Talk:Musculoskeletal System Development

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Muscle Abnormalities

Clinical heterogeneity of duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): definition of sub-phenotypes and predictive criteria by long-term follow-up. Desguerre I, Christov C, Mayer M, Zeller R, Becane HM, Bastuji-Garin S, Leturcq F, Chiron C, Chelly J, Gherardi RK. PLoS One. 2009;4(2):e4347. Epub 2009 Feb 5. PMID: 19194511 | PLoS

DMD can be divided into 4 sub-phenotypes differing by severity of muscle and brain dysfunction. Simple early criteria can be used to include patients with similar outcomes in future therapeutic trials.

  1. A (early infantile DMD, 20%): severe intellectual and motor outcomes
  2. B (classical DMD, 28%): intermediate intellectual and poor motor outcome
  3. C (moderate pure motor DMD, 22%): normal intelligence and delayed motor impairment
  4. D (severe pure motor DMD, 30%)