Talk:Cardiovascular System - Ventricular Septal Defects

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, November 27) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Ventricular Septal Defects. Retrieved from


When was ventricular septal defect first defined?

Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2011 Mar;11(2):179. doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.041. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Ulus AT, Songur M, Kahya E. Source Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Türkiye Yüksek İhtisas Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

"Almost all of the cardiac, cardiovascular guidelines and the textbooks mention that one of the first clinical descriptions of ventricular septal defect was made by Henri Roger in 1879 (1). Henri Roger’s experience and skill as a pediatrician, combined with his interest in auscultation, led to his discovery of a simple but important interventricular communication which later became known as ‘’maladie de Roger’’(2). He described the clinical and auscultatory findings of 6 acyanotic patients and autopsy finding of a child with ventricular septal defect (1). We could not find any earlier descriptions about the definition of the ventricular septal defects in these texts. All of the authors agree in that ventricular septal defect was first described clinically by Henri Roger (2).

We found out that before Henri Roger, Mansur b. Muhammed b. Ahmed who lived in the 14th century described ventricular septal defects. He wrote the book named “Kitab-ı Teşhirü’l- Ebdan Min e’t -Tıb” (A Work on Human Anatomy) in 1386 and mentioned about all of the anatomical systems of the human body. Moreover, this book is known to be one of the three illustrated medical books in the Turkish medical globe history (3). He described the ventricular septal defects clearly noticing the existence of a passage between the two ventricles; the part of the passage on the right side was larger becoming narrower through the left side (3).

The scientists who are interested in medical history should accept that Mansur b. Muhammad b. Ahmed was of Turkish origin as they can easily define it from his poor Persian and the figures in his works (3). However, there are three illustrated anatomical works in the historical period of that time in Old Turkish Medical History and two of them were written in Persian. The other illustrated anatomical work was written by Nasir al-Din Tusi in the 13th century; it was named Tansuhname-i Ilhani (A Work on General Anatomy of Ilhani). The third one was written in Turkish. It was named Tashrih al-Abdan (Illustrated Work on Human Anatomy); his author was Shams al-Itaki. When we compared their illustrations, we can define interesting resemblances among them. Principally Mansur b.Muhammad b. Ahmed explained at first simple organs and then the complex organs, which were called as main systems in modern anatomical works. Finally, he explained the creation and the improvement of embryo. Rhazes claimed that firstly liver occurred in fetus, Ibn Sina claimed umbilical cord, Hippocrates said brain is the first organ in fetus but, contrarily Mansur b. Muhammad b. Ahmed mentioned that firstly heart occurred in fetus (3). He also gave several illustrations that show the anatomical systems but several physicians used these in their works in the following periods without giving as a reference (3)."

PMID 21342858


Case of cyanosis, with a description of the appearances presented on dissection, illustrated by the preparation, and a drawing, of the heart

Med Chir Trans. 1847;30:112.2-120.

Clark Fle G.

PMID 20895864