Talk:Estrous Cycle

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, March 31) Embryology Estrous Cycle. Retrieved from

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Note - This sub-heading shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term. References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. In comparison, references listed on the content page and discussion page (under the publication year sub-headings) do include editorial selection based upon relevance and availability. (More? Pubmed Most Recent)

Estrous Cycle

<pubmed limit=5>Estrous Cycle</pubmed>

Oestrous Cycle

<pubmed limit=5>Oestrous Cycle</pubmed>

Mouse Estrous Cycle

<pubmed limit=5>Mouse Estrous Cycle</pubmed>


Progesterone, estradiol, arachidonic acid, oxytocin, forskolin and cAMP influence on aquaporin 1 and 5 expression in porcine uterine explants during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis: an in vitro study

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015 Feb 18;13(1):7.

Skowronska A1, Młotkowska P2, Wojciechowicz B3, Okrasa S4, Nielsen S5, Skowronski MT6,7.


BACKGROUND: The cell membrane water channel protein, aquaporins (AQPs), regulate cellular water transport and cell volume and play a key role in water homeostasis. Recently, AQPs are considered as important players in the field of reproduction. In previous studies, we have established the presence of AQP1 and 5 in porcine uterus. Their expression at protein level altered in distinct tissues of the female reproductive system depending on the phase of the estrous cycle. However, the regulation of aquaporin genes and proteins expression has not been examined in porcine uterine tissue. Therefore, we have designed an in vitro experiment to explain whether steroid hormones, progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2), and other factors: oxytocine (OT), arachidonic acid (AA; substrate for prostaglandins synthesis) as well as forskolin (FSK; adenylate cyclase activator) and cAMP (second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate) may impact AQPs expression. METHODS: Uterine tissues were collected on Days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle representing the mid-luteal phase and luteolysis. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine AQP1 and AQP5. Their expression in the uterine explants was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The results indicated that uterine expression of AQP1 and AQP5 potentially remains under control of steroid hormones and AA-derived compounds (e.g. prostaglandins). P4, E2, AA, FSK and cAMP cause translocation of AQP5 from apical to the basolateral plasma membrane of the epithelial cells, which might affect the transcellular water movement (through epithelial cells) between uterine lumen and blood vessels. The AC/cAMP pathway is involved in the intracellular signals transduction connected with the regulation of AQPs expression in the pig uterus. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented specific patterns of AQP1 and AQP5 expression in response to P4, E2, AA, FSK and cAMP, thereby providing new indirect evidence of their role in maintaining the local fluid balance within the uterus during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis in pigs.

PMID 25884220










A quantitative method for assessing stages of the rat estrous cycle

Biotech Histochem. 2005 Mar-Apr;80(2):79-87.

Hubscher CH, Brooks DL, Johnson JR. Source Department of Anatomical Sciences & Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA. Abstract The impact of gender and/or hormone variations on a wide variety of neural functions makes the choice between studying males or females (or both) of a given species difficult. Although female rats are widely used experimentally, few studies control for the stage of estrus. More detailed information about how to distinguish the various stages of the estrous cycle is needed. For the present study, vaginal smears were obtained once a day and stained using an adaptation of the Papanicolaou (PAP) procedure. Images are provided of unstained "wet" samples and the corresponding PAP stained smears illustrating the cellular profile for each stage of the cycle as well as post-ovariectomy. The different cell populations across the cycle were quantified and ratios determined to show trends between the predominant and other cell types in each stage of the estrous cycle. Both stained and unstained images and cell quantification data provide valuable guidelines for distinguishing the stages of the estrous cycle.

PMID 16195173