Talk:Human System Development

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--Mark Hill 18:48, 27 August 2011 (EST) Add Connective Tissue Development

Adult Human Distinct Cell Types

MBoC - There are about 210 known distinct human cell types.

Integumentary system

  • Keratinizing epithelial cells
  • Epidermal keratinocyte (differentiating epidermal cell) Epidermal basal cell (stem cell) Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails Nail bed basal cell (stem cell)

Medullary hair shaft cell

Cortical hair shaft cell Cuticular hair shaft cell Cuticular hair root sheath cell Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer External hair root sheath cell Hair matrix cell (stem cell)

Wet stratified barrier epithelial cells Surface epithelial cell of stratified squamous epithelium of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina basal cell (stem cell) of epithelia of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina Urinary epithelium cell (lining urinary bladder and urinary ducts)

Exocrine secretory epithelial cells

  • Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
  • Salivary gland serous cell (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
  • Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
  • Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
  • Ceruminous gland cell in ear (wax secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
  • Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
  • Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
  • Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
  • Bowman's gland cell in nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
  • Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming sperm)
  • Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
  • Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
  • Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
  • Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
  • Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
  • Isolated goblet cell of respiratory and digestive tracts (mucus secretion) Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
  • Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
  • Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion)
  • Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
  • Type II pneumocyte of lung (surfactant secretion) Clara cell of lung


Hormone secreting cells

  • Anterior pituitary cells Somatotropes
  • Lactotropes
  • Thyrotropes Gonadotropes Corticotropes
  • Intermediate pituitary cell, secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
  • secreting oxytocin
  • secreting vasopressin Gut and respiratory tract cells
  • secreting serotonin secreting endorphin secreting somatostatin secreting gastrin secreting secretin secreting cholecystokinin secreting insulin secreting glucagon secreting bombesin
  • Thyroid gland cells thyroid epithelial cell
  • parafollicular cell Parathyroid gland cells
  • Parathyroid chief cell
  • Oxyphil cell Adrenal gland cells
  • chromaffin cells
  • secreting steroid hormones (mineralcorticoids and gluco corticoids) Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting oestrogen
  • Corpus luteum cell of ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
  • Granulosa lutein cells
  • Theca lutein cells
  • Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
  • Macula densa cell of kidney
  • Peripolar cell of kidney
  • Mesangial cell of kidney

Metabolism and storage cells

  • Hepatocyte (liver cell) White fat cell Brown fat cell Liver lipocyte

Barrier function cells (Lung, Gut, Exocrine Glands and Urogenital Tract)

Kidney

  • Kidney glomerulus parietal cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Kidney collecting duct cell

Other

  • Type I pneumocyte (lining air space of lung)
  • Pancreatic duct cell (centroacinar cell)
  • Nonstriated duct cell (of sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, etc.)
  • principal cell
  • Intercalated cell Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.)
  • Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Gall bladder epithelial cell
  • Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell
  • Epididymal principal cell
  • Epididymal basal cell

Epithelial cells lining closed internal body cavities

  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial fenestrated cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial continuous cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial splenic cell
  • Synovial cell (lining joint cavities, hyaluronic acid secretion)

Serosal cell (lining peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities) Squamous cell (lining perilymphatic space of ear) Squamous cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac with microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac without microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Dark cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Vestibular membrane cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Stria vascularis basal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Stria vascularis marginal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Cell of Claudius (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Cell of Boettcher (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Choroid plexus cell (cerebrospinal fluid secretion) Pia-arachnoid squamous cell Pigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye Nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye Corneal endothelial cell


Ciliated cells with propulsive function

  • Respiratory tract ciliated cell
  • Oviduct ciliated cell (in female)
  • Uterine endometrial ciliated cell (in female)
  • Rete testis ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ductulus efferens ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ciliated ependymal cell of central nervous system (lining brain cavities)


Extracellular matrix secretion cells

  • Ameloblast epithelial cell (tooth enamel secretion)
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (proteoglycan secretion)
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Corneal fibroblasts
  • Tendon fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Pericyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte (tooth root bonelike cementum secretion)
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte (tooth dentin secretion)
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Osteoprogenitor cell (stem cell of osteoblasts)
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear


Contractile cells

  • Skeletal muscle cells
  • Red skeletal muscle cell (slow)
  • White skeletal muscle cell (fast)
  • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle
  • Satellite cell (stem cell)
  • Heart muscle cells
  • Ordinary heart muscle cell
  • Nodal heart muscle cell
  • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Smooth muscle cell (various types)
  • Myoepithelial cell of iris
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands


Blood and immune system cells

  • Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
  • Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
  • Monocyte Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Osteoclast (in bone)
  • Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
  • Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Mast cell Helper
  • T cell Suppressor
  • T cell Cytotoxic
  • T cell Natural
  • Killer T cell
  • B cell
  • Natural killer cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Stem cells and committed progenitors for the blood and immune system (various types)


Nervous system Sensory transducer cells

  • Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Basal cell of olfactory epithelium (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis (touch sensor)
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye:
  • Photoreceptor rod cells
  • Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Type I carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type II carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type I hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type I taste bud cell

Autonomic neuron cells

  • Cholinergic neural cell (various types)
  • Adrenergic neural cell (various types)
  • Peptidergic neural cell (various types)

Sense organ and peripheral neuron supporting cells

  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Type I taste bud supporting cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell Schwann cell
  • Satellite cell (encapsulating peripheral nerve cell bodies)
  • Enteric glial cell

Central nervous system neurons and glial cells

  • Neuron cells (large variety of types, still poorly classified)
  • Spindle neuron
  • Astrocyte (various types)
  • Oligodendrocyte

Lens cells

  • Anterior lens epithelial cell
  • Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell


Pigment cells

  • Melanocyte Retinal pigmented epithelial cell


Germ cells

  • Oogonium/Oocyte
  • Spermatid Spermatocyte Spermatogonium cell (stem cell for spermatocyte) Spermatozoon


Nurse cells

  • Ovarian follicle cell Sertoli cell (in testis) Thymus epithelial cell

Interstitial cells

  • Interstitial kidney cells


Wiki Cell Types

Cells that are derived primarily from endoderm

Exocrine secretory epithelial cells

  • Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
  • Salivary gland number 1 (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
  • Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
  • Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
  • Ceruminous glands|Ceruminous gland cell in ear (earwax secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat glands|Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat glands|Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
  • Apocrine sweat glands|Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
  • Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
  • Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
  • Bowman's gland cell in human nose|nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
  • Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming Spermatozoon|sperm)
  • Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
  • Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
  • Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
  • Urethral gland|Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
  • Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
  • Insolated goblet cell of respiratory tract|respiratory and Gastrointestinal tract|digestive tracts (mucus secretion)
  • Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
  • Gastric chief cell|Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
  • Parietal cell - Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion
  • Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
  • Type II pneumocyte of human lung (surfactant secretion)
  • Club cell of lung

Hormone-secreting cells

  • Anterior pituitary cells
    • Somatotropes
    • Lactotropes
    • Thyrotropes
    • Gonadotropes
    • Corticotropes
  • Intermediate pituitary cell, secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
    • nonsecreting oxytocin
    • secreting vasopressin
  • Gut and respiratory tract cells
    • secreting serotonin
    • secreting endorphin
    • secreting somatostatin
    • secreting gastrin
    • secreting secretin
    • nonsecreting cholecystokinin
    • secreting insulin
    • secreting glucagon
    • nonsecreting bombesin
  • Thyroid gland cells
    • Thyroid epithelial cell
    • Parafollicular cell
  • Parathyroid gland cells
    • Parathyroid chief cell
    • Oxyphil cell (parathyroid)|Oxyphil cell
  • Adrenal gland cells
    • Chromaffin cells
    • secreting steroid hormones (mineralocorticoids and gluco corticoids)
  • Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone
  • Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting estrogen
  • Corpus luteum cell of ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
    • Granulosa lutein cells
    • Theca lutein cells
  • Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
  • Macula densa cell of kidney
  • Peripolar cell of kidney
  • Mesangial cell of kidney
  • Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
    • Alpha cells (secreting glucagon)
    • Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin)
    • Delta cells (secreting somatostatin)
    • PP cells (gamma cells) (secreting pancreatic polypeptide)
    • Epsilon cells (secreting ghrelin)

Derived primarily from ectoderm

Integumentary system

Keratinizing epithelial cells

  • Epidermal keratinocyte (differentiating Epidermis (skin)|epidermal cell)
  • Epidermal basal cell (stem cell)
  • Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
  • Nail bed basal cell (stem cell)
  • Medullary hair shaft cell
  • Cortical hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair root sheath cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
  • Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer
  • External hair root sheath cell
  • Hair matrix cell (stem cell)

Wet stratified barrier epithelial cells

  • Surface epithelial cell of stratified squamous epithelium of cornea, tongue, human oral cavity|oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • basal cell (stem cell) of epithelia of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • Urinary epithelium cell (lining urinary bladder and urinary ducts)

Nervous system

There are nerve cells, also known as neurons, present in our human body. They are branched out. These cells make up nervous tissue. A neuron consists of a cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm, from which long thin hair-like parts arise.

Sensory transducer cells

  • Hair cell|Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Hair cell|Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Basal cell of olfactory epithelium (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis (touch sensor)
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Photoreceptor cells of retina in human eye|eye:
    • Photoreceptor rod cells
    • Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Type I carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type II carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type I hair cell of vestibular system of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular system of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type I taste bud|taste bud cell

Autonomic neuron cells

  • Cholinergic neural cell (various types)
  • Adrenergic neural cell (various types)
  • Peptidergic neural cell (various types)

Sense organ and peripheral neuron supporting cells

  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Taste bud supporting cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell
  • Schwann cell
  • Satellite glial cell (encapsulating peripheral nerve cell bodies)
  • Enteric glial cell

Central nervous system neurons and glial cells

  • Neuron cells (large variety of types, still poorly classified)
    • Interneurons
      • Basket cells
      • Stellate cells
      • Golgi cells
      • Granule cells
      • Lugaro cells
      • Unipolar brush cells
      • Martinotti cells
      • Chandelier cells
      • Medium spiny neurons
      • Cajal–Retzius cells
      • Double-bouquet cells
      • Neurogliaform cells
      • Spinal interneuron
        • Renshaw cells
    • Principal cells
      • Spindle neuron
      • Pyramidal cells
        • Place cells
        • Grid cells
        • Speed cells
        • Head direction cells
        • Betz cells
      • Stellate cells
        • Boundary cells
  • Astrocyte (various types)
  • Oligodendrocyte
  • Ependymal cells
    • Tanycytes

Lens cells

  • Anterior lens epithelial cell
  • Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell

Derived primarily from mesoderm

Metabolism and storage cells

  • Adipocytes:
    • White adipose tissue|White fat cell
    • Brown fat|Brown fat cell
  • Liver lipocyte

Barrier function cells (human lung|lung, Gut (zoology)|gut, exocrine glands and Genito-urinary tract|urogenital tract)

Kidney

  • Kidney parietal cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Collecting duct system|Kidney collecting duct cell
    • Collecting duct system#Principal cells|Principal cells
    • Collecting duct system#Intercalated cells|Intercalated cells

Other

  • Type I pneumocyte (lining air space of lung cell)
  • Pancreatic duct cell (centroacinar cell)
  • Nonstriated duct cell (of sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, etc.)
    • Principal cell
    • Intercalated cell
  • Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.)
  • Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Gallbladder#Microscopic anatomy|Gall bladder epithelial cell
  • Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell
  • Epididymis|Epididymal principal cell
  • Epididymis|Epididymal basal cell
  • Endothelial cells

Extracellular matrix cells

  • Ameloblast|Ameloblast epithelial cell (tooth enamel secretion)
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell of vestibular system of ear (proteoglycan secretion)
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Corneal fibroblasts (corneal keratocytes)
  • Tendon cell|Tendon fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow#Stroma|Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Pericyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte (tooth root bonelike ewan cell secretion)
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte (tooth dentin secretion)
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
  • Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Osteoblast#Osteogenesis|Osteoprogenitor cell (stem cell of osteoblasts)
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear
  • Hepatic stellate cell (Ito cell)
  • Pancreatic stelle cell

Contractile cells

  • Skeletal muscle cell
    • Red skeletal muscle cell (slow)
    • White skeletal muscle cell (fast)
    • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
    • Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle
    • Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle
  • Satellite cell (stem cell)
  • Heart muscle cells
    • Ordinary Myocardiocyte|heart muscle cell
    • Nodal heart muscle cell
    • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Smooth muscle cell (various types)
  • Myoepithelial cell of Iris (anatomy)|iris
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands

Blood and immune system cells

  • Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
  • Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
  • Monocyte (white blood cell )
  • Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Osteoclast (in bone)
  • Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
  • Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Hybridoma technology|Hybridoma cell
  • Mast cell
  • Helper T cell
  • Suppressor T cell
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • Natural killer T cell
  • B cell
  • Natural killer cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Stem cells and Progenitor cells|committed progenitors for the blood and immune system (various types)

Germ cells

  • Ovum|Oogonium/Oocyte
  • Spermatid
  • Spermatocyte
  • Spermatogonium cell (stem cell for spermatocyte)
  • Spermatozoon

Nurse cell

  • Ovarian follicle cell
  • Sertoli cell (in testis)
  • Thymus epithelial cell

Interstitial cells

  • Interstitial kidney cells

See also

  • List of organs of the human body
  • List of systems of the human body

References


External links

Template:Commonscat

Template:Human cell types derived primarily from endoderm Template:Human cell types derived primarily from mesoderm Template:Human cell types derived primarily from ectoderm

All Systems

  • Cardiovascular
  • Body Cavities
  • Endocrine
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Genital
  • Head
  • Immune
  • Integumentary
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Neural
  • Neural Crest
  • Placenta
  • Renal
  • Respiratory
  • Sensory