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Note - This sub-heading shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term. References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. In comparison, references listed on the content page and discussion page (under the publication year sub-headings) do include editorial selection based upon relevance and availability. (More? Pubmed Most Recent)
<pubmed limit=5>Fly Embryology</pubmed>
<pubmed limit=5>Drosophila Development</pubmed>
Germ cell migration Montell
Drosophila Hox and Sex-Determination Genes Control Segment Elimination through EGFR and extramacrochetae Activity
PLoS Genet. 2012 Aug;8(8):e1002874. Epub 2012 Aug 9.
Foronda D, Martín P, Sánchez-Herrero E. Source Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (C.S.I.C.-U.A.M.), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
The formation or suppression of particular structures is a major change occurring in development and evolution. One example of such change is the absence of the seventh abdominal segment (A7) in Drosophila males. We show here that there is a down-regulation of EGFR activity and fewer histoblasts in the male A7 in early pupae. If this activity is elevated, cell number increases and a small segment develops in the adult. At later pupal stages, the remaining precursors of the A7 are extruded under the epithelium. This extrusion requires the up-regulation of the HLH protein Extramacrochetae and correlates with high levels of spaghetti-squash, the gene encoding the regulatory light chain of the non-muscle myosin II. The Hox gene Abdominal-B controls both the down-regulation of spitz, a ligand of the EGFR pathway, and the up-regulation of extramacrochetae, and also regulates the transcription of the sex-determining gene doublesex. The male Doublesex protein, in turn, controls extramacrochetae and spaghetti-squash expression. In females, the EGFR pathway is also down-regulated in the A7 but extramacrochetae and spaghetti-squash are not up-regulated and extrusion of precursor cells is almost absent. Our results show the complex orchestration of cellular and genetic events that lead to this important sexually dimorphic character change.
Gene regulatory networks controlling hematopoietic progenitor niche cell production and differentiation in the Drosophila lymph gland
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41604. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Tokusumi Y, Tokusumi T, Shoue DA, Schulz RA. Source Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America.
Hematopoiesis occurs in two phases in Drosophila, with the first completed during embryogenesis and the second accomplished during larval development. The lymph gland serves as the venue for the final hematopoietic program, with this larval tissue well-studied as to its cellular organization and genetic regulation. While the medullary zone contains stem-like hematopoietic progenitors, the posterior signaling center (PSC) functions as a niche microenvironment essential for controlling the decision between progenitor maintenance versus cellular differentiation. In this report, we utilize a PSC-specific GAL4 driver and UAS-gene RNAi strains, to selectively knockdown individual gene functions in PSC cells. We assessed the effect of abrogating the function of 820 genes as to their requirement for niche cell production and differentiation. 100 genes were shown to be essential for normal niche development, with various loci placed into sub-groups based on the functions of their encoded protein products and known genetic interactions. For members of three of these groups, we characterized loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes. Gene function knockdown of members of the BAP chromatin-remodeling complex resulted in niche cells that do not express the hedgehog (hh) gene and fail to differentiate filopodia believed important for Hh signaling from the niche to progenitors. Abrogating gene function of various members of the insulin-like growth factor and TOR signaling pathways resulted in anomalous PSC cell production, leading to a defective niche organization. Further analysis of the Pten, TSC1, and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes demonstrated their loss-of-function condition resulted in severely altered blood cell homeostasis, including the abundant production of lamellocytes, specialized hemocytes involved in innate immune responses. Together, this cell-specific RNAi knockdown survey and mutant phenotype analyses identified multiple genes and their regulatory networks required for the normal organization and function of the hematopoietic progenitor niche within the lymph gland.
Functional study of mammalian Neph proteins in Drosophila melanogaster
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40300. Epub 2012 Jul 6.
Helmstädter M, Lüthy K, Gödel M, Simons M, Ashish, Nihalani D, Rensing SA, Fischbach KF, Huber TB. Source Renal Division, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
Neph molecules are highly conserved immunoglobulin superfamily proteins (IgSF) which are essential for multiple morphogenetic processes, including glomerular development in mammals and neuronal as well as nephrocyte development in D. melanogaster. While D. melanogaster expresses two Neph-like proteins (Kirre and IrreC/Rst), three Neph proteins (Neph1-3) are expressed in the mammalian system. However, although these molecules are highly abundant, their molecular functions are still poorly understood. Here we report on a fly system in which we overexpress and replace endogenous Neph homologs with mammalian Neph1-3 proteins to identify functional Neph protein networks required for neuronal and nephrocyte development. Misexpression of Neph1, but neither Neph2 nor Neph3, phenocopies the overexpression of endogenous Neph molecules suggesting a functional diversity of mammalian Neph family proteins. Moreover, structure-function analysis identified a conserved and specific Neph1 protein motif that appears to be required for the functional replacement of Kirre. Hereby, we establish D. melanogaster as a genetic system to specifically model molecular Neph1 functions in vivo and identify a conserved amino acid motif linking Neph1 to Drosophila Kirre function.
Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila
- Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila embryogenesis. I. The structure of the egg envelopes and the formation of the cellular blastoderm. Turner FR, Mahowald AP. Dev Biol. 1976 May;50(1):95-108. No abstract available. PMID: 817949
- Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. II. Gastrulation and segmentation. Turner FR, Mahowald AP. Dev Biol. 1977 Jun;57(2):403-16. No abstract available. PMID: 406152
- Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. III. Formation of the head and caudal segments. Turner FR, Mahowald AP. Dev Biol. 1979 Jan;68(1):96-109. PMID: 1081572