b, 1958b, 1958c, 1958d, 1959b, 1960c, 1962c, 1962d, 1962e, 1962f, 1964a, 1964e, 1981b, 1982b, 1983a, 1983b). Some reviews of human congenital malformations and teratomas are also of interest (1936a, 1946b, 1963b, 1970e, 1985). Inthe last period of his life, Orts-Llorca even published a catalogue of the embryo and fetus of the histological collections existing in Spain (1984) and from which his have been the pioneer.

Among Francisco Orts-Llorca’s most significant contributions to Experimental Embryology and Teratology, apart from the impact that his previously mentioned monograph of 1956, we should highlight several studies. For instance, on the inductive activity of dead tissues, confirming previous experiences of Sulo Toivonen with dead mammals tissues in amphibian embryos (Arechaga, 1989), but Orts-Llorca used boiled and dried up human testis tissues with chick embryos (1948d). He also looks for the embryonic effects of synthetic hormone agents like Testoviron® and Cortiron®, enzymatic products (hyaluronidase, l-asparaginase) or inorganic salts (lithium chloride, used for the Holtfreter exogastrulation experiments), studies that were carried out mainly with chick embryos (1944a, 1948b, 1956a, 1974f, 1979c, 1980a, 1980b). But, where Orts-Llorca specially stood up was in the usage of delicate techniques of microsurgery to investigate the inductive phenomena, embryo regulation and morphogenesis (1960b, 1962c, 1963c, 1963f, 1967a, 1969b, 1971b, 1971c, 1973a, 1978c, 1974a, 1974b, 1974c, 1975a). These methods were combined in many occasions with very advanced techniques for that moment, like time-lapse cinematography (1967b), electron microscopy (1967e, 1969c), radioactive isotopic labeling (1967f, 1968a, 1968b, 1969a, 1970b), 7 Wiroculture of disaggregated/reaggregated embryonic tissues (method of A. Moscona and H. Moscona, 1952) or the quail/chick marker system (Le Douarin, 1969). All of these, combined with meticulous microscopic descriptions of his discoveries (Fig. 10). Orts-Llorca also wrote some reviews on basic concept of cell differentiation and embryonic development (1953b, 1955b, 1966b, 1967d, 1971a, 1972, 1990) and historical and biographical approaches (1956d, 1973c, 1975b, 1975c, 1988).


Fig. 10. Some examples of the experimental work of F. Orts-Llorca and collaborators. (A) Experimental bicephalia after quail Hensen node transplant under the ectoblast of a chick embryo at the primitive streak stage of development (Orts-Llorca and Cuevas, 1974). (B) Development of a supplementary heart in the chick embryo, after a heterologous graft of the cardiogenic region labeled with H? thymidine in the celomic cavity (OrtsLlorca and Jiménez-Collado, 1969). (C) Wax plastic reconstruction of an experimental microphthalmia (M) produced after left vitelline vein section in a chick embryo, by the Born-Peter method (Orts-Llorca et al., 1959). C is the lens of the healthy eye. 1172 J. Aréchaga et al.


Among his numerous publications focused on specific developmental and teratological aspects of vertebrate organs and systems, both descriptive and experimental, we C can pointed out below those referring to heart and visual organs, although he also made significant contributions to the central nervous system and other organic systems.

In the publications about heart development, outlines in first place the description of an early stage of cardiac development, called since then p/ex/form phase, described by Orts-Llorca and collaborators (1960c) in three and four pairs of somites human embryos. This primitive cardiogenic area is organized as solid groups of mesenchymal cells, later hollowed and fused together in a cranial-caudal sequence (Fig. 11 A,B). Later on, this cell plexus would lead to a sole and medial myo-endocardic tube; a peculiarity that distinguishes man from other vertebrates like birds in which the first sign of heart development is the fusion of two independent myo-endocardic tubes in the middle line of the body. Other important descriptive papers are his contributions to the knowledge of the precise wall up of cardiac cavities and their embryonic evolution, the development of myocardium vascularization and innervations and the mechanistic interpretations of some human congenital malformations (1944b, 1951, 1952a, 1954a, 1959b, 1975d, 1976a, 1978a, 1979a, 1982a, 1982b, 1983b, 1986). From the experimental point of view, we should stressed the important research about the following subjects: a) the determination and regionalization (Fig. 11C) of the heart’s prospective area (1964b, 1967a, 1967b, 1967c, 1967g, 1968a, 1968b, 1969a, 1970a, 1970b, 1975a 1978c,); b) the developmental mechanisms of avian cardiac tube fusion (1964d); c) the determinant factors of embryonic cardiac polarity (1966a, 1967b) and cardiac tube curvatures (1967a, 1970a); d) the important discovery of the inductor role of endoderm in cardiac differentiation (1963a, 1963c, 1963d, 1963e, 1964e, 1965c) as well as the regulative function of neighbor structures, as the neural plate and its derivatives (1964c, 1965a, 1969b, 1974a); e) the cytological characteristics of the cardiac myocytes during their differentiation (1969c, 1973a). This approach also include some interesting reviews on the subject (1962a, 1962g, 1962i, 1970c).



Fig. 11. Illustrations from contributions to descriptive cardiac development by OrtsLlorca and collaborators. (A) Histological section of the cardiogenic area of a human embryo with 4 pairs of somites (Orts-Llorca et al., 1960). (B) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the same stage of cardiac development (Orts-Llorca, 1967). (C) Regionalization of the cardiac prospective area at Hamburger-Hamiltonstage stage 6 (Orts-Llorca, 1970).


Regarding the studies on the embryonic development and malformations of the sense organs, Orts-Llorca and his collaborators also stood up successfully in the study of the visual organs, both through descriptive and experimental approaches. Among them, we can mention the following: a) the experimental evidences of the early determination of optic vesicles after transplantation of them in ectopic places of the embryo and, also, about the inducer activity of pre-cordal mesoderm (1971c); b) the experimental production of cyclopia (1944a) and microphthalmy (1959a); c) the demonstration of the ocular and prosencephalon regeneration capacity after half removal of the neural plate (1969b); d) the experimental proof of the inhibitory action of the neural retina on the pigment epithelium (1960b) (Fig. 12); e) the independent development of some ocular annexes, like the proper eye musculature and the nasolacrimal ducts (1969b); f) the effect of removal of the Hensen node on the differentiation of the optic placode (1971c); g) detailed teratological descriptions, particularly of cyclopia (1952d, 1953a, 1955a, 1957b, 1964a, 1964f, 1983a), retina malformations (1960a) and h) some cell differentiation studies (1974d). Other minor contributions to the development of other sense organs are the demonstration of the inductive capacity of cephalic mesoderm on the olfactory placodes (1961b), vascularization of the inner ear (1932a, 1933d) the teratological description of a case of arhinencephalia with monorhinia at an early stage of development (1962e), studies on the differentiation of auditory placodes (1962b, 1965b) and a description of the early stages of the vestibular system (1976b) and ear bones development (1979b).

Different aspects of the development of the Skeletal System were of interest for Orts-Llorca and collaborators. For example, the origin, evolution and malformation of the backbone curvatures (1934c, 1957a) and the vertebral and head bones development (1941, 1946a, 1962d, 1969d, 1970d). Singular teratological descriptions (1950a) and the experimental productions of limb duplicities (1963f) were also of his interest. Nervous system morphogenesis was an aim in his research, especially in the last years of his academic life. In that sense, he dealt with the mechanism of primary induction (1974b, 1974c) and normal development of cerebellum (1977b), mamillary bodies (1977c), locus coeruleus and area postrema (1980c), spinal ganglia (1934b) as well some cytological and teratological studies and reviews (1937a, 1944c, 1948a, 1948c, 1949, 1950a, 1956c, 1974e). Finally, we can bring forward that Orts-Llorca is also the author of some minor descriptive and experimental works or reviews about the development of endocrine glands (1954b, 1958a), lung and related structures (1932c, 1933a, 1933b, 1933f), embryo vascularization (1932b, 1933c, 1933e, 1934a, 1936b, 1937b, 1959b), digestive system (1950b, 1952b) and gonadal organs (1952c)

We cannot close the study of Francisco Orts-Llorca’s academic contributions to Embryology and Teratology without highlighting, at least briefly, the great importance that his textbook "Anatomia Humana" (Human Anatomy) had in Spain and the Hispanic America (Orts-Llorca, 1944-1952; with five posterior editions in 1959, 1963, 1972, 1977 and 1981). The analysis in detail of this great work would deserve a monographic and deeply study, but, in synthesis, we can briefly say that it represented the incorporation of the innovative ideas in modern human anatomy, mainly on ontogenetic, comparative and physiological bases. This text can be considerer the Spanish adaptation of the integrating view of the biological human morphology (morphogenetic, structural and functional) intro Fig. 12. Experimentally induced pigment epithelium differentiation to neural retina, after physically avoiding cell contacts between both layers with a thin nylon thread in chick embryos. (R) Neural retina, (T) pigment epithelium, (n) nylon thread, (R?) experimentally induced néural retina differentiation in the pigment epithelium (OrtsLlorca and Genis-Galvez, 1960).


duced by the German anatomists Herman Braus (1867-1924) and his disciple Kurt Elze (1885-1972) in their well Known collaborative treaty Anafomie des Menschen (1920-1935) and by Alfred Benninghoff (1890-1953) inhis LeArbuch der Anatomie des Menschen (1938), but with numerous personal contributions, particularly related to embryological aspects. Thus, inthe Prologue Of its first edition, Orst-Llorca is very clear respect to this idea, and tells us:

El bidlogo debe considerar el cuerpo humano como un conjunto vivo y armonico... Esta orientacion biolégica de la Anatomia es ya antigua, y uno de sus principales propulsores fue BRAUS..Con ella se trata de destruir la tradicion, segun la cual el médico tiene de la Anatomia el recuerdo de una arida descripcion de detalles, que relaciona exclusivamente con el inerte cadaver, y de conseguir, por el contrario, que la considere como el consejero que le ayude a conservar la integridad anatOmicofuncional del organismo o a restablecerla si fue alterada... el médico debe ser hombre de Ciencia, extrayendo de la Embriologia descriptiva o experimental o de la Anatomia comparada aquellos conocimientos que contribuyen a esclarecer no pocas disposiciones anatomofisioldgicas de nuestro cuerpo... (7he biologist must consider the human body as aunt, harmonic and alive... This biological consideration of the Anatomy 1s not new, and one of its main promoters was BRAUS... This orientation intends to destroy old views, according to which medical doctors remember Anatomy as a ary description of details, which they exclusively relates to the corpse instead of consider It as the adviser who helps them to preserve the anatomic and functional integrity of the organism or to reestablish them in case they were altered... the medical doctors of today must be men of Science, extracting trom experimental or descriptive Embryology or trom comparative Anatomy all those pleces of knowledge which may contribute to clarity not few anatomic and physiological dispositions in our body).

A lot of generations of Spanish-speaking medical doctors have been trained with this important textbook of Anatomy, written by one of the brightest Spanish scientists and pedagogues (see also 1954c, 1959c, 1961a, 1973b, 1978b) of his time, in spite of the extraordinary and difficult sociopolitical, economic and war circumstances he had to live. All of us have had the good fortune to be trained by him, cherish a timeless memory of his inspirational teachings and support.

Biographic sources for Francisco Orts-Llorca (19051993)

Ebert J D (1960) YearBook 59 (1959-7960) Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology, Baltimore.

Gdmez-Santos M (1968) Francisco Orts-Llorca. In Cinco Grandes de la Ciencia Espanola, pp 157-182. Biblioteca Nueva.

Mendez D, Piqueras P M and Pérez-Llorca J (1974) Orts-Llorca: de la Anatomia a las raices de la vida. Brograma 1: 239- 274.

Orts-Llorca F (1947) Lista de titulos y méritos académicos. \mprenta Rimada. Cadiz.

Orts-Llorca F (1973) Nota necrolégica sobre el Profesor Pedro Ara (1891-1973). Archivos de la Facultad de Meaicina de Madrid 24: 248-251.

Orts-Llorca (1974) Curricu/um vitae. Facultad de Medicina de Madrid.

Osacar E, Roque-Suarez A, Orts-Llorca F and Ara P (1962) Acfo académico de 1174 J. Aréchaga et al.

entrega de /os titulos de “Doctor Honoris Causa” a /os eminentes profesores esparioles Doctores Don Francisco Orts Llorca y Don Pedro Ara. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cérdoba (Argentina).

Bibliography on Embryology and Teratology of Fran cisco Orts-Llorca, in chronological order (1932-1990) (Note: We do not use abbreviations for journal titles because today many of them have changed or disappeared)

Orts-Llorca F (1932a) Contribution al’étude de l’artére stapédienne chez |’embryon humain. Annales d Anatomie FPathologique et ad Anatomie Normale MeédicoChirurgicale 9: 684-686.

Orts-Llorca F (1932b) Lymphatiques des ganglions de la chaine sympathique chez le nouveau-ne. Annales dAnatomie Pathologique et d° Anatomie Normal Meéadtco-Chirurgicale 9: 818-820.

Orts-Llorca F (1932c) Les anomalies du poumon par défaut, absence partielle du poumon droit chez un nouveau-né humain. Annales d’“Anatomie Pathologique et d’ Anatomie Normal Médico-Chirurgicale 9: 820-825.

Orts-Llorca F (1933a) Quelques remarques a propos du developpement des arteres pulmonaires chez l’embryon humain. Arnales d Anatomie Pathologique et ad Anatomie Normale Médico-Chirurgicale 10: 935-936.

Orts-Llorca F (1933b) Contribuci6n al estudio de las hernias diafragmaticas congénitas. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropo/ogia 16:1-32.

Orts-Llorca F (1933c) Algunas consideraciones sobre los derivados de los dos primeros arcos viscerales en los distintos vertebrados. Cronica Médica 2: 631636.

Orts-Llorca F (1933d) L’artére stapédienne et la cause mécanique probable de son atrophie. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropologia 16:199-207.

Orts-Llorca F (1933e) Contribuci6n al estudio de los sextos arcos aorticos y de las arterias pulmonares. Gacela Médica Espariola 7: 650-654.

Orts-Llorca F (1933f) Ein seltener Fall von Hernia diaphragmatica beim Hunde. Anatomischer Anzeiger 76: 272-276.

Orts-Llorca F (1934a) Uber die Entwicklung der Arterienbogen beim Schweine. Zeltschritt fir Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichie 102: 335-347.

Orts-Llorca F (1934b) Uber die Entwicklung der caudalen Spinalganglien beim Menschen. Ze/tschrift fir Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 102: 462-480.

Orts-Llorca F.(1934c) Uber regelwidrige Verbindungen der chorda dorsalis mit dem Medularrohre bei jungen menschlichen Embryonen. Anatomischer Anzelger 81: 283-290.

Orts-Llorca F (1934d) Beschreibung eines menschlichen Embryo mit 4 Urwilbelpaaren. Zoologischer Anzeiger 103:765-792.

Orts-Llorca F (1936a) Patogenia de los gemelos y de ciertas monstruosidades que se observan en la especie humana Acfa Clinica 1: 123-131.

Orts-Llorca F (1936b). Persistencia de la aorta descendente derecha del embri6n. Contribuci6n al estudio del desarrollo de las aortas dorsales en el embridn humano. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropo/ogia 18: 71-90.

Orts-Llorca F (1937a) Le systeme nerveux d’un embryon humain pathologique du premier mois. Archives d'Anatomie, d'Histologre et d Embryologie normal et experimentales 24: 279-294.

Orts-Llorca F (1937b) El ductus toracicus y las vias linfaticas colaterales del torax en el Macacus Rhesus, con un estudio complementario sobre el desarrollo de estos vasos en el embriOn humano. Annales de /a Universidad de Valencia (Segunda 6p0ca) 3: 19-96.

Orts-Llorca F (1938) Sobre un embridn humano patolégico del primer mes. Fo/a Morphobrologica Hispanica 1: 21-36.

Orts-Llorca F (1941) Contribucién al estudio de las espinas bifidas basada en hechos de embriologia experimental. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropologia 21: 297-345.

Orts-Llorca F (1943) Erzeugung von Asymmetrien im Huhnerei durch Einwirkung von Testoviron. Wilhelm Roux Archives fir Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 142: 619-620.

Orts-Llorca F (1944a) Acci6n perturbadora del Testovir6n y las sales de litio sobre los primeros estadios del desarrollo en el embridn de pollo. Contribuci6n al estudio de las asimetrias de origen experimental. Archivo Espano/de Morfologia

4: 131-201.

Orts-Llorca F, Mari Martinez M (1944b). Contribuci6n al estudio del desarrollo de las arterias coronarias en el embriOn humano. Arguivo de Anatomia e Antropologla 23: 307-333.

Orts-Llorca F, Martinez-Rovira J L (1944c) La importancia de ciertos trastornos del desarrollo en la etiologia de la siringomielia. Revista Clinica Espariola 14: 218226.

Orts-Llorca F (1944-1952) Anatomia Humana. Textbook in four volumes with five posterior editions (1959, 1963, 1972, 1977 and 1981). Editorial CientificoMeédica.

Orts-Llorca F (1946a) Etiologia de la otocefalia. Archivo Espafo/ de Morfologia5: 283-299.

Orts-Llorca F (1946b) Génes/s de los Teratomas. Discurso leido en /a solemne apertura del curso académico 1946-47 en la Universidad de Sevilla. \mprenta Rimada.

Orts-Llorca F, Mari-Martinez M (1948a) Malformaci6n medular en un embri6én humano de 25 mm y su probable importancia en la etiopatogenia de la heredoataxia. Revista Clinica Espario/a 28: 40-44.

Orts-Llorca F (1948b) El Cortir6n como causa de asimetria en el embridn de pollo. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropologia 25: 281-294.

Orts-Llorca F, Martinez-Rovira J L (1948c) Variaciédn del prosencéfalo de un embrion humano de 4 mm. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropologia 26:115-122.

Orts-Llorca, F. (1948d) Evocaci6on de placa y canal neural en el blastodermo de pollo por medio del testiculo humano muerto por ebullicion y desecado. Revista Espanola de Oto-neuro-oftalmologia y Neurocirugi/a 40: 1-11.

Orts-Llorca F and Mari-Martinez M (1949) Malformacion del mesencéfalo (Apertura dorsalis mesencephali) en un embrion humano de 25 mm. Archives Fortugalses des Sciences Biologiques 10: 9-18.

Orts-Llorca F, Mari-Martinez M, Lopez-Rodriguez A (1950a) Simelia y diastematomielia en un embrion de 15 mm. Arquivo de Anatomia e Antropo/ogia 27:107-118.

Orts-Llorca F, Duenas-Barrios A (1950b). Ulcus duodenal y pancreas anular. Revista Clinica Espariola 36:407-409.

Orts-Llorca, F, Lopez-Rodriguez, A (1951) La fermeture du foramen subseptale du coeur chez|l’embryon humain. Co/nples Rendus de /Association des Anatomistes (Nancy) 38: 774-776.

Orts-Llorca F, Mari-Martinez M (1952a) Contribucién al estudio del desarrollo del corazon hasta el final del periodo somitico. Medicina Clinica 18: 102-110.

Orts-Llorca F (1952b). El diverticulo gastrico yuxtacardial. Cirugia, Ginecologia y Urologia 3: 181-190.

Orts-Llorca F (1952c) El desarrollo del testiculo y la determinacion sexual. C/rug/a Ginecologia y Urologia 3: 264-275.

Orts-Llorca F (1952d) Embri6n humano ciclope de 25 mm. Contribuci6n al estudio de la ciclopia. Archivo Espario/ de Morfologia9 Supp IV: 1-64.

Orts-Llorca F and Genis-Galvez J M (1953a) Vergleich der KerngréBen der Netzhautzellen eines cyclopischen menschlichen Embryo von 22 mm und eines normalen des gleichen Entwicklungsstadiums. Ze/fschrift fur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 117: 70-72.

Orts-Llorca, F (1953b) Organizadores, genes y hormonas en las primeras fases del desarrollo. Generalidades. Archivo Espano/ de Morfologia 10:193-205.

Orts-Llorca, F (1954a) Primer caso de atresia tricuspidea en un embri6n humano de 16,5 mm. Aevista Espafiola de Cardiologia 8: 81-110.

Orts-Llorca F (1954b) Hipdfisis y suprarrenales en el periodo prenatal. Gazefa Medica Portuguesa 7: 215-220.

Orts-Llorca F (1954c) Anatomia funcional y fisiologia del desarrollo. Rev/sta de /a Universidad de Madrid3: 147-173.

Orts-Llorca F (1955a) L’encéphale et I’ ceil chez deux embryons humains cyclopes de 35 et 47 jours respectivement. Acta Anatomica (Basel) 23: 379-385.

Orts-Llorca F (1955b) Pigomelie (parasitischer Pygopagus) bei einen 26 Tage alten Madchen. Ze/tschrift fur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 118: 417-426.

Orts-Llorca F and Genis J M (1956a) L’action de la Hyaluronidase sur le développement embryonaire du poulet. Acta Anatomica (Basel) 28: 287-302.

Orts-Llorca F (1956b) La Fisiologia del Desarrollo y su importancia en Biolog?a. Monografias Médicas Alhambra. Editorial Alhambra, SA.

Orts-Llorca F (1956c) Introducci6n embrioldgica del tubo neural. In Sindromes neurologicos en las malformaciones del estuche craneo-vertebral (Eds. S. Obrador and P. Albert) Editorial Paz Montalvo.

Orts-Llorca F (1956d) Los maestros desaparecidos: al Prof. Celestino da Costa. Boletim do Instituto de Patologia Méaica de Lisboa, 11: 75-76.

Orts-Llorca F y Lopez Rodriguez A (1957a) La curva dorsal en los embriones humanos del periodo somitico. Cirug/a, Ginecologia y Urologia 11: 1-6.

Orts-Llorca F (1957b) Der Nervus opticus (fasciculus opticus) und Fissura choroidea bei Zyclopie. Acta Anatomica (Base!) 30: 565-574.

Orts-Llorca F, Genis Galvez J M (1958a) On the morphology of the primordium of the thyroid gland in the human embryo. Acfa Anatomica (Basel) 33: 110-121.

Orts-Llorca F, Recasens E (1958b) Un cas de diplogénése postérieure incomplete chez une femme adulte. Acta Anatomica (Basel) 35: 179-192.

Orts-Llorca, F (1958c) Embri6n humano de 14 pares de somitos. Cirug/a, Ginecologia VY Urologia 12: 226-232.

Orts-Llorca F, Genis-Galvez J M, Ruano-Gil, D. (1959a) Malformations encéphaliques et microphtalmie gauche aprés la section des vaisseaux vitellins gauches chez l‘embryon de poulet. Acta Anatomica (Base/) 38: 1-34.

Orts Llorca F, Lopez Rodriguez A (1959b) Interrupcion de la aorta, ausencia de la vena cava caudal con multiples malformaciones cardiacas en un embrion humano de 22 mm. Archivo Espariol de Morfologia 16: 103-125.

Orts-Llorca F (1959c) La Biologia Humana y la experimentaciOn pedagédgica. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Zaragoza 7:1075-1087.

Orts-Llorca F, Genis-Galvez J M (1960a) Pliegues congénitos de la retina, Retinal Septa o Ablatio falciformis retina. Mecanismo patogénico. Archivos de /a Sociedad Oftalmologica Hispano-Americana 20: 91-110.

Orts-Llorca F, Genis-Galvez J M (1960b) Experimental production of retinal septa in the chick embryo. Diferentiation of pigment epithelium into neural retina. Acfa Anatomica (Basel) 42: 31-70.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J, Ruano-Gil D (1960c) La fase plexiforme del desarrollo cardiaco en el hombre. Embriones de 21+/-1 dia. Anales de/ Desarrolo 8: 79-98.

Orts-Llorca F. (1961a) La ensefanza de las disciplinas basicas en las Facultades de Medicina. Meadicamenta 364: 3-8.

Orts-Llorca F, Murillo-Ferrol N (1961b) Determination und Differenzierung der Riechplakoden beim Huthnerembryo. Wi/he/m Roux Archives fur Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 153: 434-442.

Orts Llorca F (1962a). Un momento decisivo en nuestro devenir bioldgico. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 1: 181-186.

Orts-Llorca F (1962b) La determinacion y diferenciacion de la vesicula auditiva. Revista Espariola de Oto-Neuro-Oftalmologia y Neurocirugla, 119:1-7.

Orts-Llorca F (1962c) Injertos cardiacos en el embri6n de pollo. Nota previa. Archivos de la Facultad de Meaticina de Madrid 1: 72-77.

Orts-Llorca F, Ruano-Gil D, Jiménez-Collado J (1962d) Malformaciones de la parte caudal de la columna vertebral. Mecanismo patogenético. Observaci6n en un embrion de 17,25 mm. Ana/es de/ Desarrollo 10: 337-347.

Orts-Llorca F, Ruano-Gil D, Quero-Morente M (1962e) Un caso de cor triatriatum. Persistencia del seno pulmonar. Ara/es de/ Desarrollo 10: 349-355.

Orts-Llorca F, Ruano-Gil D, Jiménez-Collado J (1962f) Malformaciones en un embrion humano de 17,25 mm. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 2: 75-91.

Orts-Llorca F (1962g) Morfogénesis del corazén. Aevista de /a Facultad de Ciencias Médicas (Cordoba, Argentina) 4: 20-37.

Orts-Llorca F Jiménez-Collado J, Ruano-Gil D (1962h) Arrinencefalia con monorrinia en un embri6n humano de 17,25 mm. Ana/es de/ Desarrollo 10: 529-537.

Orts-Llorca F (1962i). Morfogénesis cardiaca. Analisis causal. Boletinde la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires 40: 227-228.

Orts-Llorca F (1963a). Influencia del endodermo sobre la diferenciaci6n cardiaca en los estadios precoces del desarrollo en el embri6n de pollo. Archivos de /a Facultad de Meaicina de Madrid 3: 407-413.

Orts-Llorca F (1963b). Malformaciones congénitas: etiologia y mecanismo patogénico de las anormogénesis. Cirug/a, Ginecolog/a y Urolog/a17:139-173.

Orts-Llorca F (1963c) Analisis experimental del factor endodérmico en la determinacion y diferenciacion cardiaca del embriOn de pollo. Ana/es de/

Desarrolo 11: 3-17.

Orts-Llorca F (1963d) Influence of the endoderm on heart differentiation during the early stages of development of the chicken embryo. Wi/he/m Roux Archives fur Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 154: 533-551.

Orts-Llorca F (1963e) Influence de |l’entoblaste dans la morphogenése et la différenciation tardive du coeur du poulet. Acfa Anatomica (Basel)52: 202-214.

Orts-Llorca F, Murillo-Ferrol N (1963f). Duplicites experimentales des membres chez l’embryon de poulet. Comptes Rendus de /Association des Anatomistes 122: 294-303.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1964a) Dos embriones humanos con ciclopia completa. Cristalino Unico. Archivos de /a Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 5: 207-211.

Orts-Llorca F, Gonzalez-Santander R (1964b). Modelo de un corazon de embrién de pollo injertado en la cavidad celoOmica de un huésped. Archivos de /a Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 5: 211-215.

Orts-Llorca F (1964c) Influence of the ectoderm on heart differentiation and placement in the chicken embryo. Wi/he/m Roux Archives fir Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 155: 162-180.

Orts-Llorca F (1964d) What are the factors which lead to the fusion of the two heart primordia? An experimental analysis. Wi/he/m Roux Archives fir Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 155: 437-450.

Orts-Llorca F (1964e) Les facteurs déterminants de la morphogenése et de la differenciation cardiaque. Comptes rendus de l‘Association des Anatomistes 123: 123-126.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1964f) El volumen nuclear en la ciclopia humana. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 6: 299-304.

Orts-Llorca F (1965a) Does the nervous system posses any influence on heart determination and differentiation? Acfa Anatomica (Basel) 60: 107-121.

Orts-Llorca F, Murillo-Ferrol N L (1965b) Action of the rhombencephalon on the differentiation of the auditive placodes. Chronology of its influence. Wi/he/m Roux Archives fir Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 156: 363-367.

Orts Llorca F, Ruano-Gil D (1965c) Influence of the endoderm on heart differentiation. Wilhelm Roux Archives fur Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 156: 368-370.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1966a) Determinacion de la polaridad cardiaca en el embrion de pollo. Archivos de /a Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 10: 121126.

Orts-Llorca F (1966b) Embriologia de la piel. In Dermato/ogia (Ed, J Gay-Prieto) Editorial Cientifico-Médica.

Orts Llorca F, Ruano-Gil D (1967a) A causal analysis of the heart curvatures in the chicken embryo. Wilhelm Roux Archives fir Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 158: 52-63.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1967b) Determination of heart polarity (arteriovenous axis) in the chicken embryo. Wi/he/m Roux Archives fur Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 158: 147-163.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1967c) Potencial morfogenético y organizaci6n regional del area cardiaca en el embrion de pollo. Ana/es de/ Desarrollo 14: 313.

Orts-Llorca F (1967d) El proceso de la diferenciaci6n y su importancia en Biologia. Archivos de la Facultad de Meaicina de Madrid 11: 347-370.

Orts-Llorca F (1967e) Citodiferenciaci6n cardiaca, miofibrillas. Nota previa. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 11: 373-374.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1967f) La técnica de isdtopos radioactivos en Embriologia. Archivos de /a Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 12: 387-394.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1967g) Organisation régionale de | aire cardiaque chez l°embryon de poulet. Bu//etin de /’ Association des Anatormistes (Nancy) 139: 952-955.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado, J (1968a) A radioautographic analysis of the prospective cardiac area in the chick blastoderm by means of labeled grafts. Wilhelm Roux Archives fir Entwicklungsgmechanik der Organismen 160: 298312.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1968b) Evolucién de los injertos heterdlogos marcados con tymidina tritiada en el area cardiaca del blastodisco del pollo. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 14: 395-397. 1176 J. Aréchaga et al.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1969a) The development of heterologous grafts, labeled with thymidine-3H in the cardiac area of the chick blastoderm. Deve/opmental Biology 19: 213-227.

Orts-Llorca F, Navarrina-Gamez F (1969b) Regularizacion, diferencias y efectos de las hemiextirpaciones del esbozo encefalico en las aves en estadios 5, 8, 10, 11 y 13 de Hamburger y Hamilton. Revista Medica de Galicia 7: 395-406.

Orts Llorca F, Gonzalez-Santander R (1969c) Estudio electromicroscépico de la primera aparicion y desarrollo de los miofilamentos cardiacos (miofibrillogenesis) en el embridn de pollo. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia 22:537-568.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1969d) Morfogénesis de la b6veda palatina. Sus malformaciones. Archivos de /a Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 15: 213-228.

Orts-Llorca F, Ruano-Gil D (1970a) Curvature of the heart: its first appearance and determination. Acfa Anatomica (Basel) 77: 454-468.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1970b) The development of heterologous graft of cardiac area (labeled with tymidine-3H) to the caudal area of the chick blastoderm. Archives d’Anatomie, Histologie et Embryologie normal et experimentales 53: 113-124.

Orts-Llorca F (1970c) Desarrollo del corazon. In BS/o/ogia del Desarrollo. Fundamentos de Embrio/og/a (Ed, José M Genis-Galvez). Editorial Espaxs.

Orts-Llorca F. (1970d) Embriologia de la columna vertebral. In Semana sobre /a columna vertebral. Publicaciones Liade.

Orts-Llorca F (1970e) La nicotina y las malformaciones congénitas. In Co/oquio sobre tabaco y nicotina. Editorial Otero.

Orts-Llorca F (1971a) La interacci6n epitelio-mesenquimal, proceso fundamental en la morfogénesis y diferenciaciOn de los Organos. In L/bro Homenaje a/ Profesor B. Lorenzo Velazquez. Editorial Otero.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1971b) Desarrollo y diferenciacidn de los injertos de esbozos de miembro de la codorniz al embridn de pollo. Caracteres nucleolares de las células de la codorniz (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica). Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 20: 61-74.

Orts-Llorca F, Jiménez-Collado J (1971c) Regulation of the embryo after the extirpation of Hensen’s node. Consequences on the differentiation of the otic placode. Archives d Anatomie, Histologie et Embryologie normales et exoerimentales 54: 1-12.

Orts-Llorca F (1972) Un ejemplo de la importancia del microambiente en Biologia. In Libro Homenge a Aranguren. Ediciones Revista de Occidente.

Orts-Llorca F (1973a) Propiedad inductora del nudo primitivo de la codorniz (Coturnix coturnix japonica) en el blastocisto del pollo (Gallus gallus). Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 24: 55-58.

Orts-Llorca F (1973b) La moderna instituci6n en Ciencias Morfolégicas. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 24: 349-357.

Orts Llorca F, Murillo-Ferrol N (1974a). Action inhibitrice des cellules de |’ébauche neurale préesomptive sur les cellules a potentialite cardiaque. Bulletin de / Association des Anatomistes (Nancy) 58: 1153.

Cuevas P, Orts-Llorca F (1974b) Induction primaire chez le jeune blastoderm de poulet (Gallus gallus) par la greffe du noeud de Hensen de caille (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Acfa Anatomica (Basel) 89: 423-430.

Cuevas P, Orts-Llorca F (1974c) Induction properties of fragments of Hensen ‘s node. Archivos de Neurobiologla (Madrid) 37: 331-336.

Cuevas P, Orts-Llorca F (1974d). Hallazgos personales sobre la estructura de las células cristalinianas del embrion de Golondrina (Hirundo rustica). Archivos de /a Facultad de Medicina de Madrid 25: 49-51.

Cuevas P, Orts-Llorca F (1974e).Ultraestructura del nucleo de neuroblastos encefalicos del embrion de golondrina (Hirundo rustica). Ana@/es de/ Desarrollo 18: 51-52.

Domenech Mateu J M, Orts-Llorca F (1974f) Action de la l-asparaginase sur l’'embryon de poulet (Gallus domesticus). Su//etin de / Association des Anatomistes (Nancy) 58:163-172.

Orts-Llorca F, Cuevas P, Lemus D (1975a) Evolution de la greffe homotypique de l’aire cardiaque presomptive de caille chez le poulet. Bu//etin de /’ Association des Anatomistes (Nancy) 59: 719-724.

Orts-Llorca F (1975b) El descubrimiento del huevo de los mamiferos y sus principales caracteristicas estructurales. In Lioro Homenaje al Profesor Vara Lopez. Editorial Sever-Cuesta.

Orts-Llorca F. (1975c) La Embriologia actual a partir de 1914. In Aistoria Universal

de la Medicina, Vol 7 (Ed, Pedro Lain-Entralgo). Editorial Salvat.

Domeénech-Mateu J M, Orts-Llorca F (1975d) Origen insdlito de la arteria del nodo sino-atrial a partir de la arteria circunfleja auricular izquierda. — Revista Espano/a de Cardiologia 28: 357-360.

Doménech-Mateu J M, Orts-Llorca F (1976a) Arterial vascularization of the sinuatrial node in the embryonic rat heart. Acta Anatomica (Basel) 94: 343-355.

Guijarro de Pablos J E, Orts Llorca F, Ribes-Blanquer R (1976b) New evidences on the first appearances of the semicircular duct, cristae and cupulae in human embryos. Aeproduccion 3:67-72.

Orts-Llorca, F. (1977a) Morphogenesis of the cerebellum. A/ra/es de /a Real Academia Nacional de Medicina (Madrid) 94:329-343.

Orts-Llorca F, Puerta-Fonolla A J, Acin-Garcia F (1977b) Morfogénesis de los tubérculos mamilares (corpora mamillaria). Archivos de Neurobiologia (Maarid) 40: 139-164.

Puerta-Fonolla A J, Orts-Llorca F (1978a) Origine et développement du septum primum. Acta Anatomica (Basel) 100: 250-257.

Orts-Llorca F (1978b) Ensenanza de la Embriologia y Teratologia. Archivos de /a Facultad de Meaicina de Madrid 34: 9-15.

Orts-Llorca F (1978c) Study of the fundamental properties of the cells of the cardiac rudiment. Analysis by means of cellular disaggregation and aggregation. In Medical and Biological Papers. Fundacion Rodriguez Pascual.

Orts-Llorca F, Doménech-Mateu J M, Puerta-Fonolla A J (1979a) Inervation of the sinu-atrial node and neighbouring regions in two human embryos. Journa/ of Anatomy 128: 365-375.

Paomar V M, Puerta-Fonolla A J, Orts-Llorca, F. (1979b) Morfogénesis del estribo. Acta Otorrinolaringica Experimental30: 133-142.

Orts Llorca F (1979c) Lainduccion en las aves. El Testoviron, un poderoso inductor. Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina (Madrid), 96: 31-52.

Orts-Llorca F, Puerta-Fonolla A J, Sobrado-Pérez J (1980a) The morphogenesis of the ventricular flow pathways in man. Archives d Anatomie, Histologie et Embryologre normales et expérimentales 63: 5-15.

Orts-Llorca F, Doménech-Mateu J M (1980b) Testoviron is a potent inducer of chick blastoderm. Acta Anatomica (Base/) 106: 415-423.

Orts-Llorca F, Domenech-Mateu J M (1980c) Uber induction von Neuralplatten durch Implantation von Testoviron in der Keimscheibe des Huthnchens. Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft 74: 359.

Orts-Llorca F (1980d) Dos estructuras microscopicas del cerebro posterior: locus coeruleus y area postrema. Ana/es de /a Real Academia Nacional de Medicina (Madrid) 97: 37-51.

Orts-Llorca F, Puerta-Fonolla A J, Sobrado-Pérez J (1981a), Morphogenesis of the ventricular flow pathways in man (Bulbus Cordis and Truncus Arteriosus). In Perspectives in Cardiovascular Research, Vol 5: “Mechanism of Cardiac Morphogenesis and Teratogenesis”(Ed, T Pexieder). Raven Press.

Orts-Llorca F (1981b) La somitogenése chez |’embryon humain: apparition des myotomes. Bulletin de |’ Association des Anatomistes (Nancy) 65: 467-482.

Orts-Llorca F, Puerta-Fonolla A J, Sobrado J (1982a) The formation, septation and fate of the truncus arteriosus in man. Journa/ of Anatomy 134: 41-56.

Orts-Llorca F (1982b) Transposition of the great arteries or ventriculo-arterial discordance ina 19 mm human embryo. Av/a/es de /a Real Academia Nacional de Meaicina (Madrid) 99: 343-356.

Ruano-Gil D, Orts-Llorca F, G6tzens V J, Berastegui C (1983a) A cyclopian human embryo of 12 mm with single crystalline lens. Archivio Ialiano d’Anatomia ed Embriologia 88:311-321.

Orts-Llorca F, Domenech-Mateu J M, Puerta-Fonolla A (1983b), Trasposici6n tipica completa de las grandes arterias (TGA) en un embriOn humano de 19 mm: una nueva teoria sobre su embriogénesis. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia 36: 81-88.

Orts-Llorca F (1984) Embriones y fetos hurmanos de diversas Universidades esparo/as. Editorial Universidad Complutense.

Orts-Llorca F (1985) Los monstruos bicéfalos (diplogénesis anterior). Perspectivas de supervivencia. Ana/es de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina (Madrid) 102: 431-444.

Orts-Llorca F, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Puerta-Fonolla A J, Diaz-Gonzalez J L (1986) Comunicaci6n entre atrium dextrum y ventriculus sinister: Explicacion embriolégica. Aevista Espanola de Cardiologia, 39, Supp 1: 3-11.

Orts-Llorca F (1988) El factor neural del desarrollo (NGF) y la historia de su descubrimiento. Ana/es de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina (Madrid) 105: 483-488.

Orts Llorca F (1990). Cosmo somos antes de nacer. Editorial Doyma, S A, Barcelona.

Acknowleagements

We would like to express our deep appreciation to the help given to us by Dr Donald Brown, from the Department of Embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington /n Baltimore (USA), by Dr Stefan Nonchev from the University of Grenoble (France), by Dr M* Concepcion MartinezAlvarez trom the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain) and, particularly, to Mrs Ana Alvarez-Castrosin, trom the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the Complutense University Medical School of Madrid (Spain), former secretary and collaborator of professor Francisco OrtsLilorca during many years. Mrs Anne-Marie Chalmanadrer, trom the Service de Documentation de la Bibliotheque de la Faculté de Médicine de Nancy (France), Mrs Elvira Gimeno-Sieres from the \nstituto de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia LOopez-Pinhero (University of Valencia-CSIC, Valecia, Spain), Ars Rosario Garcia, Librarian of the University of Valencia Medical School (Spain), Mrs M? Angeles Langa, Librarian of the Cajal Intitute, CSIC of Madrid (Spain), Mrs Sonsoles Celestino-Angulo, Librarian of the University of Seville (Soain) and Mr Antonio Sanchez, Librarian of the Hemerotheca of University Hospital of San Cecilio of Granada (Spain) have helo to us a lot to complete the bibliography of Prof. Orts-Liorca. This work has been supported by a Grant of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (BFU200766670) and a Research Group Grant of the University of the Basque Country (GlU08/04) to JA.

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Formerly ANALES DEL DESARROLLO ANNALS OF DEVELOPMENT