Talk:Musculoskeletal System - Axial Skeleton Development
Altered axial skeletal development
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Dec;80(6):451-72.
Tyl RW, Chernoff N, Rogers JM. Center for Life Sciences and Toxicology, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2194, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract The axial skeleton is routinely examined in standard developmental toxicity bioassays and has proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of chemical agents. Dysmorphogenesis in the skull, vertebral column and ribs has been described in both human populations and in laboratory animals used to assess potential adverse developmental effects. This article emphasizes vertebrae and rib anomalies both spontaneous and agent induced. Topics discussed include the morphology of the more common effects; incidences in both human and experimental animal populations; the types of anomalies induced in the axial skeleton by methanol, boric acid, valproic acid and others; the postnatal persistence of common skeletal anomalies; and the genetic control of the development of the axial skeleton. Tables of the spontaneous incidence of axial anomalies in both humans and animals are provided.