Talk:Grasshopper Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 23) Embryology Grasshopper Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Grasshopper_Development

Species Nomenclature

The scientific name is always italicized. After it has been written in full once, it is usually abbreviated by using the initial of the genus, followed by the full spelling of the epithet, and the dropping of the describer’s name, hence D. carolina. The first letter of the genus name is always capitalized and the first letter of the specific epithet is always lower case.


2015

Embryonic development of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

Dev Biol. 2015 Apr 20. pii: S0012-1606(15)00189-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Donoughe S1, Extavour CG2.

Abstract

Extensive research into Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis has improved our understanding of insect developmental mechanisms. However, Drosophila development is thought to be highly divergent from that of the ancestral insect and arthropod in many respects. We therefore need alternative models for arthopod development that are likely to be more representative of basally-branching clades. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is such a model, and currently has the most sophisticated functional genetic toolkit of any hemimetabolous insect. The existing cricket embryonic staging system is fragmentary, and it is based on morphological landmarks that are not easily visible on a live, undissected egg. To address this problem, here we present a complementary set of "egg stages" that serve as a guide for identifying the developmental progress of a cricket embryo from fertilization to hatching, based solely on the external appearance of the egg. These stages were characterized using a combination of brightfield timelapse microscopy, timed brightfield micrographs, confocal microscopy, and measurements of egg dimensions. These egg stages are particularly useful in experiments that involve egg injection (including RNA interference, targeted genome modification, and transgenesis), as injection can alter the speed of development, even in control treatments. We also use 3D reconstructions of fixed embryo preparations to provide a comprehensive description of the morphogenesis and anatomy of the cricket embryo during embryonic rudiment assembly, germ band formation, elongation, segmentation, and appendage formation. Finally, we aggregate and schematize a variety of published developmental gene expression patterns. This work will facillitate further studies on G. bimaculatus development, and serve as a useful point of reference for other studies of wild type and experimentally manipulated insect development in fields from evo-devo to disease vector and pest management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. KEYWORDS: Embryogenesis; Ensifera; Germ band; Gryllus bimaculatus; Hemimetabola; Katatrepsis; Morphogenesis; Orthoptera; Staging; Two-spotted cricket PMID 25907229

2012

Effects of parental radiation exposure on developmental instability in grasshoppers

J Evol Biol. 2012 Apr 16. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02502.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Beasley DE, Bonisoli-Alquati A, Welch SM, Møller AP, Mousseau TA. Source Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique & Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, University of Paris 11, Orsay, France.

Abstract

Mutagenic and epigenetic effects of environmental stressors and their transgenerational consequences are of interest to evolutionary biologists because they can amplify natural genetic variation. We studied the effect of parental exposure to radioactive contamination on offspring development in lesser marsh grasshopper Chorthippus albomarginatus. We used a geometric morphometric approach to measure fluctuating asymmetry (FA), wing shape and wing size. We measured time to sexual maturity to check whether parental exposure to radiation influenced offspring developmental trajectory and tested effects of radiation on hatching success and parental fecundity. Wings were larger in early maturing individuals born to parents from high radiation sites compared to early maturing individuals from low radiation sites. As time to sexual maturity increased, wing size decreased but more sharply in individuals from high radiation sites. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect FA or shape in wings nor did it significantly affect hatching success and fecundity. Overall, parental radiation exposure can adversely affect offspring development and fitness depending on developmental trajectories although the cause of this effect remains unclear. We suggest more direct measures of fitness and the inclusion of replication in future studies to help further our understanding of the relationship between developmental instability, fitness and environmental stress. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

PMID 22507690

2011

Postembryonic development, fecundity and food consumption of Dichroplus exilis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) under controlled conditions

Rev Biol Trop. 2011 Dec;59(4):1579-87.

[Article in Spanish] Bardi C, Mariottini Y, De Wysiecki ML, Lange CE. Source Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE) (CCT La Plata - CONICET - UNLP), Calle 2 No 584, CP 1900, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. bardi_c@yahoo.com.ar Abstract Dichroplus exilis is a widely distributed species in Southern South America. Although there have been reports of D. exilis as an agricultural pest, some recent observations suggest that the damage attributed to D. elongatus may actually have been caused by D. exilis. This study was conducted to determine the postembryonic life cycle stages, fertility and food consumption of this species under controlled conditions (30 degrees C, 14L-10D, 40% RH). Individuals employed belong to the laboratory-hatched first generation (F1), from adults (n = 64, female = 28, male = 36) collected in natural grasslands near Rafaela, Santa Fe province in North-Eastern Argentina. Three cohorts of 16, 17 and 20 individuals were monitored independently in acetate tubes on a daily basis, until death of the last insect. Average fecundity was 381.84, 38.54 eggs per female. Egg-pod incubation time was 14.4, 1.08 days and six nymphal instars were recorded. Nymphal development time was 41.38, 0.71 days (I = 8.73, 0.20; II = 6.38, 0.24; III = 5.64, 0.33; IV = 7.15; 0.43; V=9.76, 0.54; IV = 7.85, 0.95). The recorded food consumption was 9.89, 1.08 (mg/ind/day) for nymphs IV, 18.04, 0.73 (mg/ind/day) for nymphs V-IV, 16.76, 1.06 (mg/ind/day) for pre-reproductive males, 28.09, 1.81 (mg/ind/day) for pre-reproductive females, 7.71,0.91 (mg/ind/day) for reproductive males and 13.06, 0.71 (mg/ind/day) for reproductive females, while the average adult food consumption, regardless of sex and reproductive status, was 16.41, 4.32 mg/day. Average food consumption of adult females was 17.47, 1.15 mg, and was significantly higher than that of males (10.83, 0.91mg). Data obtained in this study showed that D. exilis exhibits at least some of the biological attributes needed to configure an actual or potential agricultural pest, albeit not yet recognized as such. Field monitoring of grasshopper communities in areas where damage by D. exilis is suspected is envisaged in order to determine its possible status as a pest.

PMID 22208075

http://osf2.orthoptera.org/Common/basic/Taxa.aspx?TaxonNameID=42273

Embryonic development of the insect central complex: insights from lineages in the grasshopper and Drosophila

Arthropod Struct Dev. 2011 Jul;40(4):334-48. Epub 2011 Mar 5.

Boyan G, Williams L. Source Developmental Neurobiology Group, Biocenter, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Grosshadernerstr. 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany. george.boyan@lmu.de

Abstract

The neurons of the insect brain derive from neuroblasts which delaminate from the neuroectoderm at stereotypic locations during early embryogenesis. In both grasshopper and Drosophila, each developing neuroblast acquires an intrinsic capacity for neuronal proliferation in a cell autonomous manner and generates a specific lineage of neural progeny which is nearly invariant and unique. Maps revealing numbers and distributions of brain neuroblasts now exist for various species, and in both grasshopper and Drosophila four putatively homologous neuroblasts have been identified whose progeny direct axons to the protocerebral bridge and then to the central body via an equivalent set of tracts. Lineage analysis in the grasshopper nervous system reveals that the progeny of a neuroblast maintain their topological position within the lineage throughout embryogenesis. We have taken advantage of this to study the pioneering of the so-called w, x, y, z tracts, to show how fascicle switching generates central body neuroarchitecture, and to evaluate the roles of so-called intermediate progenitors as well as programmed cell death in shaping lineage structure. The novel form of neurogenesis involving intermediate progenitors has been demonstrated in grasshopper, Drosophila and mammalian cortical development and may represent a general strategy for increasing brain size and complexity. An analysis of gap junctional communication involving serotonergic cells reveals an intrinsic cellular organization which may relate to the presence of such transient progenitors in central complex lineages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID 21382507

1930

Insects, their ways and means of living (1930)

Author: Snodgrass, R. E. (Robert E.), 1875-1962 Subject: Insects Publisher: New York Smithsonian Institution series Year: 1930 Possible copyright status: NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT Language: English Call number: QL 463 S6X Ent Book contributor: Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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