Talk:Book - Manual of Human Embryology 20

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Human Embryo Tables

Desig.


  • 6 Human embryo Pfannenstiel III. Collection of Prof. PfannenstieL GiesX. T. Fig. Vr and Vv. Textfig. 6a to 6w.



  • 7 Human smbrvo N'o. 300, from the collection of Dr. Robert Meyer, Berlin. H.T. Fig. VI 1, VI r ind VI v.




Age

Body form

Primitive streak

Primitive • _ ments

Chorda

Gr. L. about 2.6 mm.



Embryo bent over the ventral surface and slightly bent spirally.



Tail bud, on its ventral side doubtful remains of primitive streak.



Gr. I 2.5 mm.



Remains of primitive streak. Cloacal membrane.



13-14 Chorda empairs of erging from primi- entoderm, t i v e Cranially is s e g - still in enments. toderm. caudally ; : is probably primarily independent of the entoderm and in this region it is no longer included in the entoderm.


23 Chorda pairs of arated from

pnm. segments.



entoderm.



Nervous - -:em

In brain region medullary canal is open to caudal to the region of the optic vesicle, similarly the caudal end. Anlagen of neuromeres already present.



Anterior neuropore closed. but its position still recognizable. Medullary canal stili wide open for a stretch caudally. Roof of 4th vent, beginning to thin out. Xeuromeres. Trigeminus and acustico-facialis ganglia distinct.



Eve

Ear

Z

Hypophysis

Mouth

Primary optic vesicles. They he close to the ectoderm; in their region the medullary canal is wide open.



Optic vesicles.


Mesoderm between ectoderm and optic vesicle.



Anlage of auditory vesicle recognizable as a thickened and at first but little depressed plate of ectoderm

Hypophysis just indicated.



Auditory vesicle almost closed '.open through 4 or 5 sections of op). Ductus endolymphaticus not yet visible.



Pri pharyngeal membrane still closed. Oral sinus.



Anlage doubtful.



Pharyngeal membrane just 'torn. "still abundant remains i of it. "


liver and pancreas

j. tic ] traee_ patic -.rabeculae.



branchial trachea and lungs.




Heart an . vends




pouches derm, the 3rd is I mned.


anlage" is 8th, of primiti duct. Segmental 11:;. and -



Allantoic Extirpation of uterm fixation: Formaiin sin: Paraearmine.


/dons: 10 *. Recent mitoses *. — — Imntii^mHBn.


ventral connection between pericardial --'-- ^r.'.-.^i. .-.



Intestine still communicates widely wil . the -. sack. L: - : a thick-walled sack from which the trabeculse are beginning to bud.



3 anterior .."!:. .i. pouc: .-•ri :.. •.:.- »:*.::e": '.:.- 4:: reoidea mediana formed. Pulmotracheal groove.


indicated.



" pronephric an- j .


vesi rodi

stomes. Mesonez
connected with fian duct begins to acquire a lumen crania]';. ends enclosed in the ectoderm, still some distance

I strongly zd. An arteries distinct


•rmbryo w&« obtained by operation.


Joum. of Anat. and 41,1907. Also Meyer. Eob. VoL 25. 1904.



988 Desig.



w

o

  • 10 lumas mbryo, 4 im.(lFeb. 895). ol lection f Prof. trahl, iessen. N. . Text-fig. a-9s.




B

Body form

Between Figs. 5 and 7 of His' Normentafel. (The embryo of Fig. 6 of His' Normentafel is probably pathological.) Vertex bend complete. Nape bend has begun.



2 3

On



~

Chorda

Chorda separated from the entoderm, but in the cranial part, through 19 sections, it has as yet no mesoderm below it.



Nervous system

Roof of 4th ventricle thinned out. Neuromeres. In cord no dorsal column and no anlagen of the anterior horns. Branchial cleft organs of the facialis and glossopharyngeus recognizable as placodes.



Eye

The distal wall of the optic vesicle is somewhat thickened and is almost in contact with the ectoderm. A wide communication between the optic vesicle and the cavity of the ventricle. Anlage of the lens recognizable as a thickened epithelial plate.



Ear

The right auditory vesicle c ompletely constricted off and showing the first indications of a ductus endolymphaticus. The left vesicle, which has no signs of a ductus endolymphaticus, is connected with the surface ectoderm by an epithelial cord.



Nose

Hypophysis

Convex Early olfactory anlage areas of hypo less physis.


distinct.



Mouth

Oral sinus, pharyngeal membrane vanished. No tuberculum impar as yet.


Branchial Digestive pouches, thy tract, liver reoid, thymus, and pancreas trachea and lungs

Sagittal stomach enlargement. Hepatic trabecule, but remains of the liver sack still visible. Anlage of dorsal pancreas, not yet very distinct, in region of 6th pair of somites. Very short tail gut. Early anlagen of socalled "glands" iu yolk sack.



Urogenital system

4 branchial pouches reach the ectoderm, all closed, ectoderm and entoderm partly fused. Early anlage of median thyreoid. Tracheal groove. Very early anlage of lung.



"Pronephric" rudiments on right side in region of 8th somite (5th cervical), on left in region of 7th (4th cervical). Mesonephros (anlagen of segmental 1 vesicles and also rudimentary nephrostomes) begins on right in region of 10th, on left in region of 11th somite. Wolffian ducts end independently, thickened and with lumen, close to the ventral surface of the cloaca, near the cloacal membrane. Pronounced intestinal and bladder bay.



Heart and vessels

Heart differentiated into ventricular and atrial portions. Anlagen of trabecular in ventricle. Dist i n c t atrial canal. Posterior mesocardium no longer c o m plete. 1st branchial art, beginning to degenerate in its ventral part, 2nd and 3rd well developed, 4th formed (almost completely on right). Primary origin of aa. umbilicales, secondary one forming. Aorta? fused in region of 5th pair of somites (2nd cervical). A. s u b c 1 a v i a formed.



Integument -5

Hirschland (1899) speaks of an early stage of the milk ridge in this embryo; we would hesitate to give the epithelial thickening in question this

Extremities = B <

Upper limbs un segmented swelling s (Hirschland, p. 235); lower limbs not recognizable in sections. (Hirschland speaks of the "anlage of the as yet very small lower extremities").



Remnrk


Embryo obtained by operation and fixed while fresh. Somewhat compacted mitoses. Fixed in the chorionic vesicle with nitric acid. Stain: Borax carmine. Cut into 3 pieces. Literature: Hirschland, I... lieitrage zur ersten Entwicklung der Mammarorgane b. Menschen. Anat. Hefte, Heft 34-35, 1899, also Inaugural Dissert. Giessen, 1898. Jahrmiirker, E., Ueber die Entwicklung des Speiserohrenepithels beim Menschen. Inaug. Dissert. Marburg, 1906. Recessus and mesolaterale present on right, no recess and no mesolaterale on left.



990 Desig.



  • 14 Human embryo G. 31. Collection of the Anat-biol. Institute, Berlin (Prof. O. Hertwig.) N. T. Fig. VIII. Text-fig. 12a-12p.



Size

Gr. L.= napebreech length, 4.9 mm. Vertex-breech length 4.7 mm. Greatest diameter of yolk sack 0.58 mm.



Si <

Body form



S3 —

a a CO

Between Pigs. 6 and 7 of His' Normentafel, nearer Fig. 7.



Primitive streak

Vanished up to the tail bud.



Prim, segments

35 pairs of segments, the most anterior quite rudimentary.



Chorda

The anterior end terminates close to the hypophysis. Very thin chorda sheath.



Nervous system

Infundibulum. Roof of the 4th ventricle thin. 7 distinct neuromeres in 4th ventricle region. No dorsal columns in spinal cord as yet. Neurenteric cord.



Eye

Transition from optic vesicl e to optic cup. Lens represented by a thickened area of ectoderm. Scattered mesenchyme cells between lens and optic vesicle.



Ear

Auditory vesicle just constricted off. The point of constriction still visible at the ectoderm. Ductus endo lymphaticus just formed.



03

Kft

J3 o S o Q.


73 0) W >> ft o a >> -= CS O u .a >, u 0) >

Mouth

No remains of the pharyngeal membrane. „Tuberculum impar.


Digestive tract, liver and pancreas

tomach anlage lready slightly wisted. Tail gut. ibundant traeculse in liver nlage. Gallladder formed. )istinct anlage f dorsal panreas. Early an\ge of ventral ancreas. (Janelowitz [1895] escribes 2 venral pancreas nlagen. It is oubtful if there re really two; it semed to us lat there was aly one.)

Branchial pouches, thyreoid, thymus, trachea and lungs.



4 branchial . pouches reach 1 the ectoderm. The solid, twolobed anlage of the median thyreoid is connected with the floor of the mouth. Trachea constricted off. Undivided bronchial buds.



Urogenital system

Heart and vessels

Wolffian duct interrupted cranially, free glomeruli right and left ("pronephric remains"). In mesonephros cranially anlage of glomeruli, caudally segmental vesicles, partly with rudimentary nephrostomes. Wolffian ducts have reached the cloaca, but. do not yet open into it. Very early anlagen of the metanephric buds as enlargements of the Wolffian ducts. Nephrogenic cord. Cloaca with bladder and intestinal bay. Primitive germ cells.



Atrial and ventricular septum formed, also t Inright valvula venosa. Primary origin of the aa. umbilicales. The aa. omphalomesentericae form a ring around the intestine. Vv. omphalo-mesenteriese connected by an anastomosis dorsal to the intestine.



srs

z

,3 Extremi '


Remarks.



Upper extremity plate-like, lower one like a swelling.



Numerous fresh mitoses. Fixation: 'according to Hrrr, 1893) sublimateacetic acid; (according to Jankelowitz, 189 picric-Mibiimate-acetic acid.


Stain: Borax carmineaurantia.


Sections: 10 it, trans. The embryo waled by Dr. Ingalls, compare Ingalls 1 1907). Literature: Herr, Beitrng zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des menscnl. Auges. Dissert. Berlin, 1803. — Jankelowitz. Zur Ent wick lung der Bauchspeicheldruse. I>issert. Berlin. 1895. Also, Ein junger menschlichen Embryo, etc. Arch, f mikr. Anat., Vol. 46, 1895.— O. Hertwig, Lehrbuch der Entwicklungsgeechichte. Also, Elemente der Entwicklungslehre, 3rd ed., 1907. —Ingalls, N. W., Beschreibung eines menschl.


Embryo, etc.. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Vol. 70. 1907.


Bursa omentalis, with foramen of Winslow, is formed.



992 Desig.



  • 21 Human embryo Walther. Collection of Prof. Strahl, Giessen. V T. Textfig. 16a-16s

m

E £

O

<

Body form

The embryo is figured by Hirschland (1899, Plate XIX to XX fig. 2). Somewhat more advanced than the embryo of Fig. 8 of His' Normentafel. Distinct nape and dorsal bends. Maxillary process distinct. Sinus cervicalis wide open. Tail to the right. Slight spiral twisting.



> = b9

Primitive

Nervous

segments Jj system 3

Eye

Ear

Nose

Hypophysis

38 primitive segments, the last not delimited (3 cranial and 35 trunk segments).



Neuromeres in region of 4th ventricle not very distinct. Infundibulum. Cerebral hemispheres indicated. In spinal cord anlagen of the anterior horns distinct, those of the posterior columns are just beginning to form.



Optic cup. No retinal pigment as yet. Stalk of optic cup still very wide. Anlage of lens a flat groove, in which are cell proliferations.



Ductus endo lym phaticus still short and wide.



Flat, and with still somewhat flat olfactory areas.



Wide open hypophyseal sack.



Mouth

Tuberculum impar well developed.

Branchial pouches, thyreoid, thymus, trachea and lungs.



Wide open sinus cervicalis. 4 branchial pouches reach the ectoderm, all closed. Rudimentaryoth pouch. Anlageof median thyreoid connected with the epithelium of the mouth cavity by a long siender stalk. Trachea already constricted off from the oesophagus for some distance. Undivided lung vesicles.



Urogenital system

Heart and vessels

3 a; a

Extrem


GO.



a o 'a § <

Allantois

Remarks.



" Pronephric rudiment" only on the right (in 11th segment = 8th trunk segment). Large glomeruli in mesonephros, quite caudally there are still 3 segmental vesicles unconnected with the Wolffian duct. In about the last 6 tubules the anlage of the glomerulus is forming. Mesonephros begins on right in 11th, on left in 12th segment. Wolffian ducts open into cloaca. Metanephric buds. Metanephric mesenchyme in direct contact with mesonephros, that of right and left come together medially. Large cloaca. Intestinal and bladder bays.



Atrial septum not yet complete. Foramen ovale not yet formed. Left valv. venosa still but little developed, and so the ventricular septum. 1st branchial arch artery completely, 2nd partly obliterated, 3rd, 4th and 6th completely. Aa. subclavian arise at the point of union of the aortic roots. A. coeliaca at level of 10th, a. omphalomesenterica (with two roots) at that of the 13th and 15th segmental arteries. Primary origin of the aa. umbilicales obliterated. Left ductus Cuvieri quite small.


Upper and lower extremities unsegmented stumps.



Allantoic duct in umbilical cord enlarged for some distance

Obtained by laparotomy. Mitoses.


Fixation: Formol. Stun : Borax carmine. Sections: lo /i, trans. Literature: Hirschland, L.. Beitrage zur ersten Kntwicklung der Mammaroi Monschen, Anat. Hefte, Heft 34-35 1899, also Inaug. Dissert. Giessen, 1898. — Jahrmarker, E., Ueber die Entwicklung des Speiserohrenepithels, etc. Inaug. Dissert., Marburg, 1906. 1 )or>al and ventral pillars of the diaphragm, but as yet no pleuroperitoneal membrane. Periesophageal space (recessus superior sacci omenti) in" wide communication with saccus omentalis. g No mesolaterale • sinistrum. ripleen anlage.


  • 28 Human embryo " Chr. l.Col- ^ lection of 3 Prof. Hocli- $ stetter, a Innsbruck. J N. T. Fig. . XIII. Textfig. 20.


Chorda homogeneous from the hypophysis to the tip of the tail, finally united with the tail gut.


Nervous system

7 neuromeres in region of tne 4th vent. Cerebral hemispheres formed. Early anlage of epiphysis. In the spinal cord anterior horns, anterior and posterior columns. About 34 spinal ganglia and 27 spinal nerves. Welldeveloped branchial cleft organs on facialis, glossopharyngeus, and vagus.



Eye

Ear

Optic cup. Traces of pigment in retina. Lens vesicle just closed, point of closure still evident, proximal wall thickened. In interior of lens vesicle scattered degenerating cells, on proximal wall a heap of cells.



Auditory vesicle with rather long ductus endolymphaticus Cabout 300 n long).


Rotation of si a around its i 3 axistf* not yet | pleted. Due 5 almost blocki epithelial pr tions. Simple final loop. Ca spindle-shaped largement. P attachment < vitello-intestin to the intesti ognizable as i enlargement ( lumen. Tail g — ognizable as "a cord from the § to tip of tail, e: •° at end and lumen. Gall solid. Ductus dochus with Pancreatic an still far apart.



lial pouches, lid. thymus, a and lungs.



Urogenital system.



hial pouches be ectoderm, ranchial Median i bilobed, : in left lobe, thyreoglospletely ted.


i constricted onchii giving r first

Heart and vessels.


Reproductive gland indifferent. "Pronephric rudiment" on left side (tubule and "free glomerulus"). Mesonephros at the caudal end with segmental vesicles that have already reached the Wolffian duct. Wolffian ducts open into urogenital sinus after giving off ureters. Renal pelvis roundish. Anlage of cortical portion of suprarenal body.



Septum I not yet complete. Vei anlage of the men ovale. Yalv. venosa dextra and sinistra, septum spurium. Septum ventriculorum still but little developed. Beginning division of truncus arteriosus. 1st branchial arch art. completely obliterated, 2nd interrupted, 3rd, 4th and Gth complete, 5th incomplete. Aortic roots unite between Gth and 7th segmental artery (count by Hochstetter). Post-cardinal veins not yet united by anastomosis ventral to aorta. Anlage of V. cava inferior.


Remarks.


Extirpation of uterus on account of carcinoma. Fresh miti Fixation: Sublimate.


Stain: Alum cochineal.


Sections: 10 n, trans.


Literature: Hochstetter, Ueber die Bildung der primitiven Choanen beim Menschen. Verb. Anat. Ges., 1892; Entwicklungsgeschichte i-nsystems der Amnioten. III. Sauger. Morph. Jahrb., Vol. 1893; Die Entwicklung d. Blutgefasssystems in O. Hertwig's Handb., 1901 and 1903.— Salzer, Entwicklung der Kopfvenen des Meerschweinchens. Morph. Jahrb., Vol. 23, 1895. — Tandler, Ueber die Entwicklung des menschlichen Duodenum in friihen Embrvonalstadien. Morph. Jahrb., Vol. 29, 1900 (1902).— Narath, Der Bronchialbaum der Saugetiere und des Menschen. Bibliotheca med., Part A, Anatomy, Heft 3, 1901.— Keibel, Die Entwicklung der ausseren Korperform, etc., in O. Hertwig's Handb., 1902. — Fuchs, Lehrb. der Augenheilkunde, Leipzig and Vienna, 9th Ed. 1903. — Toldt, Anat. Atlas, 3d Ed., 1903.— Langer, Zur Entwieklungsgescliichte des bulbus cordis bei Vogeln und Saugetieren. Morph. Jahrb., Vol. 22, 1895. — Elze. Beschreibung eines menschlichen Embrvo, etc., Anat. Hefte, Heft 106, 1907. Left mesolaterale in one section. Spleen tubercle.


  • 50 Human embryo No. 250. Collection of Dr. Robert Meyer, Berlin. N. T. Text-fig. 31a-31c.
  • 78 Human embryo Kronig. Keibel's collection. Series No. 1446. N.T. Fig. XXIII v and XXIII i.

Chorda still homogeneous in pelvic region.


Nervous system

Eye

Ear

Nose

Hypophysis

Between Figs. 24 and 25 of His' Normentafel. Locality of the nape bend still indicated. Eyelids beginning to grow over the eyes. Tail knob. Physiological umbilical hernia.


Chorda still homogeneous in region of coccyx.



Stiil indications of neuromeres in region of 4th vent. Epiphysis. Posterior commissure. On the spinal side of post. commiss. still 2 epiphysis-like structures. Medullary canal still extends to the caudal knob.



Optic stalk still open. Abundant retinal pigment.


Lens vesicle % filled, not yet forced away from ectoderm. Early but distinct anlage of ductus nasolacrimalis.



Semicircular canals present as pouches.



Epiphysis with buds. Chiasma. The medullary canal extends to the tail knob into which it is continued as a solid cord.



No lachrymal glands yet. Nasolachrynial ducts and lachrymal canals do not yet reach the epithelium of the nasal cavity or conjunctiva.



Cochlea with | coil. Cartilaginous auditory ossicles. Cartilage in external ear and in auditory meatus.



Primitive choanae closed by the membranffi buccopharyngeal. Primary palate formed. Jacobson's organ.



Infundibu- Prim

Mot

lum and post, lobe of hypophysis. Anterior lobe not yet budded out, connected with the pharynx by a rather narrow duct.



palat

External nares in epithelial anlage. , Upper, middle and lower concha?.



Hypophysis richly budded. Remains of the hypophyseal duct persist.



Pala proc< besid tong Epit papil tong Intri mus< ture tong diffei tiatei Earl; an lag teetr maxi glanc budd out, paro not j sub lingu


estive t, liver ancreas.



i and orrn proScanty is of the it. Anof epibuds in ntestine. ;atic anilmost in inal posi>ut still ^lishable one an


Branchial pouches, thyreoid, thymus, trachea and lungs.


Remains of the sinus cervicalis unconnected with the surface epithelium. Median thyreoid has not yet reached the lateral thymus and lateral thyreoid still connected with pharynx by epithelial cords. Bronchi divided twice.



udinal cular is in agus. lature in ;h, duoand recAnlagen lus in stomeginning ion of mm. lial }f small tie in culum Anus

No cartilage in epiglottis yet. Larynx cartilaginous. Tracheal rings formed of young cartilage. Cartilages of bronchi in preechondral stage. Bronchi divided up to eight times.

Urogenital i em

Integument

Reproductive gland indifferent. Miillerian ductstill short. "Pronephric rudiment" on the left side. Mesonephros with large glomeruli. Renal pelvis budded out. Renal mesenchyme beginning to differentiate. Ureters open into the Wolffian ducts. Cloaca not yet completely divided up (cloacal duct). Suprarenal bodies.



Reproductive gland distinctly an ovary. Lumina of Miillerian ducts not yet connected and ending some distance from the sinus urogenitalis in the genital cord. Well-developed glomeruli in the kidney. Urogenital sinus open.



Septum I complete.


Foramen ovale.


Ostium atrioven triculare commune divided.


Septum ventricu lorum not yet complete.



Anlage of mammary gland clubshaped.



Ventricular septum complete.



On each side a principal anlage of the in a mm a ry gland in the club-shaped stage, in addition hyperthelial structures. No hair anlage yet.



Skeleton

Base of skull and vertebrae pracartilaginous, also ribs and scapula. Humerus, radius, and ulna eartilaginous. Femur pra;cartilaginous.



Terminal phlanges of great toes cartilaginous; in those of the other toes cartilage is not yet distinct. Bone in humerus, femur and tibia. Mandible, maxilla, proemaxilla and palatine ossifying, clavicle osseous and cartilaginous.


Remarks.



Abortion, Mil'.


Stain: Borax carmine.


10 n trans. Pericardial cavity :ir:ite! from pleural cav ities, on the- left ductus pleuro-pericardiacus is losed. Communication between pleural and peritoneal cavities is still wide. Caudal limiting fold (Hochstetter) formed on both sides. Spleen.



Gift from Professor Kronig. Artificial abortion. Mitoses.


Fixation: Zenker's fluid. Stain: Hamatoxylinorange, some sections water-blue-orceinsafranin after Schridde. Sections: 15 tu Perioesophageal space.



998 Desig.



r *S4 Human embr\ 321. Collection of Dr. Robert Meyer, Berlin.

Body form


P4 H

The eyelids have grown over the eyeball for a considerable distance. Very small tail-knob.



Chorda

Chorda is still homogeneous at end of coccyx, shows lateral buds in that region .



Nervous system

Olfactory lobe with evagination of ventricle. Epiphysis with buds. Chorioid plexuses in the lateral and fourth ventricles enormously developed. Medullary canal extends to the coccygeal tubercle, its lumen enlarged towards the end .



Eye

Ear Nose

Hypophysis

Mout

Lachrymal gland formed. Naso-lachrymal ducts do not yet reach the epithelium of the nasal cavity, nor the lachrymal ducts that of the conjunctiva. Beginning differentiation of the retina. Prox. part of the vascular capsule of the lens formed. Endoepithelium on the proximal surface of the cornea distinctly differentiated. Iris, anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.


External nares completely plugged with epithelial proliferation, epithelial knobs projecting from it. Jacobson's organ in connection with the epithelium of the nasal septum by a thin solid cord.



Anterior part of hypophyseal anlage richly budded out. Hypophyseal duct vanished except for doubtful remains.



Palatal ridges b the toi Dental ridges w toothgei Parotid gland b ning to sprout c Submas lary branche Sublingi beginnii sprout Papilla valis, su lingua, ] fimbriat


estive t, liver ancreas

n of ike _ ires in of stomCircular lature hout intes

\illi in lum and : partjof ntestine. lial ir diverin small ae. Anus ised.



Branchial pouches, thyreoid, thymus, trachea and lungs No cartilage as yet in epiglottis. Opening of larynx partly fused. Cartilage rings in trachea and main bronchi. Bronchi divided up to 8 times. Lungs at level of 2nd -9th thoracic vertebrae.



Urogenital system

Reproductive gland a testis. The Miillerian ducts extend to the immediate neighborhood of the urogenital sinus, they are fused to form the genital cord, but their lumina are separate throughout. Doubtful "pronephric rudiment." iMesonephros greatly degenerated. Glomeruli and_ tubuli contorti distinct in metanephros. Smooth musculature of bladder formed. Urogenital sinus open. Sympathetic tissue in centre of suprarenal body. Suprarenals he in region of the 10th thoracic-lst lumbar vertebra, the kidneys in that of the 12th thoracic -3rd lumbar. The mesonephros extends from 1stend of 3rd lumbar, the reproductive gland from lst-middle of 3rd lumbar.



Heart and vessels

Integument

Ventricular septum complete. All the valves formed.



In addition to the principal mammary gland a number of hyperthelial structures on either side, some of which have distinctly the appearance of early stages of mammary gland anlagen. Early hair anlagen in region of eyebrows.



Skeleton

34 vertebrae. Cartilaginous skeleton complete (even in the terminal phalanges of the toes). Mandible, maxilla, praem axilla, palatine, frontal, zygomatic together with squama temporalis osseous. Bone and cartilage in clavicle. Osseous anlagen in humerus, radius, ulna, femur- tibia and fibula.



Remarks.



Mitoses.


in: borax carmine. .Sections: 15 it. Peri oesophageal space not found. Peculiar epithelial grow! ha in the median line of the ventral body wall.




Klb

first version of table


Human Embryo Klb
(Kroemer-Pfanensteil. Collection of Prof. Pfannensteil, Giessen.)
Desig. Size Age Body form Primitive streak Primitive segments Chorda Nervous system Eye Ear Nose Hypophysis Mouth Digestive trac, liver and pancreas Branchial pouches, threoid thymus, trachea and lungs Urogenital system Heart and vessels Integument Skeleton Extremities Amnion Allantois Remarks
3 Human embryo Klb. N.T. Fig. 3a and 3d; Text-fig 5a to 5n. 138 sections of 10 μ = 1.38 mm. Kroemer gives the following data: "The greatest length of the embryonic anlage from the anterior edge of the amnion of the head cap to the chorion end of the belly-stalk 1.95 mm., the length of the embryo without the belly-stalk from the head to the tail 1.8 mm., the greatest width of the yolk sack barely 1.2 mm., the width of the embryonic disk at the boundary between the amnion and yolk sack (measured in the head view) 0.9 mm. The measurements of the yolk sack were 1.1 mm, (height), 1.4 mm. (width), 1.5 mm. (length)." The age is estimated by Born at from 10 to 14 days. No dorsal bend. Head end bent down at right angles and cut by 24 sections of 10 μ. Still indications of a neurenteric canal. Short primitive streak. CIoaca1 membrane. 5-6 pairs of primitive segments. The chorda througho u t i s contained in the entoderm. The medullary canal is everywhere wide open, but the brain portion is aire ady marked off from the cord and shows beginning segmentation. Optic anlage not yet evident. Primary pharyngeal membrane No oral sinus. The 1st branchial pouch is formed but does not reach the ectoderm. Heart ventral, but still paired. Paired aortse. 1st branchial arch artery. Aa. umbilicales. Yv. omphalo-mesentericae. Vessels on the yolk sack full of blood corpuscles. No amniotic duct evident. Allantoic duct Obtained by laparotomy. Fixation: Mailer's fluid. Stain: alum carmine; paraffin. Sections: 10 n trans. Literature: Pfannenstiel in Handbuch der Geburtshilfe, published by Winckel, Wiesbaden 1903. — Kroemer, Wachsmodell eines jungen menschl. Embryo. Verhandl. d. Ges. f. Gynakologie, 1903. The wide pericardial cavity is not connected with the peripheral ccelom. The embryonic ccelom is being formed caudally. On the chorion the layer of Langhans cells and syncytium.

Index

Note - Page numbers refer to the original textbook, not the online version.


Abortion, causes of, i, 34 percentage of, i, 203 Adeciduata, i, 92 Afterbirth. See Placenta. Age of embryos and fetuses, human, determination of, i, 180 composition of blood in relation to, ii, 523 corpus luteum as criterion, i, 182, 196 duration of, i, 180, 184, 186 fertilization, place of, i, 181, 184 time of, i, 181, 183, 185 fetus, mature, size of, i, 186 lines for measuring, i, 187-195 ovum, growth of. i, 185 table of, i, 199, 200 Agenesis, i, 324 Agger nasi, ii, 201-203, 206 Ala cinerea, ii, 67 pulmonalis, ii, 424 temporalis, i, 412 Allantois, ii, 293-295, 296, 297-302, 314, 323 separation of intestine from, ii, 322 Aluata, i, 108 Ameloblasts, ii, 352 Amnion, i, 21, 36, 44-46, 63, 122, 171 Amniotic cavitv, formation of. i, 21 Anencephaly, i, 235, 240 Angioblast and blood, development of, ii, 498 blood formation, sites of, ii, 527 cells of the blood clusters, ii, 532 in liver, ii, 528 in medulla of bone, ii, 533 leucocytes in lymphoid organs, ii, 533 yolk-sac, ii, 527 young blood-vessels, ii, 528 blood in relation to age, ii, 523 blood-plates, origin of, ii, 521 disintegration, ii, 509 erythrocytes, cytomorphosis of, ii, 503 four stages of, ii, 503 erythrocytes, ii, 503 blood-plastids, ii, 503

Angioblast and blood, development of, ichthyoid blood-cells, ii, 503 sauroid blood-cells, ii, r no mesamceboids, ii, 503 haemoglobin, ii, 504. 509 hypotheses concerning formation of, ii, 512 leucocytes^ cytomorphosis of, ii, 513 basophile, ii, 515, 517 coarsely granular, ii, 515.


517 degenerating, ii, 515. 517 disintegration, ii. 520 eosinophile, ii, 515, 517 finely granular, ii, 515, 516 four types of. ii, 514 lymphocytes, ii, 514 multiplication, ii, 520 neutrophile, ii, 515, 516 percentage of, ii, 527 without granules, ii, 514, 515 mesamceboids, primitive, ii, 502 multiplication, ii, 506 origin of human, ii, 501 Anus, formation of, ii, 323 malformations of, ii, 324 Aorta, ii, 778, 780, 781 1 Arch, hyoid, i, 75, 81, 417 Arches, aortic, ii, 536 branchial, i, 67, 69, 71, 82 hypochordal, i, 343 visceral, derivatives of, i, 417 Areas, association, ii, 104 auditory, i, 72 boundaries, ii, 103, 104 Arteries. See Vascular system. Auditory areas, i, 72 B Basioccipital, i, 347, 425 Belly stalk, i, 39, 58, 63, 64, 65, 67, 533 Bizzozero's nodes, i, 2*8 Bladder. See Organs, urino genital. Blastocyst, i, 105 wall, i, 105, 106 Blastopore, i, 49-53 Blastula, i, 50 Blood. See Angioblast and blood.


lacuna?, i, 123, 126 vessels. See Vascular system.

Bodies, lateral, geniculate, ii. 82 Bone, growth of, i, 311 histogenesis of, i, 303 intramembranous, i, 310 nasal, i. 431 regeneration of, i, 311 Bones, i, 316. See Skeleton. sesamoid, i, 322, 385 substitution, i, 317 Bowl placenta. See under Placentation.


Bowman's capsule. See Organs, urinogenital; kidney.


Bowman's glands. See Organs, urinogenital; kidney.


Brain. See Nervous system.


Branchial arches, i, 67, 69, 71, 82 ; ii, 446' Branchiogenic organs. See Pharynx.


Bridges, epithelial, i. 247 Bronchus. See Respiratory apparatus ; lungs.


Bursa infracardiaca, i, 546

Caecum. See Intestinal tract.


Calcar avis, ii, 103 Calcium salts, action of, on embryo, i, 230 Canal, inguinal, ii, 944 neurenteric, i, 327 Cardiac antrum, ii, 363 Cardiogenic plate, ii, 535 Carpal pads, i, 87 Cartilage, i, 302, 306, 323 Jacobson's, ii, 196 Meckel's, i, 419, 439 ; ii, 279 Reichert's, i, 421 ; ii, 279 Cartilages, cuneiform, i, 424 Cartilago corniculata, i, 424 Cavity, amniotic, i, 28, 37, 3S. 50, 55, 60-61, 63 extra-embryonic body, i, 122 implantation, i, 107 medullo-amniotic, i, 105 segmentation, i, 49 yolk-sack, i, 105 Cell columns, i, 115, 132 islands, i, 132, 133 nodes, i, 132 Cells, nerve, origin of true, ii, 10 Centrosome, i, 2 Chin. See Embryo; external form. Choanae, primitive, ii, 191, 320 Chondrocranium. See Skull. Chondrothoras, i, 34 1003 Chorda canal, i. 42 cavity, i, 49 dorsalis, i. 47. 53, 339, 407 entochorda, i. 330 fate and origin of, i. 327 gubernaouli. See Organs, urinogenital ; glands, reproductive. Chorion. See Placenta. Chromaffin organs, ii, 157 bodies, ii, 157 aortic, ii. 165, 16S in abdominal plexuses.


ii. 161, 163, 166 in old age, ii, 170 of gangliated cord, ii, 159 cells, ii, 154, 158 gland, suprarenal, ii, 170 cortex, ii, 170, 171. 17.") medulla, ii, 17<». 172 nucleus, ii, 174 origin of, ii, 170 glands, accessory suprarenal, ii, 176 glandula intercarotica, ii, 162 tissue, ii, 157, 159 chromaffinoblasts, ii, 157, 158, 159 function of, ii, 157 secretion of, ii, 157 sympatho-chromaffin, ii. 157, 158, 159, 163 Chrome reaction, ii, 157 Chromosomes, i, 14 reduction of, i, 14 Circulation, portal, meson > phric, ii. 825 Cisterna chyli. See Lymphatic is y stem. Clavicle, i, 379, 381, 389 Clitoris, ii, 954 Coagulum, closing, i, 110 Coccygeal process, ii, 58 Ccelom, i, 54, 526, 739, 756 extra-embryonic, i, 55, 171 disappearance oi, i, 171 of testis, i, 543 pericardial, i, 530, 532, 535 peritoneal, i, 530-531, 534 separation of, i, -535 theory, i, 48 Ccelom and diaphragm, i, 523 cavities, body, i, 525 ccelom, i, 525, 529 pericardial, i, 526528, 530, 533, 547 peritoneal, i, 527, 528, 530 pleural, i, 531 free communication of, i, 547 pericardial, pleural and peritoneal, separation of, i, 535 diaphragm, dorsal pillars of, i, 542 shifting of, i, 542 diverticulum of Nuck, i, 544 hernia. congenital inguinal, i, 544 of diaphragm, i, 544 of umbilical cord, congenital, i, 544 into exoccelom, i, 544

Ccelom, hernia of umbilical cord, covering, i, 544 lungs, i, i>38, 54:; membrana pericardiaco peritonealis. i, 540 membrane, pleuropericardial, i, 540, 541 membrane, pleuroperitoneal, i, 541, 542, 543 ovary, migration of, i, 544 pleuropericardial, i, 536, 541-542 pleuroperitoneal, i, 536 scrotum, i, 544 Wolffian body, i, 540, 542 Ccelom cavities, pleural and peritoneal communication of, i, 541 pleural, independent, i, 547 cavity, lesser peritoneal, i, 532, 544. 545 bilateral, i. 544, 545 Broman's bursa omenti minoris, i, 546 bursa omentalis, i, 544, 545 cavity of greater omentum, i, 545 of lesser omentum, i.


545 pleural, third, i, 546 hiatus communis recessuum, i, 545 left, i, 532 recessus pneumato-entericus dexter, i, 545 Winslow, foramen of, i, 545 diaphragm, descent of, i, 534 primitive, i, 530 ductus Cuvieri, 530, 533, 540. 541 exocoelom, i, 523, 524, 527, 528 hernia into. i. 544 magma reticule, i, 524 phrenic nerve i. 5.33, 540 pulmonary ridge, i. 535, 540 ' recess, left pleural, i, 532 recessus hepato-entericus, i, 532. 545 mesenterico-entericus, i, 532, 545 pneumato - entericus, i, 532, 545, 546 separation of, i, 535 septum transversum, i, 530, 531, 541, 542, 543, 547 sinking of, i, 536 vein, jugular, 676 omphalomesenteric, i, 530 umbilical, i. 530 yolk-vein, i, 530 vesicle, i, 530 Coloboma, ii, 229 Colon, ii, 318-319 diverticulum of, ii, 387 sigmoid, ii, 386 Concha. See Olfactory organ. Conchse obtectae. See Olfactory organ. Connective tissue. See Tissue, connective.



Copula, ii, 454 Copulation, time in relation to conception, i. 190, 2(14 Coracoid, i, 379, 3S1 Cord, umbilical, i. 172 Coroua radiata. Sec Germcells.


Corpus striatum, oee Nervous syst( m .


Costal processes, i, 337 Cranium. See Skull.


Crista epidermidis, i, 258 • inguinalis. ii, 943 Cumulus ovigerus. See Germcells.


Cuneiform cartilages, i, 424 Cyclopia, i, 231, 238. 240 Cytotrophoblast, i. 25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 105, 106, 125

Decidua, i, 106, 12S basalis, i. 122. 128, 148, 159. 165 boundary layer of, i. 141 capsularis, i, 96, 121, 122. 130. 14:: compacta, i. 143 marginalis, i. 122, 128 parietalis, i. 122. 137, 143 reflexa, i. 129 subchorialis. i. 15S vera, i, 137 Decidua] columns, i. 133 islands, i. 162 pillars, i. 161 trabecul.-p, i. 162 Dermal folds, i, 257 ridges, i. 257 Dermatome, i. 261, 262 Deutoplasm. i, 2 granules, i. 6 Development of egg membranes and placenta, i, 91-97 Diaphragm, muscles of, i, 481 Diarthrosis, i, 320 Diplotrophoblast, i, 147 Disk, intervertebral, primitive, i, 337 Diverticulum of Nuck, i, 544 Duct, allantoic, i, 29, 38, 172, 173: ii. 296 amniotic, i, 36-39, 41, 48, 50, 60 of Cuvier, ii, 537, 557, 825 pancreatic, accessory. ii. 429 Ductus venosus Arantii, ii.


825, 826 E Ear, development of, ii, 264 auricle, ii, 282 antitragus, i, 77 differences in form, ii, 286 canals, ii, 267 reuniens, ii, 268 semicircular, ii, 268 cartilage, Meckel's, ii, 279 Reichert's, ii, 279, 280 cells, pneumatic, ii, 279 cochlea, ii, 267, 268, 271 Ear, ductus endolymphaticus, ii, 267, 268 epithelial sense-organ, ii, 271 layers of, ii, 271 epithelium of, ii, 269 external, i, 77, 81 ganglion, acustico-facialis, ii. 272 geniculate, ii, 272 inner, ii. 264, 265 labyrinth, membranous, ii.


267 meatus, external, ii, 284 membrane, Reissner's, ii, 271 middle, ii, 272 canal, tubotympanic, ii, 275 cavity, tympanic, ii, 277 primary, ii. 274 muscles of, ii, 281 period, transformation, ii.


276 periods, three, ii, 272 structures within, ii, 278 nervus acusticus, ii. 272 cochlearis. ii, 272 organs of, ii. 264 ossicles, ii, 279, 281 incus, ii, 279, 281 malleus, ii. 279, 2S0, 281 stapes, ii. 279, 2S0, 281 pit, auditory, ii, 265 pouch, anterior, ii, 268 lateral, ii, 268 upper, ii, 268 ramus ampullae posterioris, ii, 272 sacculi, ii. 272 recessus labyrinthi. ii, 266 sacculus, ii. 267 saccus endolvmphaticus, ii, 266 scala tympani, ii, 271 vestibuli. ii. 271 tuba auditiva, ii. 272. 276 utriculus. ii. 267. 268 vesicles, auditory, ii. 205. 266 Ectoblast. See Germ layers. Ectoderm. See Germ layers. Egg chamber, i. 25. 127 enlargement of. i, 127 membranes, i. 97 Elastoblasts. i. 260 Elbow, i, 77 joint, i. 3SS Embryo, i, 122 action of calcium salts on, i. 230 dissociation of tissues in, i, 235 external form of, i. 59-90 amnion, i, 63. 65, 07 antitragus. i. 77 arch, hyoid. i. 72 arches, branchial, i, 67, 69, 71, S2 visceral, i. '> back, contour of, i, 77 belly stalk, i. 64, 65, 67 bend, dorsal, i, 64, 65, 66, 68 nape, i. 67. 69. 71, 74. 77. 79. 80

Embryo, external form of, bend, vertex, i, 64, 67 bends of back, beginning of, 164 brain, i, 65, 69. 70, 72.


79 canal, neurenteric, i, 63 chin, i. 77 chorion, i, 64 coccygeal tubercle, 1, 78 concha, i, 77 cord, spinal, i. 64 disk, embryonic, i. 62, 63 ear, external, i, 77, 81 ear vesicle, i. 67 elbows, i, 77 extremities, i. 72, 74, S2

eye. i. i :

84

eyelids, i. 77. 78 face, i. 81, 83 fetal stage, beginning of, i, 77 fingers, i. 77 finger-tips, i, 77 folds, medullary, i, 63 nasolabial, i, S4 suborbital, i, 84 foot, i, 77. 78, 79, 87, 88 plates, i, 75 fore-brain, i, 70, 72, 83 furrows, branchial, i, 67 j 72 groove, medullary, i, 63, 64, 65 primitive, i. 62 visceral, i, 70, 72 hand, i, 86, 88 plates, i, 75, 77, 78 head, i, 72. 75. 81, 86 heart, i. 65. 67, 68, 69, 70. 71. 72 hernia, umbilical, physiological, i. 77 hind-brain, i. 72 intestine, i. 65 knees, i. 77 limb, lower, i. 7S limb, upper, i, 78 lips, i. 77. 86 liver, i. 71. 72 mandible, i. 77 membrane, cloacal. i, 79 mid-brain, i. 69. 72 mouth, i. 77 mouth cleft, i, 83 neck. i. 77 neuromeres. i. 70 nose. i. 77. S3. 84 olfactory area. i. 69, 71 olfactory pit. i, 72 oral sinus, i. 82 organ, glossopharyngeal, i, 74 peiicardium. i. 77 pits, optic, i. 67 plate, medullary, i, 03 prima, i. 77 process, mandibular, i. 72 processes, maxillary and mandibular, i. 70, S2 proportions of. i, 89, 90 review of. i. 79 ridges, i. 08 shoulder, i. 77. 78 sinus cervionlis. i. 71, 72 74. 81 sinus, oral, i. 68

Embryo, external form of, somites, development of, i, 64 streak, primitive, i. 02, 63, 79 supra-orbital swelling, i, 77 table of His's studies, i, 02 tail, i. 72, 74, 77. 78. 80, 81 bud, i. 79 internal, i, 82 thigh, i, 78 thumb, i, 78 toes, i, 75. 77 tragus, i. 77 trigeminus ganglion, i.


72 trunk, i, 77 trunk bud, i, 79, 80 tube, medullary, i, 66, 67 vesicles, auditory, i, 70, 82 optic, i, 82 primary, i. 68, 70 yolk sack, i, 63. 64, 65, 68. 79 inflammation of. i. 233 nutrition of. i. 94 position of. in ovum, i, 21 slow growth of, i. 21 Embryonic disk, i, 62, 63 papilla, i, 32 shield, i. 30, 37, 39. 44, 58 Embryos, age of, i. 180 length of, i. 196 nodular, i. 224 Embryotrophe, i, 94, 123 Endoplasm, i. 248 Entoblast. See Germ layers. Entochorda. i, 330 Entoderm, i. 49. 53-54 Epicardium, ii. 543 Epidermic ridges, i. 258 Epidermis. Blaschko's folds of. i. 258 early stages of. i, 243 embryonic, glycogen in. i, 253 fat in basal columnar cells of. i. 253 pigment in. i. 252 prickle cells of. i, 247 stratum corneum of, i. 249, 251 germinativum of, i. 245 granulosum of, i. 250 intermedium of. i. 246 lucidum of, i, 250 Epiphyses, i. 352 Epistropheus, i. 345. 353 Epithalamus, commissura habenularis. ii, 82 commissura posterior, ii, 82 fasciculus retroflexus. ii. 82 stria medullaris. ii. 82 tracts in connection with, ii. 82 Eponyehium, i. 283 Erythroblast, ii. 507 primitive, ii. 509 Erythrocytes, ii. 503 cytomorpbosis of. ii. 503 disintegration of. ii. 509 granulations in. ii, 507 Erythrocytes, hypotheses concerning formation of, ii, 512 in chorionic mesenchyme, ii, 511 size of, ii, 523 variation of, ii, 507 Ethmoid, i, 429 Exoccelom. See Coelom. Exoplasm, i, 248 Extremities. See Embryo, external form of; and Limbs. Eye, i, 84 ; ii, 218 antrum cupula?, ii, 221 body, vitreous, ii, 233 bulbus oculi, ii, 226, 249 canals, lachrymal, ii, 226, 254 caruncula lachrymalis, ii, 251 cavum hyaloideum oculi, ii, 221 chamber, anterior, ii, 225, 249 chorioid, ii, 247 cilia, ii, 250 cornea, ii, 247 corpus ciliare, ii, 247 corpus vitreum, ii, 221 cup, optic, ii. 219, 225, 227, 228, 240 optic, pupillary opening, ii. 228 chorioid fissure, ii, 225, 228 closure of, ii, 229 duct. lachrymo-nasal, ii, 226 ductus nasolacrimalis, ii, 254 eyelids, ii, 250 fissura cupula?, ii, 226 foveola? opticae, ii, 218 glands, accessory conjunctival, ii, 253 lachrymal, ii, 251 growth of, ii, 256 iris, ii, 247 lamina externa cupula?, ii, 225 inversa cupulse, ii, 221, 226 lens, ii, 230 capsule, ii, 221, 232 fibres, ii, 232 pit, ii, 220, 231 vesicle, ii, 221, 230 lids, ii, 226 muscles, ii, 244. 254 ciliary, ii, 247, 248 nerve, optic, ii, 246 of newborn, ii, 257 passages, lachrymal, ii, 254 phylogenetic origin of, ii, 218 pits, optic, ii, 218, 227 retina, pigment epithelium of, ii, 240 pigment layer of, ii, 225 retinal layer, ii, 221, 241 ora serrata, ii, 241-242 pars caeca, ii, 226, 241, 244 ciliaris, ii, 241 iridica. ii, 241 pars optica, ii, 241, 242 fovea centralia, ii, 243

Eye sac, lachrymal, ii, 226 saccus lacrimalis, ii, 254 sclera, ii, 247 stalk of, ii, 220, 224 uvea.'ii, 249 vesicles, optic, ii, 227, 228 vessels, ii, 234, 248 retinal, ii, 237 vitreous humor, cavity for, ii, 221

Facial muscles, i, 509 Femur, i, 371, 372, 373, 377 Ferments, digestive, i, 106, 117 Fertilization, i, 18, 120, 184, 185 and imbedding, table of, i, 27 chronological table of, i, 26 corpus luteum and, i, 182 in the Graafian follicle, i, 18 in the tube, i, 18 in uterus, i, 18 on the ovary, i, 18 place of, i. 18. 181 usual, of. i. 18 time of, i, 181 Fetus, mature, size of, i, 186 Fibres, acoustic, ii, 82 Fibrin, i, 130, 134, 151 canalized, i, 151, 153, 155 cover, i, 113, 121 formation of, i, 154 nodes, i, 152 stria, Langhans', i, 151, 153 Nitabuch's, i, 151, 152, 153 Rohr's, i, 151 Fibrinoid, i, 131, 133, 153, 155 Fibula, i, 373, 377 Folds, amniotic, i, 45. 55 Schultze's, i, 172, 174 Blaschko's, i, 260 Fontanelle, metopic, i, 400 sagittal, i, 400 Foot. See Embryo, external form of; and Limbs.


dermal ridges of, 257 extensors of, i, 500 flexors of. i, 501 plate, i, 77 skeleton of, i, 373 Foramen of Monro, ii, 83, 91 ovale. See Heart. Forearm, extensor muscles of, i, 490 flexor muscles of, 1, 490 Fossa Sylvii, ii, 101

Gastrula, i, 49-50 cavity, i, 49 Gastrulation. See Germ layers, formation of, and gastrulation.


Germ-cells, i, 1, 3 anatomical characteristics, i, 2, 8 annulus, i, 9 bodies, polar, i, 1, 2

Germ-cells, -centrosome, i, 2 posterior, i, 9 chromatin, i, 1 chromosomes, i, 1, 2, 8, 14 corona radiata, i, 4 corpuscles, directive, i, 1 cumulus ovigerus, i, 3 cytoplasm, i, 1 deutoplasm, i, 2, 3 granules, 16 double-headed, i, 11 double-tailed, i, 11 dwarf, i, 11 filament, spiral, i, 9 filum principale, i, 9 terminale, i, 9 giant, i, 11 granules, mitochondria, i, 9 head, i, 8 liquor folliculi, i, 3 massa intermedia, i, 9 maturation, processes of, i, 1 maturity, i, 4 measurements, i, 6, 9 membrane, spiral, i, 9 micropyle, i, 5, 6 mitosis, i, 1 neck, i, 9 noduli posteriori, i, 9 nucleolus, i, 1, 3, 6' nucleus of. i, 1, 3, 4, 5 oocyte, i, 4, 5 ooplasma, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 cortex, i, 5 ovum, human, i, 6. See Ovum.


mature, i, 2, 4, 5 pars conjunction^, i, 9 perforatorium, i, 9 polocytes, i, 1, 2 sheath, mitochondria, i, 9 spiral, i, 9 space, perivitelline, i, 3, 4, 6 spermatids, i, 13 spermatogenesis, i, 8 cells, soma, i, 8 chromosomes, i, -8 spermatocytes, i, 8 spermatogonia, i, 8 spermatozoa, i, 8 spermatozoa, giant, i, 11 spermium, i, 5, 7 movement of, i, 12 duration of, i, 12 rapidity of, i, 12 viability of, i, 12, 13 number of. i, 15 spot, germinal, i, 1, 3 tail, i, 8 involucrum, i, 9 vesical, germinal, i, 1, 3 yelk, i, 1, 2, 3, 5 zona pallucida, i, 3, 4, 5, 6 Germinal disk. See under Germ layers. spot. See under Germ-cells. vesicle. See under Germcells. Germ layers, formation of, and gastrulation, i, 43 58 actiniae, i, 51 amnion, i, 44, 45, 46, 56, 57 belly stalk, i, 58 Germ layers, blastopore, i, 47, 49, 50, 52 blastula, i, 44 canal, neurenteric. i, 47, 50 cavity, amniotic, i, 44 origin of, i, 55, 56, 57 archenteric, i, 49 chorda, i, 49 gastrula, i, 49 gastrulation, i, 49 segmentation, i, 49 cephalogenesis. i, 51 chorda, i, 46, 47, 48. 50, 58 ccelom, early formation of, i, 54 amniotic, i, 55 extra-embryonic, i, 55, 56, 57 conclusions, i, 54 conditions, corresponding, in other mammals, i, 43 disk, embryonic, i, 58 germinal, i. 49 diverticula, ccelomic, i, 49 duct, allantoic, i, 58 amniotic, i, 55 ectoblast, i, 44, 47, 49, 56.


57 ectoderm, i, 47 embryo, body of, i, 47 entoblast, i, 44, 46, 47, 49, 56 entoderm, i, 44, 47, 48, 56.


57 epithelium, intestinal, i, 47, 48, 49 folds, amniotic, i, 45, 46 gastrula, i, 43 cavity, i, 49 gastrulation theory, i, 47 definition, i, 47 two phases of. i, 48 groove, medullary, i, 58 head region, i, 46, 47 hypoblast, i, 47 intestine, i, 47 inversion, i, 46 layer, outer germinal, i, 44 lecithophore, i. 44 macrostomia, ii, 337 membrane, cloacal, i, 47, 58 mesoblast, i, 44, 46, 47, 49, 56, 57 formation of. i. 54 mesoderm, i, 47, 48, 50, 54, 55, 105, 114, 125 differentiation of, ii, 754 segmentation of, in man, ii, 756 morula, i, 44 mouth, dorsal, i, 52 node, primitive, i, 46, 47 notogenesis, i, 51 oestrus, i, 103 ovum, implantation of, i, 54 period, intermenstrual, i, 97, 98, 99 menstrual, i, 97, 102 postmenstrual, i, 97, 102 premenstrual, i, 97, 99, LOO, 101, 119 procestrum, i. 103 protochordate. i. 51 relation of, to " heat," i, 102 ring, germinal, i, 49 segmentation cavity, i, 49

Germ layers, shield, embryonic, i, 44, 45, 46, 47 somites, primitive, i, 47 stomodaeum, i. 51, 52 streak, primitive, i. 44. 45, 46, 47, 49, 52, 56. 58 summary, i, 53 tail bud. i. 4 7 theories, gastrulation and | coelom, i, 47, 48 trochophora, i, 52 trophoblast, i, 44, 56, 57 trunk bud, i, 47 tube, medullary, i. 47 types, three, i, 44 uterine mucosa, structure of, i, 97 villi, i. 56, 51 yolk layer, i. 44 volk navel, i. 47 yolk sack. i. 48, 49. 56, 57 zona pellucida. i. 56 Glands, axillary, i. 281 bulbo-urethral. See Organs, urinogenital. ciliary, ii. 250 ductless, interaction of, ii, 982, 983 lachrymal. accessory, ii, 253 lymphatic. See Lymphatic system. mammary, i, 277 epithelial appendages around, i, 279 primary epithelial bulb of, i, 279 Moll's, i, 280 ; ii, 250 oesophageal, ii, 362 of Bartholin. See Organs, urinogenital. of Cowper. See Organs, urinogenital. reproductive. development of female, ii. 881 sebaceous, i, 266' of lids, ii, 250 sudoriparous, i, 276 sudoriparous, ciliary, i, 280 ; ii, 250 of axillary region, i. 281 of mammary region, i, 277-281 bulb, primary epithelial, i, 279 nipple area, i, 279 zone. i. 278 supernumerary mammae, i. 279 relation of, to hair follicle, i, 281 suprarenal, ii, 157, 159, 160, 170. See under Chromaffin organs. thyreoid, ii, 453 uriniferous. See Organs, urinogenital. Glandula intercarotica, ii, 162 Gluteal muscles, i, 496 Glycogen, i, 146, 148 Granules, eosinophile, ii, 518 Grooves, branchial, i, 73, 81 ; ii, 436 Gustatory organ, ii, 182 papillae foliatae, ii, 185 fungiform, 11, 185 vallate, ii, 184, 186

H Haematoma, retroplacental, 1, 169 Haemoglobin. See Angioblast and blood. Hair. i. 262 bed, i, 266 beginning of formation of, i. 263 bulb, i, 272 papilla of, i, 267 canal, i, 264 Stohr's, i, 264 cells, hair-canal, i, 270 pigment, i. 272 change, i. 275 cone, i, 267 connective tissue papilla of, i. 267 crosses, i, 275 cuticle, i, 271 direction of, i. 274, 275 whorls, i, 275 disks, i. 263, 277 follicle. 267-269 relation of sudoriparous glands to, i, 281 formation. Maurer's theory of, i. 263 germ, i, 264, 265 primary, i, 264 gland, sebaceous, i, 266 lamella, inner vitreous, i, 269 lanugo, i, 270 layer, Henle's, i, 271 Huxley's, i, 271. 272 vitreous, i, 268 matrix plate, i, 26S, 27U musculus arrector pili, i, 267, 268, 269, 27U origin, phylogenetic, i, 263 papilla, i. 265, 267, 273 cushion, i, 273 pili, i, 273 pigment cells of, i, 272 sheath cuticle, i, 271 Huxley's, i, 272 stage, bulb-papilla, i, 267, 268 streams, i, 275 territory, i, 265 theory, Maurer's, i, 263 Weber's, i, 263 trichohyalin, i, 271 vitreous layer of, i, 268, 269 whorls, i. 275 Hand. See Embryo, external form of. Head. See Embryo, external form of. Heart, appendages, auricular, ii, 546 arches, aortic, formation of, ii, 536 area interposita, ii, 544 atrium, interior of, changes in, ii, 547 bulb of, ii, 539, 541, 546 bundle of His, ii, 569 canal, atrial, ii, 537, 540, 541, 548, 550 cavity, pericardial, i, 530, 547 ventricular, ii, 541 Heart cells, vascular, ii, 535 chordae tendinea?, ii, 567, 568 cleft, bulbo-ventricular, ii, 536, 538 bulbo-ventricular, left, ii, 541 crista terminalis, ii. 565 cushions, endocardial, ii, .-,43 endocardial, anterior, ii, 544 endocardial, posterior, ii, 544 endothelial, ii, 555 cylinder, ii, 536 bending of, ii, 536 division of, ii, 537 development of, ii, 534 duct of Cuvier, ii, 557 endocardium, ii, 542, 543, 544, 555 epicardium, ii, 543 foramen, interventricular, ii, 559, 561, 564 ovale I, ii. 548. 555, 557 ovale II, ii. 548, 557, 558 form, external, ii, 545, 556 groove, atrioventricular, ii, 549, 561 bulbo-auricular, ii. 541 interventricular, ii. 550 limbs, bulbo-ventricular, ii, 537, 53S, 541 limbus Vieussenii, ii, 558, 567 mantle, myo-epicardial, ii, 535, 541, 54:: mesocardium, anterior, ii 535 posterior, ii, 535 muscles, papillary, ii, 568 musculature, ii, 562 atrial, ii, 554 cardiac, ii, 543 musculi papillares, ii, 562, 567 pectinati, ii. ."..",4 myocardium, ii, 543, 544, 553, 555 niyo-epkardiutn, ii, 542 noduli Albini, ii, 568 orifices, atrioventricular, ii 559 plate, ii, 535 portion, atrial, ii. 537 ridge, bulbo-auricular ii 541 septum I. ii. r,48, 549, 550, 553, 555, 558 septum II, ii, 54,8, 549, 557, 558 septum, aorto-pulmonary, .i, 553, 555, 563 bulbar, distal, ii. 553 interventricular, ii, 541, 550, 560 primary, ii, 540 spurious, ii. 540. r,4b' 540 553 sinus coronarius. ii, 565 septum, ii, 557 Valsalva?, ii, 559 venosus, ii, 537, 538, 539 horns of, ii, 537, 546, 556 transverse portion of, ii 537

Heart space, intersepto-valvular, ii, 540, 546, 549, 55S stages of, ii, 536 first, ii, 536 second, ii. 545 third, ii, 556 swellings, bulbar, distal, ii, 545, 556, 560 bulbar, proximal, ii, 544, 551, 560 syncytium, cardiac, ii, 563 svstem. atrioventricular, ii.


569 thickenings, endocardial, ii.


543 trabecular, ii. 543, 554 tubes, endothelial, ii. 535, 541 fusion of. ii. 535 valve cusps, ii, 567 valves, ii. 548 atrioventricular, ii, 568 semilunar, ii, 559, 567 sinus, right, ii. 540. 544.


567 venous, left. ii. 548, 549, 558 valvula Eustachii, ii, 557, 567 Thebesii. ii. 557. 566 valvula? vena 1 cava? Eustachii, ii, 565 vein, pulmonary, ii. 549.


558 vena cava superior, ii. 557 Hedgehog, i. 123 Hemispheres, cerebral, i. 70 Henle's sheath, i, 271-273 loop. See Organs, urino genital. Hernia, congenital inguinal, i. 544 diaphragmatic, i. 544 inguinal, i. 544 into exoccelom, i. 544 more common on left side. i.


544 of umbilical cord. i. r>44 physiological umbilical, i, 81 Hind-gut. See Intestinal tract. Humerus, i. 370-381. 386-389 Hydramnios, i. 208, 230 Hydrocephalus, i. 230. 242.


244 Hyoid bone. See Skull, hyoid born , and larynx. Hypoblast. See Germ loners. Hypothalamus. See Nervous system.



Implantation, i. 104. 118, 121 interstitial, i. 1x6 older theory of, i. 120 opening, i. 20. 114. 121 Incus. See Ear. Integument, development of, i. 243 corium, i. 254 and epidermis, connection between, i. 256 bodies, papillary, i. 254 cleavage lines of, i. 260 collagenous connective tissue in, i. 254

Integument, corium, fat, i, 255 cords, i, 255 islands, i, 255 lobes, i, 255 stratum reticulare. i. 254 dermal ridges and folds, i, IT, 7 folds, Blaschko's, i, 258 gland ridges. Blaschko's, i. 258. 259 produced by surface growth, i, 257 rete Malpighii. i, 257 papilla?, i. 259 tension lines, i, 259 dermatome, i. 261 epidermis, i. 243 early stages, i, 243 epitrichium, i. 243 periderm, i, 243-245 stratum germinativum, i, 243. 245. 246 granule inclusions of epidermal cells, i, 251 fat, i. 253 glycogen, i, 253 pigment, i, 252 in ordinary cells, i, 252 in stellate cells, i, 252 stratum corneum. i, 249, 251 granulosum, i. 250 intermedium, i. 246 lucidum, i. 250 metamerism of the skin, i, 261 nerves of the skin, i, 262 segmentation, subepithelial, i. 261 tension folds, i, 260 Intermenstrual period, i, 103 Intestinal tract, ii, 291 allantois, ii. 293 anus, formation of, ii, 323 malformation of, ii, 324 bile-duct, common, ii, 316 caecum and vermiform process, development of, ii, 326 beginning of. ii, 310 canal, chordal. ii. 307 neurenteric. ii. 303, 307 fore-gut, beginning of, ii, 303 formation of, ii, 201 gland, thyreoid, lungs, and liver, early stages, ii, 310 hernia. the normal umbilical, ii. 320 hind-gut. ii, 312 formation of, ii. 306 intestine, prae-oral, ii. 309 si paratlon of, from allantois. ii. 322 return of. to abdominal cavity, ii. 326' knot, primitive, ii. 300, 307, 30S liver, ii. 311. 314. 316 loop, primarv intestinal, 11, 316 torsion of. ii. 319 lungs, ii, 311 membrane, pharvngeal, ii, 309 Intestinal tract, oesophagus, separation of, from the trachea, ii, 312 pancreas, ii, 314 plate, chordal, ii, 303, 304, 306, 307 separation of, from yolksac, ii, 293 sphincter ani, ii, 324 stomach and pancreas, formation of, ii, 313 stomach, form and position of, ii, 330 descent of, ii, 330 streak, primitive, 307, 308 vermiform process, ii, 319 yolk-sac, ii, 295 and allantois, ii, 297 detachment of, ii, 315 Intestine, large, development of, ii, 393 anomalies, ii, 397 contents of, ii, 398 layers, outer, ii, 396 vermiform process, ii, 396 villi and glands, ii, 394 Intestine, small, development of, ii, 381 anomalies, ii, 391 glands, duodenal, ii, 388 intestinal, formation of, ii, 387 layers, outer, ii, 389 muscularis mucosae, ii, 390 tunica propria, ii, 390 vacuoles in duodenal epithelium, ii, 381 vacuoles in jejunum and ileum, ii, 383 valvular conniventes, ii, 390 villi, formation of, ii, 385

Jelly, Wharton's, i, 177 Joints. See Limbs, skeleton of.


K Kidney. See Organs, urino genital. Knee, i, 78 joint, i, 369-372

Langhans's fibrin striae, i, 157 layer, i, 32, 35, 37, 146 Larynx. See Skull, hyoid bone and larynx. Layer, Huxley's, i, 276-277 Langhans's, i, 32, 35, 37, 146 limiting, Zander's, i, 283284 Lecithophore, Van Beneden's, i, 44 Leg, muscles of, I, 494 nerves of. See Nervous system. Leucocytes. See Angioblast and blood. Ligament, coraco-clavicular, i, 381 coraco-humeral, i, 381 costo-clavicular, i, 381 interclavicular, i, 381 stylohyoid, i, 440 Vol. II.— 64

Limbs, skeleton of, i, 318, 366 inferior extremity, i, 367 infantile characteristics, i. 379 period, blastemal, i, 367 scleroblastema, i, 367 chondrogenous, i, 367 ankle, i, 373 femur, i, 369, 374 cartilaginous, i, 370 fibula, i, 369, 372, 375 foot, i, 373 hip-joint, i, 369, 370.


373 knee-joint, i, 369, 372 os coxae, i. 367 tibia, i, 369, 372, 374 period of ossification, i. 375 superior extremity, i. 379 periods, blastemal and chondrogenous, i, 379 bones, sesamoid, i, 385 carpus, i, 380, 381, 382, 383, 3S4 distal row. i, 383 proximal row, i, 382 clavicle, i, 379, 381 elbow, i, 380 forearm, i, 382 hand-plate, i, 380, 381 humerus, i. 379, 380, 381 joints, i, 385 ligaments, i, 381 metacarpalia, i, 384 metacarpals, i, 380, 381 ossification, i, 382, 388 phalanges, i, 380, 381, 385 radius, i. 380, 381, 382 scapula, i, 379 scleroblastema, i, 379 ulna, i, 380, 381, 382 Lip, lower, 77, 86 upper, i, 83, 86 Liquor amnii, i. 172 Liver, development of, ii, 403 anomalies, ii, 428 artery, hepatic, ii, 412 as a whole, ii, 426 bile-capillaries, ii, 415 cells, blood-forming, ii, 409 hepatic, ii, 418 duct, common, ii, 404, 410 cystic, ii, 410 hepatic, ii, 413 portal, ii, 414 ductus venosus, ii, 407 entodermal portion and blood-vessels, relation between, ii, 405 early development of, ii, 403 foramen epiploicum, ii, 424 gall-bladder, ii, 410, 411 ligament, round, ii, 407 ligaments and lobes, ii, 422 lobules, ii, 420 biliary, ii, 420 hepatic, ii, 420 portal, ii, 420 nerves and lymphatics, ii, 419

Liver, recessus umbilicalis, ii, 407 sinusoids, capilliform, II, 407 tissue, perivascular, ii, 408 vein, hepatic, ii, 406 portal, ii, 406 Lungs. See Respiratory system. Lymphatic system, development of, ii, 709 capillaries, growth of, ii, 739 cisterna chyli, ii, 716, 718, 721, 722, 725, 732 considerations, general, ii, 737 duct, thoracic, ii, 712, 715, 722-725 first evidence of, ii, 710 gland chains, ii, 732 ear, middle, ii, 734 Eustachian tube, ii, 734 jugular subclavian, ii, 734 mesenteric, ii, 734 glands, formation of, ii, 735 hemal, ii, 737 iliac, ii, 721 in alimentary canal, special, ii, 737 mesenteric, ii, 719 origin of, a theory of. il, 742 peripheral, ii, 725 lacteals, ii, 732 lymph-sacs, ii, 709. 713 nodes, ii, 716 node, ii, 734 plexus, lymphatic, ii, 727 arm, ii, 729 body, ventral surface of, ii, 729 foot, ii, 729 head, ii, 729 superficiality of, ii, 729 relation of. to tissue spaces, ii, 737 sac, posterior, ii, 716, 719, 721 retroperitoneal, ii, 716, 718, 719, 730, 732 subclavian, ii, 715, 716 sacs, jugular, ii, 710, 713, 715, 716. 722. 724, 732 stages, three, ii. 735-736 two. Ii, 709 summary, ii, 732 table, ii. 733 venous, origin of, II. 739 Lymphoid organs, leucocyte formation in, ii, 533

M Microstomia, ii, 337 Malformations in nasal region, ii, 214 Malleus. See Ear. Markcylinder, ii, 47 Markprisma, ii, 47 Matrix plate, i. 272 Maxilla, i, 437 Mernbrana prima, i, 29 Membrane, decidual, i, 92 Descemet's. See Eye.


or plate, chorionic, i. 131 pleuroperitoneal, i, 540, 541 Menstruation, i, 97 constant activity of, i, 97 cycle, menstrual, i, 97 metcestrum, i, 103 Mesenchyme, ii, 738 axial, i, 300 Mesoblast. See Germ layers. Mesocardium. See Heart. Mesoderm, ii, 58. See also Germ layers. Metatarsal pads, i, 97 Micropyle, i, 5 Microstomia, ii, 337 Mongolian spots, i, 260 Monsters, i, 202 percentage of, i, 204 production of, by mechanical influences, i, 230 Morula, i, 44 Mouth, i, 83 ; ii, 335 and its organs, ii, 335 glands, salivary, ii, 347 lips and cheeks, formation of, ii, 337 palate, formation of, ii, 340 teeth, ii, 349 eruption of, ii, 353 tongue, ii, 343 papillae of, ii, 346 musculature of, ii, 344 uvula, ii, 342 Muscular system, development of, i, 454 and nervous, i, 455 independence of, i, 456 arm. See Shoulder and arm (below), extremities, muscles of, i, 482 arm, i, 488 shoulder-girdle, i, 483 forearm, extensor muscles of, i, 490 flexor muscles of, i, 4'.>formation of, i, 456, 457 gluteal, i, 496 hand, intrinsic muscles of, i, 493 head, muscles of, i, 505 facial (hyoid arch), i, 509 larynx, intrinsic muscles of, i, 518 mandibular arch, i, 508 orbit, 505 pharyngeal, i, 516 tongue, i, 518 histogenesis, i, 458 cross-striated muscle, i, 464 smooth muscle, i, 458 iliocostal group, i, 474 intercostal, i, 476 larynx, i, 518 leg. muscles of, i, 494 femoral group, i, 494 foot, extensors of. i, 500 flexors of, i, 501 plantar muscles, i, 503 gluteal, i, 496 obturator group, i. 496 thigh muscles, posterior, i, 498 mesoderm, segmentation of.


i. 469 neck, i. 480

Muscular system, neck, nerve supply as key, i, 458 origin of, i, 454, 457 perineum, i, 478 peroneal, i, 500 plantar, i, 503 scalenus group of, i, 480 segments, primitive, differentiation of, i, 470 self-differentiation in, i, 456, 457 shoulder and arm, i, 488 striped, i, 464 trunk, i, 473 back, deep muscles of, i, 473 subvertebral muscles, i, 478 thoraco - abdominal muscles, i, 475 ventrolateral, of neck, i, 180 Myocoel, i, 470-471 Myotome, i, 474-475 coelomic cavity of, i, 543 columns, i, 474-475

N Nackenlinie, i, 187, 194, 196 Nails, i, 281 corniflcation, precocious, i, 284 eponychium, Unna's, i, 283, 284 fold, lateral nail, i, 282, 283 formation, i, 284, 285 furrow, distal limiting, i, 282, 283 posterior limiting, i, 282 proximal limiting, i, 283 keratin, i, 284 keratohyalin granules, i, 283 layer, i, 283, 285 layer, Zander's limiting, i, 283 limiting furrows of, i, 282 onychogenous substance, i, 284 primary base, i, 281 field, i, 281 ridges, longitudinal, i, 285 root lamella, i, 282 Nares, external, epidermal plugs of, 185 Neck, i, 74, 77, 78 groove, ii, 456 muscles, ii, 480 Nervous system, development of, ii, 1 central nervous system, ii, 29 anterior horn, ii, 42 arcuate fibres, ii, 44 at end of first month, ii, 40 brain, ii, 33, 40 early finding of, i. 70 subdivisions of, ii, 30 mesencephalon, ii, 30 prosencephalon, ii, 30 rhombencephalon, ii. 30 cerebellum, ii. 39, 44 cerebral hemisphere, ii, 47

Nervous system, central, corpora quadrigemina, ii, 46 corpus striatum, ii, 40 development of, during first month, ii, 31 diencephalon, ii, 36, 39 differences in vertebrates, ii, 29 ectodermal layer as origin, ii, 29 enlargements in, ii, 29 ependymal layer, ii, 44, 46 zone, ii, 42, 46 eyeball, ii, 39 flexure, cephalic, ii, 37, 39 pontine, ii, 37, 39 fold, ventral cephalic, ii, 36 foramen of Monro, ii, 47 . forebrain, ii, 35, 37 formatio reticularis, ii, 44 ganglion, acustico-facial, ii, 272, 677 cervical, ii, 162 grooves, rhombic, ii, 44 hindbrain, ii, 36, 37 hypothalamus, ii, 36, 47 tracts in, ii, 82 columna fornicis, ii, 82 fasciculus mammillotegmentalis, ii, 82 thalamomammillaris, ii, 82 infundibulum, ii, 33, 47 isthmus, ii, 39 lamina terminalis, ii, 33, 47 margo thalamicus, ii, 36, 40 medulla oblongata, ii, 29 mesencephalon, ii, 30, 34, 39, 46 metencephalon, ii, 39 midbrain, ii, 35, 44, 46, 47 roof, ii. 29 myelencephalon, ii, 39 neopallium, ii, 82, 88 nerve, abducens, ii, 42, 45 acoustic, ii, 44, 45 cranial, ii, 43, 45 third and fourth, nuclei of, ii, 46 distribution, ii, 45 facial, ii, 44, 45, 46 nucleus, ii fourth, ii, 46 dorsal decussation of, ii, 46 glossopharyngeal, ii, 44, 45 hypoglossal, ii, 42 lateral group of, ii, 46 ninth, ii, 44, 4o seventh, ii, 44 spinal accessory, ii, 44 tenth, ii. 44, 46 trigeminal, ii, 42, 44,.


45, 46 vagus, ii, 44. 45 nerves, motor, ii. 44 sensory, ii. 44 neural groove, ii, 31 plate, ii, 31 Nervous system, central, neuromeres, i, 70 neurons, higher, ii, 40 primary, of peripheral nerves, ii, 40 neuropores, ii, 31, 32, 36 anterior, ii, 31, 33, 35 posterior, ii, 31, 33 nucleus ambiguus. ii, 44 optic chiasma, ii, 33 cup, ii, 47 evagination, ii, 36, 39 nerve, ii, 39-40 stalk, ii, 47 origin of, ii, 29 pallium, ii, 36. 40 peripheral system, ii, 29 plates, alar and basal, ii, 42 pons, ii, 39 posterior funiculi, ii, 44 prosencephalon, ii, 30, 64, 46, 47 recess, mammillary, ii, 39 rhombencephalon, ii, 30, 34-37, 39, 40, 42, 44, 46 nerves of, ii, 42 sense organs of smell and sight, ii, 47 sheaths, myelin, development of, ii. 104 subdivision of, ii, 29, 30 sulcus limitans, ii, 42 system, branchiomeric, ii, 46 telencephalon, ii, 36, 40 thalamencephalon, ii, 46, 47 thalamus, ii, 29, 36, 47 tractus solitarius, ii, 44 tube, hollow, ii, 29 velum medullare anterius, ii, 39 ventricle, fourth, ii, 44 lateral, ii, 46 vesicles, anterior primary, ii, 36' three primary, ii, 30 visual apparatus, ii, 47 zone, mantle, ii, 46 cord, spinal, ii, 33, 40 anterior commissure, ii, 53 anterolateral ground bundle, ii, 47 arcuate fibres, internal, ii, 48, 53 blood-vessels of, ii, 53 canal, central, ii, 49, 50 cauda equina, ii, 59 caudal end, departures in, ii, 56 filum terminale, ii, 57, 58, 59 vestiges medullaires coccygiens, ii, 57 segment cocygien direct, ii, 57 refechi, ii, 57 chorda, ii. b8 column of Goll, ii, 54 neutral, ii. 51 columns of, ii, 47 anterior gray, ii, 47, 51 posterior gray, ii, 47, 50, 52

Nervous system, cord, conus medullaris, ii, 58 enlargements of, ii, 29 ependyma, ii, 51 tibres, descending, ii, 53 intersegmental, ii, 53 of descending palliospinal tracts, ii, 53 suprasegmental, ii, t>3 four-sided form of, ii, 47 from first month to" | maturity, ii, 47 funiculi, anterolateral, ii, dorsal, ii, 50 posteriores, ii, 53, 54 ganglion, coccygeale, ii, 59 groove, marginal, ii, 48 horn, lateral, ii, 51 horns, posterior, ii, 52 myelinization of fibres of, ii, 54 differentiation by, ii, 55 root-zone, anterior, ii, 56 column of Goll, ii, 56 fasciculus gracilis, ii, 56 posterior, ii, 56 order of, ii, 56 nerve roots, ii, 59 anterior, ii, 51 motor, ii. 47 posterior, ii, 47-48 nerves, coccygeal, ii, 58 nucleus, gracile, ii, 54 position of, in vertebral canal, ii, 58 root fibres, dorsal, ii, 53 schaltstiick, ii, 48 septum, posterior median, ii, 50 substantia gelatinosa, ii, 47, 52 sulcus limitans, ii, 47, 49 tube, neural, ii, 47, 48 cephalic flexure, ii, 35 flexures of, formation, ii, 38 plates of, ii, 47 ventriculus terminalis, ii, 58 zone, ependymal, ii, 47, 49, 50 mantle, ii, 47, 49, 50— 52 marginal, ii, 47 diencephalon, development of, ii, 77 bodies, geniculate, ii, 82 mammillary, ii, 78 body, chorioid, ii, 80 capsule, internal, ii, 78 chiasm, optic, ii, 78 commissura mollis, ii, 82 epiphysis, ii, 81 epithalamus, ii, 82 foramen of Monro, ii, 79 ganglia habenula?, ii, 81 hypophysis, ii, 78 hypothalamus, ii, 77, 82 infundibulum, ii, 7S lamina terminalis, ii, 80 metathalamus, ii, 77, 82 nuclei, lateral, ii, 77 nucleus, cochlear, ii, 76

Nervous system, diencephalon, nucleus, optic, ii, 77 ventrolateral thalamic, ii, 82 pars optica hypothalam ica, ii, 7S pedunculi cerebri, ii, 78 pouch, Rathkes hypophyseal, ii, 78 prosencephalon, ii, 77 recess, mammillary, ii, 79 sulcus hypothalamicus, ii, 77 tela chorioidea of the third ventricle, ii, 80 telencephalon, ii, 77, 79 thalamus, ii, 77, 82 three main regions of, ii, 82 tuber cinereum, ii, 79 velum transversum, ii, 79 hindbrain, after end of first month, ii, 59 rhombencephalon, ii, 59 afferent path, ii, 65 arcuate fibres, external, ii, 62 internal, ii, 62, 65 brachium pontis, ii, 66.


69 cells, persistent embryonic, ii, 65 cerebellum, ii, 61, 66, 67 at end of first month, ii, 67 brachia conjunctiva, ii, 74 cells, Purkinje, ii, 74 cortex, ii, 71 ependyma, ii, 71 in fifth month, ii, 69 in second month, ii, 69 in third month, ii, 69 lobe, anterior, ii, 71 median, ii, 71 posterior, ii, 71 tonsil, ii, 71 uvula, ii, 71 lobes, lateral, ii, 69, 71 nodulus, ii, 71 nucleus dentatus, ii, 74 peduncle, middle cerebellar, ii, 74 recess, lateral, ii, 69 stratum granulare, ii, 72 marginale embry onale, ii, 72 moleeulare, ii, 72 tracts, centripetal, ii, 74 velum, anterior medullary, ii, 72 vermis, ii, 71 clava, ii, 67 corpus pontobulbare. ii, 65 cuneus. ii. 67 fasciculus, median longitudinal, ii, 62 fibre tracts, tautomeric intersegmental, ii, 62 flexure, pontine, ii, 59


11,

nu


Nervous system, hindbrain, foramen of Magendie, ii, 61 foramina of Luschka, ii, 61 formatio reticularis, ii, 62, 65 alba, ii, 62 grisea, ii, 62 funiculi, posterior, ii.


64, 65 ganglion masses, supra segmental. ii. 59 lemniscus, lateral, 67 medial, ii, 65 nerve, abducens, cleus, ii, b7 acoustic, ii, 66 hypoglossal, nucleus, ii, 67 trochlear, ii, 69 nerves, cranial, ii, 62 effector fibres, ii, 62 receptive nuclei, ii, 62 peripheral, receptive nuclei, ii, 63 nervus trigeminus, ii, 64 vestibularis, ii, 64 neurons, intersegmental, ii, 59, 62. 63 nuclei, spinal, ii, 64 suprasegmental, ii, 62, 63 nucleus, acoustic, ii, 66 cuneate, ii. 05 gracile, ii, 65 inferior olivary, ii, 65 tractus solitarii, 11, 64 vestibularis spinalis, ii, 64 olive, median accessory, ii, 65 nucleus of, ii, 65 plate, alar. ii. 60 plica chorioidea, ii, 61 pons, ii, 66 pontine nuclear mass, ii. 65 raphe, ii, 62. 63 restiform body, ii, 65 septum, median, ii, 63 j substantia gelatinosa, ii, 64 sulcus limitans, ii, 59 tela chorioidea. ii, 69 inferior, ii, 61 tract, pyramidal, ii, 66 descending pyra midal, ii. 6'2 efferent, ii. 62 tractus solitarius, ii, 64 trapezium, ii, 67 olive, inferior, 67 superior, 67 tnberculum acusticum, ii. 61 ventricle. fourth. ii, 60, 67 obex, ii, 60 taenia of, ii, 60

Xervous system, hindbrain, ventricle, fourth, zone, ependymal, ii. 59 zone, mantle, ii, 59, 63 marginal, ii, 59 longitudinal bundle in, ii, 62 midbrain, development of, ii. 74 bodv, median geniculate, ii. 77, 82 brachia conjunctiva, ii, 76 brachium, inferior, ii, 77 cerebrum, peduncles of, ii, 76 colliculus, inferior, ii, 75, 76, 77 superior, ii, 76, 77 corpora quadrigemina, ii, 75 fasciculus, anterolateral, ii, 75 retroflexus, ii, 76 formatio reticularis, ii, 76 ganglion masses, suprasegmental, ii, 75 lemniscus, lateral, ii, 76, 77 median, ii, 76, 77 nerve, abducens, ii, 75 acusticus, ii, 76 cranial, fourth, ii, 75 third, ii, 75 facial, ii, 76 hypoglossal, ii, 76 oculomotor, ii. 75 trochlear, ii, 75 nucleus, dentate, ii, 76 interpeduncular, ii, 76 ruber, ii, 76 tegmental, ii, 76 Sylvius, aqueduct of, ii, 76 tegmentum, ii, 76 tract fibres, optic, ii, 76, 77 rubrospinal, ii, 76 nervous tissue, histogenesis, ii, 1 axial plate, neural, ii, 1, 2. 3 ectoderm, ii, l groove, neural, ii, 1 nerve fibres, myelinization of, ii, 23 central nervous system, sheath cells of, ii. 25 myelin, ii, 24 myelin, formation, beginning of, ii, 26 origin of, ii, 25 neurolemma, ii, 23 node of Ranvier, ii. 24 non-medullated, ii. 23 sheath of Schwann, ii. 23 neuroblasts and motor nerves, ii, 10 ganglion-cells in, ii, 15 origin of true nerve cells, ii, 10 sheath cells of Schwann, ii, 15

Xervous system, nervous tissue, neuroblasts, theory, cell-chain, ii, 13 neuroglia framework, development of, ii, 5 cells, ependymal, ii, 5 gliogenetic, ii, 10 neuroglia, ii, 5, 7, 8, 9 neuroglia, fibrillation in, ii, 9 neuroglia, variation iu shape of, ii. 8 ependymal neuroglia, persistence of, ii, 77 fibres, neuroglia, ii, 5, 8 neuroglia, independent, specific properties of, ii, 9 neuroglia, not processes of neuroglia cells, ii, 9 fissure, anterior median, ii, 6 membrane, lining, of cerebrospinal canal, ii, 6 septum, posterior median, ii, 6 simple type of, persistence of, ii, 6 spinal ganglia and sensory nerve-roots, ii, 16 cell processes, ii, 21 cells, indifferent, ii, 19 ganglion, ii, 17, 18, 19 supporting, ii, 18 ganglioblast, ii, IS ganglion crest, ii, 16 tube, neural, ii, i, 31 cerebral vesicles, ii, 1 closure of, ii, 3 development of walls of, ii, 2 cells, ganglion, ii, 5 cells, germinal, ii, 4 indifferent, ii, 5 ependyma. ii, 2 gray substance, ii, 2 neuroblasts, ii, 5 neuroglia tissues, ii, 5 spongioblasts, ii, 5 three layers, ii, 2 intermediate, nuclear, or mantle, ii. 3, 4 outer, non-nuclear, or marginal, ii, 3 ventricular or ependymal, ii. 3 white substance, ii, 2 myelospongium, if, 2, 3, 4 nerves, ii. l spinal cord, ii, l subdivisions of, ii, 39 syncytium, compact, nucleated, protoplasmic, ii, 3 ventricles, ii. 1 peripheral nervous system, ii. 117

Nervous system, peripheral, ansa hypoglossi, il, 133 branches, cutaneous, li, 119 muscular, ii, 119 terminal, ii, 119 cells, ganglion, ii, 119 division, anterior primary, ii, 119 posterior primary, ii, 119 ganglion, ciliary, ii, 160 Froriep's, ii, 133 semilunar, ii, 141 group, somatic motor, ii, 132 abducens, ii, 132, 135 hypoglossal, ii, 132, 133, 136 oculomotor, ii, 132, 134 trochlear, ii, 132, 135 visceral, facial, ii, 136 glossopharyngeal, ii, 136, 138, 139 tractus solitarius, ii, 136, 142 trigeminus, ii, 141, 142 vagus, ii, 136, 139, 140 loops, intersegmental, ii, 119 nerves, arm, ii, 127 and leg, ii, 122 cutaneous, ii, 127 cerebral, ii, 128 cervical, first, ii, 120 cutaneous, lateral, ii, 128 femoral, ii, 128 hypogastric, ii, 12S hypoglossal, ii, 120 inguinal, ii, 128 phrenic, ii, 120 special sense organs, ii.


129 spinal, ii. 117 thoracic, twelfth, ii, 128 nervus acusticus, ii, 130 ganglion of, ii, 130, 131 spirale, ii, 132 axillaris, ii, 125, 127 descendens cervicis, il, 120, 134 descendens hypoglossi, ii, 133 femoralis, ii, 124 medianus, ii, 125 musculocutaneus, ii, 125, 127 obturator, ii, 124 peronseus communis, ii, 124 radialis, ii, 126, 127 sciaticus, ii, 124 subscapularis, ii, 127 suprascapularis, ii, 127 thoracales anteriores, ii, 127 thoracalis longus, ii, 127 tibialis, ii, 124 ulnaris, ii, 125, 127 plexus, brachial, ii, 120, 125, 126

Nervous system, peripheral, plexus, cervical, ii. 120 deep, ii, 120 superficial, ii, 120 formation, ii, 119 intramuscular, ii, 123 lumbosacral, ii, 120, 124, 126 nerve roots, anterior, ii, 42 dorsal, ii, 42 ventral, derivation of. ii, 117 trunk, main, termination of, ii, 119 sympathetic nervous system, ii, 144 cells, chromaffin, ii, 154 chain, ganglionic, ii, 152 cranial, ii, 149 ganglia, ii, 149, 150 ciliary, ii, 150, 152 otic, ii, 150, 152 sphenopalatine, ii, 150, 152 submaxillary, ii, 150, 152 ganglia, sympathetic, prevertebral, ii, 152 submucous, ii, 153 visceral, ii, 152 ganglion cell of, ii, 147 origin of, ii, 144, 148 plexus, cardiac, ii, 153, 161 cceliac, ii, 153, 158, 161, 164, 168 hypogastric, ii, 153, 161, 165 telencephalon, development of, ii, S2 archipallium, ii, 88 bulb, olfactory, ii, 89 capsule, internal, ii, 85, 87 fibres of, ii, 87 cavum septi pellucidi, ii, 91 cells, pyramidal, ii, 98 commissure, anterior, ii, 90 commissures, interfore brain, ii, 90 corpora striata and pallium, ii, 83 corpus callosum, ii, 90, 91 striatum, ii, 82, 83. 85, 87 cortex, histological areas, ii, 100 visual, ii. 100 dendrites, ii, 99 ependyma, ii, 100 falx cerebri, ii, 84 fascia, dentate, ii, SS.


94, 100 fissura chorioidea, ii. S4 fissure, great longitudinal, ii, 84 foramen of Monro, ii, S3.


87 fornix, ii, 90 gray matter, ii. 100 gyrus ambiens, ii. 88 lateral olfactory, ii, 88

Nervous system, telencephalon, hemisphere, development of wall of, ii, 95 white substance of, ii, 99 hippocampus, ii. 88, 100 hypothalamus, ii, 90 lamina terminalis, ii, 90 layer, cortical, ii, 100 internal granular, ii, 100 pyramidal, ii, 100 line of Gennari, ii, 100 lobe, frontal, ii, 84 temporal, ii, 84 nerves, cranial, first, il, 89 nucleus, caudate, ii, 85 caudate, tail of, ii, 85 olfactory apparatus, ii, 88 optic chiasm, ii, 82 pallium, ii, 82, 83 Retzius papillae, ii, 100 rhinencephalon, ii, 82, 83, 85, 87 septum pellucidum, ii, 87, 90 space, anterior perforated, ii, 90 stria semicircularis, ii, 87 strife of Lancisi, ii, 94 sulci and convolutions, formation of, ii, 100 arcuate, ii, 100 anterior, ii, 101 calcarine, ii, 103 callosomarginal, ii, 103 central, ii, 103 cerebral, ii, 103 collateral, ii, 103 frontal, inferior, ii, 103 superior, ii, 103 hippocampal, ii, 100, 103 interparietal, ii, 103 olfactory system, ii, 100 orbital, ii, 103 parieto-occipital, ii, 103 parolfactory, ii, 103 superior, ii, 101 postcentral, ii, 103 precentral, inferior, ii, 103 superior, ii, 103 rhinal, ii, 100, 101, 103 Sylvian, ii, 101, 103 temporal, superior, ii, 103 transitory, ii, 104 sulcus limitans, ii, 82 taenia semicircularis, ii, 85, 86 thalamus, ii, 83 tracts, commissural, ii, 90 ventricles, ii, 85 fifth, ii, 91 lateral, anterior horn, ii, 84 descending horn, ii, 84 posterior horn, ii, 84 Node, false, of umbilical cord.


i, 172 Nomenclature, B. N. A., i, 546 Normoblast, ii, 507


Nose, i, 83, 84, 91 alar cartilage of, ii, 213 Notochord, i, 328 Nuck, diverticulum of, i, 544 Nutrition of embryo, i, 524

(Esophagus, ii, 546 anomalies of, ii, 367 cells, ciliated, ii, 360 non-ciliated, ii, 362 development of, ii, 355 folds, ii, 359 glands, ii, 362 layers, outer, ii, 365 vacuoles in epithelium of, ii, 357 Olfactory organ, ii, 188 agger nasi, ii, 201, 202, 206 beginning of, ii, 189 bulla ethmoidalis, ii, 204 cavities, nasal, ii, 213 cells, ethmoidal, ii, 204, 205 concha;, ii, 199, 200, 204 growth of, ii, 211 inferior, ii, 206, 214 middle, ii, 214 obtectse, ii, 200, 204 superior, ii, 206 ethmoturbinal, ii, 200, 206 floor, nasal, ii, 210 folds, septal, ii, 206 Jacobson's cartilage, ii, 196 malformations, ii, 214 maxilloturbinal, ii, 202, 206 meatus, inferior nasal, ii, 201 superior, ii, 206 mouth cavity, ii, 208 nares, external, ii, 211 nasal fossse, ii, 191 skeleton, ii, 211 nasoturbinal, ii, 201, 203 nerves, ii, 207 organ of Jacobson, ii, 195, 197, 198 palatal processes, 208 processus uncinatus, ii, 204 sinus frontalis, ii, 205 maxillary, ii, 205 spaces, accessory, ii, 206 Oocyte. See Germ-cells. Organs, uriuogenital, development of, ii, 752 divisions of, ii, 752 glands, excretory, development of, ii, 753 bladder, ii, 869 musculature, ii, 8S0 bodies, suprarenal, ii, 788 cloaca, division of, ii, 869 bladder and urethra, separation of, ii, 878 epithelium of, ii, 880 later development of, ii, 879 musculature, ii, 880 duct, cloacal, ii, 872 excretory, terminal portion, ii, 877 hillock, Miiller's, ii, 878 membrane, anal, ii, 872 urogenital, ii. 872 pars pelvina, S76

Organs, urinogenital, glands, excretory, cloaca, pars phallica, ii, 876 septum, urorectal, ii, 871 sinus urogenitalis, ii, 876 cord, genital, ii, 791 sexual differences and, ii, 793 nephrogenic, ii, 755, 758 corpuscles, Malpighian, ii, 784 duct, excretory, ii, 787 primary, ii, 784 Mullerian, ii, 787 fold, mesonephric, ii, 787 folds, urogenital, ii, 783 gland, reproductive, ii, 786, 812 kidney, ii, 834 ampullae, ii, 837 capsule of, ii, 865 Bowman'3, ii, 847, 848, 849 Malpighian, ii. S50 change of position of, ii, 863 columns of Bertini. ii, 844, 845, 846, 861 corpuscles. Malpighian.


ii, 852, 855-857 cortex, ii, 861 loop. Henle's, ii. 849, 850, S54, 855, 861 Stoerk's. ii, 854. 855 malformations of, ii, 867 medulla, ii, S61 papillae, ii, 855, 859, 860. 861, 863 pelvis, ii. 835, 859 permanent, ii. 753 provisional, ii. 753 pyramid, Malpighian, ii, 843. 846 rays, medullary, ii. 862 right and left." ii, 863 tubules, ii, 836, 858. 861 development of, from metanephrog e n i c tissue, ii, 846 metanephrogenic tissue and, ii, 842 tubulus contortus, ii, 849 ureter, epithelium of, ii. 866 later development of. ii. 865 vesicle, metanephric, ii.


847 vessels of, ii. 864 mesoderm, ii, 754 segmentation of, in man. ii, 756 mesogenital. ii. 786, 787, 791 mesonephros, ii, 753, 783, 796. 614 . arteries. mesonephric, ii. 820 capsule. Bowman's, ii, 796, 805, 808 cord, mesonephrogenic, ii, 799

Organs, urinogenital, glands, excretory, mesonephros, cord, metanephrogenic, ii, 799 corpuscle, Malpighian, ii, 803, 804, 806, 808, 812 degeneration period, first, ii, 815 second, ii, 829 duct, aberrant, of Haller, ii, 813 excretory, primary, ii, 796, 799. 804, 807, 812, 813, 817, 830 ductus collectivus par adidymidis. ii, 830 epididymis, ii, 812 epigenitalis, ii, 812, 819, 829 epoophoron, ii, 812, 819. 830 function of, ii. 868 glomerulus, ii, 805 external, ii, 796 ligament, broad, ii. 830 mesonephroi. ii. 808, 809. 811. 812 ovary, ii. 830 paradidymis, ii. 812, 830 parasrenitalis, ii, 812, Slo, 829 paroophoron, ii. 812.


S30 sexual portion of. ii, 812 stalk, segment, primitive, ii, 798. 818 tubules, epigenital. ii, 829 mesonephric, ii, 796, 817 mesonephric, formation of, ii, 800 mesonephric, parent tissue of, ii, 798, 818 mesonephric, rudiments of, ii, 819 paragenital, ii. 829 pronephric, ii, 819 veins of, ii, 825 mesorchium, ii, 786 mesovarium, ii, 786 metanephroi, ii, 789, 809 metanephros, ii, 753, 789 cord, nephrogenic, ii, 831 development of, ii, 831 phylogenetic, ii, 867 divisions of, ii, 831 tubules of, ii, 831 tubulus contortus, ii, 831 origin of, ii, 754 phallus, ii, 794 pronephros, ii, 753 canal nephrostome, ii, 759 chamber, pronephric, ii. 759, 774 cord, nephrogenic, ii, 764 degeneration of, ii, 761.


782 development of. ii. 759 Organs, urinogenital, glands, excretory, pronephros, duct, free terminal portion, ii, 772 glomeruli, external, ii, 760, 762, 770, 782 in man, ii, 761 portion, collecting duct, ii, 761 free terminal, ii, 761 ridges, pronephric, ii, 763, 764 stalk, segment, primitive, ii, 767 tubule. principal, ii, 759, 770 pronephric. ii, 760.


761, 762. 764 supplemental, ii, 759 uriniferous, ii, 776 two divisions, ii, 761 vessels of. ii, 774 aorta, ii, 778, 780, 781 arteries, intestinal, ii. 776, 778 * artery, cceliaco-mesenteric, ii, 777 umbilical, ii, 778, 780 rami intestinales, ii, 781 rete mirabile. ii, 776 peri-intestinale, ii, 778. 781 vein, cardinal, posterior, ii, 782 omphalomesenteric, ii, 779 rectum, ii, 869 stalk, primitive segment, ii. 754. 755, 756, 758, 783, 784 tubules, mesonephric, ii, 787 urinary, ii. 753. 754 ureter, development of, ii, 833. 835 glands, reproductive, development of. ii. 881 blood-vessels of, ii. 909 arteries. mesonephric. ii. 909 spermatic, acessorv, ii, 909 spermatic, internal, ii. 909 canal, utero-vaginal. formation of. ii. 915 formation of wall of, 916 form, external, ii. 91 6 cells, genital, ii. 882, 901 orisrin of. ii. 8S2 chorda gubernaculi, ii. 943. 946. 947. 968. 969 clitoris and labia, development of. ii, 954 cords. Pfliiger's. ii. 904 differences of, ii. 910 differentiation of. ii, 890 female, 'ii. 891 male, ii. 891 oogonia. ii. 890 spermatogonia, ii. 890 duct, excretory, primarv, ii, 915 Miillerian. early, ii, 911

Organs, urinogenital, glands, reproductive, ducts, female, ii, 911 para-urethral, ii, 966 Skene's, ii, 966 fascia cremasterica, ii, 945 follicles, Graafian, ii, 905 genitalia, external, development of, ii, 947 homologies of male and female, ii, 958 glands. Bartholin's, ii, 966, 967 bulbo-urethral, ii, 966 Cowper's, ii, 966, 967 sinus, develoment of the small, ii. 967 vestibular, ii, 966 indifferent, ii, 881 development of, ii, 885 mediastinum testis, ii, 893, 896 rete blastema, ii, 892, 896, 905 septula testis, ii, 895 testis cords, ii, 892 transformation of, into testis, ii, 891 tunica albuginea testis, ii, 896 in the female, ii, 910 in the male, ii, 909 labia and clitoris, development of, ii, 954 ligaments of, ii, 940, 942 round, ii, 943, 946, 947 ligamentum labiale, ii, 946 ovarii proprium, ii, 942, 946, 947 scroti, ii, 944 testis, ii. 942. 946. 947 lumina. vascular, ii, 909 male embryos, degeneration of tubes and utero-vaginal canal in, ii. 929 mediastinum ovarii, ii, 900 ovary, ii, 881, 890 and tube, relative position of, ii, 908 form of, ii, 907 gland, reproductive, transformation of into, ii, 897 growth of, ii. 903 malformations of, ii.


909 septa ovarii, ii, 900 penis and scrotum, development of. ii. 951 phallus, ii. 948 indifferent, ii, 949 prostate, ii. 965 rete arteriosum urogenitals ii. 909 saccus vaginalis, formation of. ii. 969 scrotum and penis, development of. ii, 951 sexual differentiation, ii.


881. 940 sinus urogenitalis. further development of. 11, 960 glands in. n. 965. 967 malformations of. ii, 964

Organs, urinogenital, glands, reproductive, testis, ii, 881, 890 and ovary, comparison of, ii, 910 artery of, ii, 909 descent of, ii. 967 malformations of, ii, 897 tubercle, genital, ii, 948 tubes. Fallopian, definite wall of, formation of, ii. 919 tunica albuginea ovarii, ii, 900 vaginalis communis, ii, 972 propria testis, ii, 972 vasculosa, ii. 910 urogenital fold, organs of, fate of, ii, 973 union, ii, 937 sex, female, degeneration of urogenital union and primary excretory duct, ii, 939 male, further differentiation of, ii, 937 uterus and vagina, transformation of tubar portion of uterus and utero-vaginal canal into, ii, 919 female, external form, development of, ii, 918 growth of, post-fetal, ii, 928 male, external form, development of, ii, 918 masculinus. ii. 918 musculature of, ii, 926 wall, development of, ii, 924 vagina, development of, ii. 921 vagina and uterus, inhibitions of development of. ii. 930 of utero-vasrinal canal, ii. 933 of uterus, ii. 932. 936 musculature of. ii. 926 veins, spermatic, ii. 910 Ossicles, auditory. See Ear. Ossification centres, primary. 350 secondary, i. 352 Ovium and spermium. comparison of. i. 13. 14. 15 development of. three stages of. i. 13 monsters, i. 15 number of, i. 15 relation of. i. 182. 183 predetermination of, i. 17 twins, i, 15 Ovulation and mestruation, relation of, i. 182, 183 normal period of, i, 121 relation of. to menstruation, i. 181. 198 Ovum, i, 28, 228 abortive, i, 202 amnion, i, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 belly stalk, i, 23, 24, 38, 39 insertion of, i, 36 blood-vessels, i, 25, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42 bodv ellipsoidal opaque, i, 24 canal, neurenteric, i, 31, 36, 39, 40, 41 capsule scar, i, 22 cavitv, amniotic, i, 23, 26, 29, 30, 38 formation of, i, 21 medullo-amniotic, i, 30, 31 mesodermic, i, 41 cell columns, i, 32, 35 chorda, i, 41, 42 chorion, i, 23, 24, 28. 29.


30. 33, 36, 37, 38, 39 mesoderm of, i, 36 rapid growth of, i, 21 cleft, pericardial, i. 40 coelom. embryonic, i, 42 extra-embryonic, i. 40, 41 cytotrophoblast. i. 25. 28, 30. 32, 35. 37 deeidua. i, 25. 37 basalis, i, 37 capsularis. i, 35 disk, germinal, i, 29, 30, 31, 39, 40 diverticulum, entoblastlc, i, 29 duct, allantoic, i. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 38 amniotic, i, 29, 32, 34, 42 ectoblast. i. 33, 39, 40. 41 chorionic, i. 28, 29, 31 embryo, i. 23, 24, 28 position of, in ovum. i. 21 slow growth of, i, 21 endoblast, i, 41 endothelium, i. 40 entoblast. i, 31, 39, 40. 41 entoderm, i, 42 epithelium, ccelomic. i. 36, 37, 38 exocoelom. i, 30 fertilization of. i. 26 and imbeddine. table of.


i. 27 chronological table of. I, 26 fertilized, age of, i, 119 folds, medullary, i. 36, 39 fragmentation, i, 7 fungoid tissue, i, 25, 28 groove, medullary, i, 36, 39, 40, 41 primitive, i, 40 heart, i, 23. 42 human, and embrvos, early, i, 21-42 definition, I, 21 early production of, i. 7 implantation of, i, 102, 109, 122 passage of through tube, i. 19, 118 pathology of. i. 202 abortion, i, 202, 203

Ovum, human, pathology of, anencephaly, i, 203, 207, 240 cause of. i, 227-240 mechanical, i, 233 ovum, i, 227-231 uterus, i, 231-233 chorion, i, 208, 210, 211, 212 cleft palate, i, 203, 207 cyclopia, i, 231, 238, 240 development, general arrest of, i, 203 diminished size, i, 207 dissociation, i, 234—237 dropsv, i, 230, 236, 237, 240 ectopia of liver, i, 203 embryos. pathological classification, i, 214— 225 exocoelom, i, 208. 209 frequency as to time, i, 225 granular, stringy substance, i. 214 hydramnins. i. 230 hydrocephalus, i, 230 magma reticule 1 , i, 209 monsters, i. 20?,, 204, 205. 210. 226. 229240 conditions for perpetuating, i, 238 percentage of, i. 238 with hvdramnios, i, 20S mucoid substance, i, 214 normal, i. 205 percentage, i, 20?,, 204 in first month, i. 204 in second month, i. 204 process, i. 227-240 relation of diameter of chorion to length of embryo, i. 207, 208 salt solution, specific action of. i, 230, 238 spina bifida, i, 203.


207, 231. 240 teratomata. comparative, experimental, 1. 229, 230 heart degenerations, i. 230 merosomata. i, 230, 233, 234 polysomata. i. 229 spina bifida, i. 231 tubal pregnancy, 1, 228 villi, i. 208 position of embryo in, i, 21 segmentation of i. 19, 20 hypoblast, i. 33 intestine, i. 40 in uterus, position of, i, 96 eccentric, i, 96 interstitial, i. 96 Langbans's cells, layer of, i, 25. 28, 30. 32, 35, 37 measurements, i, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28. 29. 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41

Ovum, membrane, amniotic, i, 29 cloacal, i, 36, 38 mesenchyme, i, 25 mesoblast, i, 25, 29, 31, 33, 40, 41 mesoderm, i, 28, 39 multinucleated, i, 7 multiple, in single follicle, i, 7 related to twin pregnancies, i, 7 nucleolus of, i, 8, 9, 13 of human ancestors, i, 20 of monkey, segmentation of, 20 oocytes, i, 7 oogonia, i, 7 opening, implantation, i, 103, 108, 114, 121 plasmoditrophoblast, i, 25 plate, head, i, 40, 41 medullary, i, 39, 41 relation of uterine decidua to, i, 28 scar, Reichert, i, 33 segmenting, of monkey, i, 20 shell, ectoblastic trophoblast, i, 30 ectoblast or trophoblast, i, 32 shield, embryonic, i, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 39, 42 germinal, i, 29 space, intervillous, i, 33, 34, 35 periembryonic mesoderm, i, 30 spongioblast, i, 30 spongiotrophoblast, i, 28, 32, 36, 37 streak, primitive, i, 30, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41 syncytium, i, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 table, chronological, i, 26 trabecular, ectoblastic, i, 32 trophoblast, i, 28, 39 villi, i, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 42 yolk sack, i, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 yolk sack, hypoblast of, i, 33 zone, equatorial, i, 35

Pabulum, i, 94 Pancreas, development of, ii, 429 accessory, ii, 440 alveoli, ii, 436 anomalies and variations, ii. 440 at birth, ii, 439 ducts, outlet of, ii, 435 islands, ii, 437 outgrowths, dorsal and ventral, ii, 431 union of dorsal and ventral, ii. 432 vessels and nerves, ii, 434 Paraderm. i, 54 Perineum, i, 81 muscles of, i, 478 primitive, li, 322 Pharynx, development of, ii, 446 and its derivatives, ii, 446 arches, branchial, ii, 446, 449 visceral, ii, 446 area mesobranchialis, ii, 449 clefts, branchial, ii, 446 copula, ii, 454 duct, thyreoglossal, ii, 453 ductus branchiales, ii, 456 cervicalis (prsecervicalis), ii, 456 pharyngo-branchiales, ii, 451, 464 pharyngobranchialis communis, ii, 462, 468 groove, ventral pharyngeal, ii, 448 organs, branchiogenic, ii, 460 body, inferior epithelial, ii, 470 internal epithelial, ii, 471 superior epithelial, ii, 468, 470 ultimobranchial, ii, 468, 470 glandula carotica, ii, 460 glomus caroticum, ii, 460 parathymus, ii, 461 parathyreoid, ii, 461 thymus, ii, 460, 465 accessory lobe, ii, 465 body of, ii, 465 cord, ii, 465 thyreoid, ii, 468 plica retrotonsillaris, ii, 458 triangularis, ii, 458 pouch, fifth, ii, 468 fourth, ii, 468 second, ii, 457 third to fifth, ii, 460 pouches, ii, 446, 447, 452 differentiation of, ii, 457 primary, 451 . ' secondary ii, 451 sinus cervicalis (prsecervicalis), ii, 455, 456 tonsil, ii, 457 sinus, ii, 457 tuberculum impar, ii, 453 tonsillare, ii, 458 Pillars, decidual, i, 161 Placenta, formation of, i, 137. See also Placentation. amnion, i, 171 arterio-venous anastomoses in, i, 171 chorion, i, 28, 37, 122, 171 absorbing villi of, i, 132 anchoring villi of, i, 132 color, i, 171 decidua compacta, i, 138, 139 parietalis. i, 137, 138, 142, 166 spongiosa, i, 140, 142 detritus zone of, i, 136 differentiation of, i. 137 frondosum, i. 137, 142 glands of pregnancy, i, 140

Placenta, chorion laeve, i, 137 pathological changes in, i, 210-214 prickle processes on syncytium of, i, 126, 147 primary villi of, rapid growth of, i, 21 secondary villi of, i, 130 chorionic epithelium, i, 147 Langhans's layer, i, 147 syncytial layer, i, 147 circulation, i, 164 color, i, 170, 171 cord, umbilical, i, 172 cotyledons of, i, 168, 1, 170 covering layer of, i, 131, 135, 147 cysts, placental, i, 155 decidua basalis, i, 159 decidual pillars, i, 161 duct, allantoic, i, 172 fibrin, canalized, i, 151, 153 formation of, i, 154 stria, Langhans's, i, 151 Xitabuch's, i, 151, 152, 153 Rohr's, i, 151 fibrinoid, derivation of, i, 153, 154, 155 fcetalis, i, 143 fold, Schultze's amniotic, i, 172 fusion of amnion and chorion, i, 171 giant cells, l, 14S glycogen in, i, 146, 148 growth in area, i, 167 in thickness, i, 167 hsematoma, retropla cental, i, 169 infarcts, red, i, 156, 163 white, i, 155, 157, 175 liquor amnii, i, 172 mature, i, 169 Meckel's blood-channel, i, 165 mitoses, i, 148 plane of separation, i, 169 plate, basal, i, 159, 162, 163 closing, i, 158 septum of, i, 163 sinus circularis, i, 165 marginal, i, 165 situation of, i, 169 trophoblast shell, i, 137 vessels, choriodecidual, i, 160 villi, amniotic, i, 171 form of, i, 146 stroma of, i, 143 yolk sack, i, 173 stalk, i, 172 Placentation, i, 91 allantois, i, 91 chorion, i, 91, 92 decidua, i, 92 capsularis. i. 96 definition of, i, 91 heemotrophic phase of, i, 137 nutrition in. i, 94 ovum, i, 91

Placentation phenomena, cytological, i, 95 placenta, complete, i, 92 bowl, i, 93 conjoined, i, 92 cumulatse, i, 92 diffusa, i, 93 discoidalis, i, 93 endotheliochorialis, i. 93 epitheliochorialis, i, 93 hsemochorialis, i, 93 embryotrophic phase, i, 94 hsemotrophic phase, i, 94 hasmochorialis discoidalis olliformis. i. 93 half, i, 92 labyrinth, i, 93 multiplex, i, 93 olliformes, i, 93 plicatae, i, 92 syndesmochorialis, i, 93 vera, i, 93 zonaria, i, 93 position of ovum, i, 96 excentric, i, 96 interstitial, i. 96 Plasmoditrophoblast, i. 105 Plexuses, abdominal, ii, 159, 161, 163 aortic, ii, 161 intercaroticus, ii, 161. 162 mesenteric, inferior, ii. 161 renal, ii, 161 suprarenal, ii, 161, 164. 168 Pregnancv, tubal, cause of, i, 19 • Processes, developmental, interdependence of, ii, 980 R Respiratory apparatus, development of, ii. 473 earliest, ii, 473 larynx, ii, 476 arytenoid swellings, ii, 476 cartilages, i, 421-423 cords, vocal, ii, 480 plica ary-epiglottica. ii, 476 epiglotticae laterales, ii, 478 glosso-epiglottica media, ii, 477 glosso-epiglotticse laterales, ii, 479 pharyngo - epiglotticae, ii. 478 ventriculares. ii, 481 tuberculum arytsenoideum, ii, 478 corniculatum. ii, 478 cuneiforme, ii. 478, 479 ventriculus laryngis, ii, 480 lungs, ii. 482 air-cells, ii. 490 arteries, pulmonary. "» 485. 490 bronchus, eparterial, ii, 483, 488 first lateral, ii, 483 rnrtilage plates, ii, 489 connective tissue of. li, 488 Respiratory apparatus, lungs, elastic tissue of, ii, 490 form of, as a whole, ii, 493 lobes, ii, 490, 491 lobules, ii, 489 sacs, pulmonary, ii, 482 system, bronchial, ii, 482 veins, pulmonary, ii, 486 trachea, ii, 475 bifurcation of, ii, 485 Resume of early development, i, 116 Ridge, epidermic, i, 258 papillary, i, 258 pulmonary, i, 539 subdermal, i, 258

Scleromeres, processes of costal, i, 337 neural, i, 337 Secretion, internal, ii, 157 Segmentation, i, 19, 20 Sense organs, development of, ii, 180 epibranchial, ii, 182 Serotina, i, 113 Sex, determination, i, 15 Sight. See Eyes. Skeletal system, morphogenesis of, i, 316 abnormalities in development, i, 323 agenesis, i, 324 hyperplasia, i, 324 hypoplasia, i. 324 in congenital svphilis, i, i 325 in rickets, i, 325 in teratomata, i, 325 bones, i, 317 cartilages, i, 319 cartilaginous, i, 317 investment, i, 317 joints, i, 320-322 membrane, i, 317 scleroblastema, i, 317 sesamoid, i, 322 substitution, i, 317-319 condensation, i, 317 first step, i, 317 hard parts, i, 317 joints, i, 317. 320-322 scleroblastema, i, 317 variations in development, i, 323 Skeleton and connective tissues, i, 292 Skeleton of limbs. See Limbs, skeleton of. Skin. See Integument. Skull, hyoid bone, and larynx, i, 398 axial region, i, 398 blastemal period, i, 400 brain, i, 403 chorda dorsalis, i, 400, 401 cranial cavity, floor of, 1, 403 roof of, i, 403 ethmoidal process, 1, 401 jaws, i, 404 labyrinth, i, 402 membranous skull, i, 401

Skull, blastemal period, neural process, i, 400 occipital plate, i, 400, 401 orbitotemporal process, i, 401 chondrocranium, i, 399, 404 chondrogenous period, i, 404 nasal fossae, i, 405 septum, i, 4o4 orbit, i, 405 sphenoid, i. 404 chorda dorsalis, i, 407 cranium, primordial, i, 414, 415 ethmoidal region and nasal capsule, i, 413 hyoid bone, i, 421, 422 labyrinth, i, 407, 417 capsule, i, 407 laryngeal cartilages, i, 421 423 nose, agger nasi, i, 416 cartilaginous nasal capsule, i, 416 inferior turbinate, i, 412 middle turbinate, i. 413 superior turbinate, i, 413 turbinates, accessory, i, 416 uncinate process, I, 416 occipital region, i. 406 base and partes laterales, i, 406 orbitotemporal region, i, 411 ossicles and Meckel's cartilage, i, 419 Reichert's cartilage, i. 421 sphenoid, i, 411 tectum posterius. i, 410 tympanohyale, i, 421 visceral arches, i, 405 branchial arches, i. 405 hyoid bone, i, 405 laryngeal cartilages, i, 405 derivatives of. i, 417 incus, i, 405, 420 malloiis. i. 405. 419 mandibular arch, i. 405 Meckel's cartilage, i, 405 stapes, i, 405, 420 head, mesenchvme of, I, 398, 400 neural region, i, 398 ossification, i. 399 period of ossification, 1, 424 auditory ossicles, i, 439 concha inferior, i. 430 fontanelles. i. 437 keratohyale, i, 440 mandible, i, 440 maxilla, i, 437 os ethmoidale, i. 429 os frontale, i, 436 os hyoideum, i, 440 os lacrymale, i. 431 os nasale. i, 431 os occipitale, i. 425 os palatinum, i, 431 os parietale, i, 436 os sphenoidale, i, 427 os temporale, i. 431 apex pyramidalis, i, 435 canalis caroticus, • i, 435

Skull, visceral arches, ossr fication, os temp., facial canal, i, 435 fibrocartilago basalis, i, 435 foramen lacerum, i, 435 labyrinth, i, 435 mastoid cells, i, 435 periotic portion, i, 433 tegmen tympana, i, 435 tympanicum, i, 432 zygomatic process, i, 432 os zygomaticum, i, 438 stylohyale, i, 440 temporomandibular joint, i, 441 tympanohyale, i, 439 vomer, i, 430 soft structures of, i, 399 visceral region, i, 39a Smell. See Olfactory organ. Spermatogenesis. See Germcells. Spermium. See Germ-cells. Spina bifida, i. 231, 23S. 240 Splanchnopleure. i, 174 Spleen, development of, ii, 745 corpuscles, Malpighian. ii, 750 ellipsoids in, ii, 750 function of, erythrocyto facient. ii. 748 mesodermal origin of, ii, 745 vascular system, development of. ii, 746 Spot, embryonic, i, 22 Stenson. canals of. ii. 342 Stereocilia, i. 147 Stomach, development of, ii, 368 anomalies of, ii. 380 epithelium and gastric glands, il. 371 at birth, ii. 377 glands, sastric and pyloric, ii. 378 layers, outer, ii, 379 vessels and nerves, ii, 369 Streak, primitive. See under Germ layers. Suprarenal bodies, accessory, ii, 175, 176. 177 Suprarenal extract, ii, 157 Svmpathoblasts, ii, 157, 158, 159 Symplasma syncytiale, i, 125 Symplasmata, i. 125 Svncytium, i, 106. 111. 123, 126, 131, 133, 135. 147 origin of. i, 123, 124, 125

Tables of time relations of the development of various organs, ii. 1000 Tail, i, 81 internal, i, 87 Testes. See Organs, urinoaenital.


Thorax, i. 331 Thumb. See Embryo, external form. Thymus, ii, 456, 460, 465 lobe, accessory, ii, 465 superficialis, ii, 456 Tissue, connective, collagenous in corium, i, 254 histogenesis, i, 293 bone, i, 303, 312 ossification, endochondral, i, 309 intramembranous, i, 306 subperiosteal, l, 308 elastic, i, 301 growth of, i, 311 mesenchyme, axial, i, 296 of the head, i, 297 mesoderm, parietal and visceral layers, i, 296 origin of, l, 293. 298. 312 adipose, i, 302, 312 cartilage, i. 302 elastic, i, 301 regeneration, i. 311 reticulum, i, 300 somites, mesodermic, i, 294, 295 syncytium, early mesodermic, i. 293 white fibrous, i. 300 Tissue, fungoid, i, 110 Toes. See Embryo, external form. Touch organs, ii, 180 Trabecular, decidual, i, 162 Trichomerism, i. 261 Trophoblast, i. 44, 56, 57, 105, 109, 110, 112 Tumors, i, 328 coccygeal, i, 54 u Ulna. See Limbs. Umbilical vesicle, ii, 291 Uterus post partum, condition of, i, 174. See also Organs, urinogenital. adnexa, i, 176 cervix, mucosa of, i, 176' musculaiis, i, 176

Vacuolation, i, 106, 117 Vascular system (see also Heart, Lymphatic system, Spleen, etc.). development of, ii, 570 beginning of, ii, 571 comparative, ii, 586 form of, ii, 573 questions, two fundamental, ii, 571 human, development of, ii, 587 ansa vitellina, ii, 593 arch, superficial plantar, ii, 668 pulmonary, ii, 604 vascular, ii, 603 arches, visceral, first two, ii, 612 arteries, adrenal, ii. 653 alveolar, inferior, ii, 62S anomalies of, ii, 651

Vascular system, humau, arteries, aorta, ii, 677 arch, aortic, ii, 592, 604, 609, 613, 617 development and fate of, ii, 613 variations in vessels of, ii, 630 branches of, ii. 631 aortae, descending, ii, 631 three groups, ii, 632 capillaries, ii, 636 descent of, ii, 619 dorsal, first sprouts of, ii, 622 end branches of, ii, 655 first branches of, ii, 594 fusion of. ii, 643. 644 lateral branches of, ii. 607 offshoots of, ii, 598, 601 pairs arising from, ii, 605 primitive, ii, 592 lateral branches of, ii, 599. 601, 604 trunk, ii. 618 ventral branches of, ii. 611 ventralis. ii, 592, 610 aortae, ii, 591 fusion of, ii, 643 primitive, ii. 603 auricular, posterior, ii, 630 axillary, ii, 664 basilar, ii, 611. 623 brachial, ii, 663 deep, ii, 665 bronchial, ii, 651 carotid, common, ii. 617 arches, ii, 605 external, ii. 610. 617.


620. 627, 629 internal, ii. 597. 605, 610. 617. 677 and its branches, ii. 621 splitting of, ii, 623 central retinal, ii, 625 cerebral, anterior, ii, 623 anterior and median, ii, 605, 611 middle, ii, 624 posterior, ii, 624-5 vertebral. ii, 605, 611, 623 cervical, ii, 6U5 choroidal, anterior, ii, 623. 624 ciliary nasal, ii, 625 temporal, ii, 625 cceliac, ii, 605, 611, «45. 647 cceliaco - mesenteric, ii, 777 comes nervi ischiadici, ii, 659

Vascular system, human, arteries, coronary, ii, i;:-;n cutaneous, ii, 638 cystic, ii, 649 dorsalis pedis, ii, 669 dorsal, presegmental, ii, 601 segmental, ii, 598, 599, 600, 621, 633, 643 anomalies of, ii.


641 epigastric, inferior, ii, 638, 658 ethmoidal, ii, 625 femoral, ii, 658, 668 fifth thoracic, ii, 611 first cervical dorsal segmental, ii, 605 first segmental cervical, ii, 611 fourth thoracic, ii, 611 gastric, left, ii,. 649 gluteal, superior, ii, 659, 668 hepatic, ii, 649 hyaloid, ii, 625 hypogastric, ii. 659 hypoglossus, ii, 605, 611, 621, 623. 635 iliac, common, ii, 658 external, ii, 659 infra-orbital, ii, 627 628 intercostal, supreme, ii, 635 interosseous, dorsal, ii, 663 palmar, ii, 662-666 intestinal, ii, 776, 77S shifting of, ii, 648 ischiatic, ii, 611, 65S, 659, 667, 668 lachrymal, ii. 625 lienal, ii. 649 lingual, ii, 629 lumbar, ii, 605 mammary, internal, ii, 638, 665 maxillary, external, ii, 629 median, ii, 665 cutaneous dorsal, ii, 637 mesencephalic, ii. 625 mesenteric, inferior, ii. 605. 611, 647, 659 main branches of, ii, 651 superior, ii, 675, 681 mesonephric. ii, 652, 653. 820. 823 middle meningeal, ii, 627 muscular, ii, 638 nasofrontal, ii. 625 occipital, ii, 629 oesophageal, ii, 649 omphalo-mesenteric. ii, 605, 631, 645, 675 omphalo-mesenteric, anomalies of, ii, 645 ophthalmic, ii, 605, 611, 623 pancreatico - duodenal, superior, ii, 649 phrenic, ii, 822

Vascular system, human, arteries, phrenic, inferior, ii, 649, 654 presegmental, dorsal, ii, 677 pudendal, internal, ii, 659 pulmonary, ii, 617, 631 left, ii, 617, 631 right, ii, 617, 631 radial, ii, 665 radicles, dorsal, ii, 6'36 ventral, ii, 636, 637 radicular, anterior, ii, 637 posterior, ii, 637 renal, ii, 654, 822 accessory, ii, 822 variations of, ii, 654 retinal, central, ii, 228, 230 sacral medial, ii. 605, 612, 656, 659 segmental, ii, 605 saphenous, ii, 668 segmental, ii, 611, 660 sixth thoracic, ii, 611 spermatic, accessory, ii, 822 internal, ii, 653, 822, 823 spinal, anterior, ii, 639 variations of, ii, 640 central, ii, 637, 640 posterior, ii, 637 primitive anterior, ii, 637 spinal, sulci, ii, 637 splenic, injecting, ii, 746 stapedial, ii, 609, 625, 628 branches of, ii, i'.l'T subclavian, ii, 6u5, 621, 635, 660, 661, 664. 665, 667, 686, 690 suprarenal, ii. M'i\ si'3 tarsal, perforating, ii, 668 temporal, superficial, ii, 630 thoracic, ii. 605 thyreo-cervical, ii, 665 thyroid, superior, ii, 629 tibialis anticus,. ii, 668 posterior, ii, 669 ulnar, ii, 665 umbilical, ii, 591, 595, 600, 605, 611, 642. 656. 657, 778, 780, 814 ventral segmentals, ii, 642, 643 vertebral, ii, 621, 623, 635 cervicals, ii, 623 vitelline, ii, 603, 642, 656 primitive. ii, 594, 596, 599, 600 bulbus aortae, ii, 592 capillaries, chorionic, ii, 591 circulation, umbilical, ii, 589 vitelline, ii, 594

Vascular system, human, cord, spinal, vessels of, ii, 641 cycle, vascular, ii, 591 ductus Cuvieri, ii, 608, 612, 671, 680, 685, 692 venosus Arantii, ii, 673 early, description of, ii, 58S embryo with forty somites, ii, 609 without mesodermic somites, ii, 588 with six to eight somites, ii, 594 with thirteen to fifteen somites, ii, 599 with thirty-five somites, ii, 604 with twenty - three somites, ii, 602 heart, ii, 591 origin of, ii, 587 plexus, brachial, ii, 664, 667, 686, 690 capillary, of yolk sac, ii. 593 palmar, superficial, ii, 663 plantar, deep, ii, 668 plantar, superficial, ii, 668 vitelline, ii, 593, 594.


596 vitelline capillary, ii, 594 ramus arcuatus, ii, 612 sinus, coronary, ii, 680 lateral, ii, 679 petrosal, inferior, ii, 6S0 superior, ii, 680 sagittalis, superior, Ii, 611, 678, 679 venosus, ii, 608, 609, 612, 670-673 vasa vasorum, aortic, ii, 651 vein, anonymous, left, ii, 680 right, ii, 680 antibrachial, median, ii, 694 axillary, ii, 612, 690 azygos, ii, 684, 685 basilic, ii, 670, 690, 693 brachial, ii. 690 cardinal, ii, 600 anterior, ii. 600, 601, 608, 611, 612, 671, 676, 680 transformations of, ii. 676 posterior, ii, 602, 604, 608, 671, 680, 681, 0*4. 687, 690, 694, 782, 825 transformations of, ii, 680 caudal, ii, 825 cephalic, ii, 690, 692, 693 cerebral, anterior, ii, 679 median, ii, 679, 680 posterior. ii, 608, 612, 678, 699

Vascular system, human, veins, development of, ii, 669 of body wall, ii, bS5 of extremities, ii, 687 system, ground plan of, ii. 670 types, ii, 669, 670 comites, ii, 669, 698 primary, ii, 670 secondary, ii, 670 dorsal segmental, ii, 608 epigastric, superficial, ' ii. 687 femoral, ii, 695, 697 fibular border, ii, 681, 690, 694 head, lateral, ii, 677, 678, 679 medialis, ii, 676, 677, 678 hemiazygos, ii, 684 accessory, ii, 6S0, 685 hepatic, ii, 825 common, ii, 681 left, ii, 608, 612, 671, 673 median, ii, 674 right, ii, 612, 673, 674, 6S3 lower, ii, 674 upper, ii, o74 iliac, transverse, ii, 683 intercostals, ii, 681, 687 interdigital, ii, 693 ischiatic, ii, 694, 695, 825 jugular, external, 680, 692 internal, ii, 676, 678 jugulocephalic, ii, 692 linguo-facial, ii, 608, 612, 680 lumbar, ii, 681 mammary, internal, ii, 687 mesenteric, ii, 672, 673, 674, 675 superior, ii, 675 omphalomesenteric, ii, 537, 608, 619, 620, 671, 672, 673, 675, 779 ophthalmic, ii, 608, 625, 678 portal, ii, 675 angular, ii, 673, 674 arcuate, ii, 673 pulmonary, ii, 549, 631 radial border, ii, 690 renal, ii, 654, 681 sacral, median, ii, 694 saphenous, ii, 670 great, ii, 694, 697, 698 small, ii, 690, 694, 696, 697, 698 segmental, ii, 608 subcardinal, ii, 604, 608, 681, 825, 827 subclavian, ii, 608, 686, 690, 692 right, ii, 680 thoracico-epigastric, ii, 670, 686, 687, 690 tibial, ii, 690

Vascular system, human, veins, ulnar, ii, 686 border, 690, 692, 693 umbilical, ii, 537, 591, 592, 593, 596, 60s, 670, 671, 673, 685, 687 and vitelline, transformation of, ii, 671 vena capitis medialis, ii, 598, 601, 622 cava, inferior, ii, 608, 612, 674, 681, 683 superior, ii, 557 umbilicalis impar, ii, 592 vitelline, ii, 594, 596, 602, 608, 609. 612. 670, 671, G7U. r,T4. 675 vitello-umbilical, ii, 670, 671, 676 common, ii. 601 Vertebral column and thorax, i, 331 blastemal period, i, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336 chondrogenous period, i, 337, 338 processes, articular, i, 340 cartilaginous radicular.


i, 339 laminar, i, 340 neural, i, 339 transverse, i, 340 summary, i, 341 vertebral body, i, 337, 339 disc, primitive intervertebral, i, 334 interdiscal membrane of, i, 334

Vertebral column and thorax, " interdorsal membranes," i, 331 " interventral membranes," i, 331 length, relative, of regions of spine, i. 35S occipital region, i, 334 ossification, period of, i, 350 ribs, i, 355 sternum, i, 356 vertebrae, i, 350 atlas, i, 352 centres, epiphyses, i, 352 primary, i, 350 secondary, i. 352 cervical, i, 352 coccygeal, i, 355 epistropheus, i, 353 lumbar, i, 353 sacrum, i. 354 regional differentiation, i, 341 vertebra?, cervical, and base of occipital bone, I, 343 atlas, i, 345 basioccipital, i. 347 epistropheus, i. b45 ligaments and joints, i. 348 vertebrae, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal, i, 348 cartilaginous ribs, i, 349 vertebrae, thoracic, and thorax, i. 341-343 scleromere. i. 331, 335 sclerotomes, i. 331 spine, curvature of. during development, i. 358 regions of. relative length of, i. 358

Vertebral column and thorax, vertebrae, comparative development of, i, 360 number of, and regional differentiation, i, 358 Vessels, arm, ii, 659 variations of, ii, 667 choriodecidual, i, ltsu chorionic, ii, 592 extremity, ii, 659 first embryonic tissue to receive, ii, 598 hypoglossus, ii, 611 limb, lower, ii, 667 variations of, ii, 669 vitelline, ii, 593 Villi, i, 94, .103. 114, 145 amniotic, i, 3 71 chorionic, i, 130 anchoring, i, 232 epithelium of. i. 131 free or absorbing, i, 132 injected, i, 146' secondary, i, 130 Visual apparatus, ii, 47

W Winslow, foramen of, i, 545 Wolffian body. See Goelom.



Yolk layer, i. 44, 49 sack, i, 21, 36-37, 40, 63, 79. 173; ii, 293-306, 310, 315, 3i..', 500. 527 epithelium of, i. 44, 48 separation of intestine from. ii. 293 stalk, i, 173 ; ii, 317, 319

Index of Authors

[The Roman numerals i and ii indicate the first and second volumes of this Manual; xi-xviii refer to the pages of the Introduction.]

Ackerman, i, 156 Adachi, B., i, 255, 437 Addario, C, ii, 234 Adler and Hitsehmann, i, 97, 98-101, 117 Adolphi, H., i, 12 Aeby, Chr., i, 358; ii, 482, 483, 488, 491-492, 573 574, 582, 631, 652 Afanassiew, ii, 509 Ahlfeld, i, 13, 171, 184, 186, 195-196, 200; _ii, 897 Aichel, 0., ii, 177 Albinus, B. S., i, xiii; ii, 291 Albrecht, P., i, 253, 256, 348, 439; ii, 633 Aldrovandi, Ulisse, i, xiii Alexander, G., ii, 266, 272, 287 Alglave, P., ii, 864 Allen, W., ii, 646 Ancel and Villemin, i, 121 Andersch, ii, 162 Anikiew, A., ii, 680 Anton, W., ii, 734 Apathv, ii, 13 Apolant, i, 250-251, 284 Aranzi, Julio Caesare, i, xi Arcangeli, A., i, 250 Aristotle, ii, 294 Arndt, ii, 512 Arnold. J., i, 182, 187, 324; ii, 162, 581 Aschoff, i, 118; ii, 161, 278 Ascoli, C, ii, 377 Aselli, ii. 737 Ask, F., i, 281 ; ii, 250-252 Assheton, i, 92 Auburtin, G., i, 273 Austrian, i. 195 Axenfeld, Th., ii, 253

B Baader. A., ii. 574, 659, 667 Bab, H., i, 121 Bach, K., i, 323 Backman. G., ii, 585 — , A., and Soederlund, G..


ii, 982 Bade, i, 195

Baer, K. E. v., i, xiii, xiv, 181-182, 372, 534; ii, 294, 405, 643, 982 Baetjer. W. A., ii, 718, 721, 722 Baginsky. A., ii, 372, 373, 377, 378, 387, 388, 390, 396 Baldwin, W. M.. ii, 440 Balfour, F. M., ii, 13, 148, 157, 357 Ballantyne, i, 358 Bannwarth, ii, 750 Baraldi, i, 439 Baratz, W., ii, 253, 258 Bardeen, Charles R., i, xvi, 292, 296, 323, 333, 335, 336, 338, 358, 368, 370, 456-457, 458, 465, 467, 468, 472, 473, 477, 483, 494-496, 497-504 ; ii, 23 24, 27, 119, 122, 123-126, 127, 128, 689 — •, and Lewis, W. H., i, 457. 471, 473, 474, 476 478, 486-489; ii, 119, 122 Bardeleben, K. v., i. 3. 9.


11, 373, 378, 441; ii, 697^ 698 Bardier, E., and Souli§, A., i, 518; ii, 452, 476-479 Barfurth, i, 467 Bartels, P., ii, 739 Barth, ii, 385, 388 Basseta, A., and Branca, Q., ii, 894 Bataillon, i, 467 Baum and Dobers. ii, 282 Baumgarten, ii, 279 Bayer, F., i, xvi; ii, 666 Beard, J., ii, 514 Bechterew, ii. 54 Beclard, i, 438. 439 Beddard, ii, 685 Bell, E. T., i, 302, 312; 514 Bemmelen. ,T. F. van, 462, 613 Benda, C, i, 279: ii, 515 Beneden, van. i. 4. 43, 44, 51. 96 Beneke, R., i. 31, 55. 103, 104, 115. 116. 149: ii, 207. 3D3, 428

ii.



n.



Bensley, R. R., ii, 363, 378 379 Bernard, C, ii, 434, 440 Bernays, A., i, 372; ii, 568 Berry, J. M., ii, 385-387 — , R. I. A., and Lock, L.


A. H., ii, 397, 982 — Hart, i, 117 Bertkau, F., i, 279 Bethe, ii, 13 Bettany, ii, 439 Bichat, ii, 737 Biedl, A., and Wiesel, J., ii, 157 Bien, G., ii, 471 Biesiadecki, A. v., ii, 409, 417 Bild, ii, 338 Billroth, T., ii, 581 Birdsall and Schenk, ii, 148 Bischoff, Th. L. W.. i, xiv, 19, 181, 182, 185, 233; ii, 404, 642 Bistrzycki and v. Kostan eckij ii, 281 Bizzozero, G.. i, 248, 252; ii. 507. 527, 534 Bjorkenheim, i. 97 — , E. A., i, 249 Blaschko, A., i, 256, 258, 260, 261, 274, 276 Blisnianskaja, G., ii, 473, 482, 483, 485, 488, 491 493 Bloch. Bruno, i. xi — . i, 167 Blumenthal. R.. ii, 519,520 Bluntschli. H.. ii. 493 Boa*. J. E. V.. i, 282: ii.


613 Bobritzky. ii. 581 Boerhaave. ii. 737 Bolk. i. 261, 410, 411. 426: ii. 70. 924 Bondi, -J., i. 171-172 Bonne and Soulie. ii. 614.


685 Bonnet. B.. i. 7. 25. 55, 91, 04. 95. 96. 110. 118. 122.


124. 125. 136, 144. 147.


1S2. 195. 327. 525: ii.


204. 310 Bonnot and Seevers, ii. 675 Bonome. A., i. 311 1023


Rnrn G i, 231, 234; ii, Burtscher, i, 193, 195 2U, 254, 343, 450, 455, Busalla, i, 105

m, 536, 544, 870, 980 981-982 Bossi, i, 12 ..


Bottcher, A., i, 435; n, 271 Bouin, M. and P., h 7 Bourcart, ii, 398 <# Boveri, Th., i, 14; n, 218 Brachet. A., i,. 48, 195, 535, 541-542; n, 172, 182, 218, 403 Bradley, O. C, i, 323; u, Branca, A., i, 174; u, 318 _ } Q., and Basseta, A., n, 894 Brand, E., ii, 373, 385, 388, 395-396, 397 Braun, i, 82; ii, 909 Braus, i, 366 # Bremer, J. L., i, xv ; a, 136, 317, 355, 403, 405, 429, 572, 579, 617-618 Breschet, i, xiv, 439; u, 732 Bresslau, E., i, 279 Breuss, E., i, 22, 23 103 Brezina, E., and Grosser, O., ii, 612 Brinkerhoff and Tyzzer, n, 534 Brissaud and Sabourin, ii, 420

Buschke, i, 252. Buvignier, ii, 473 Buzzi, i, 251

Cajal, ii, 2, 73, 149, 153 Calori, i, 439 Camper, i, 438 Canstatt, ii, 528 Carini, A., ii, 234 Carius and Strahl, i, 526 Carpenter, F. W., ii, 135, 150 Carstanjen, ii, 526 Casper, i, 377 Cauwenberghe, van, i, 148 150 Cedercreutz, i, 244, 249 Charpv, A., i, 260; ii, 431, 434, 440 — and Poirier, i, 352, 354, 355 Chiarugi, G., i, 34S Chiewitz, J. H., ii, 243, 348 Cbipman, W. W., ii, 418 419 Ciliano, P., i, 251 Cirincione, G., ii, 234 — Speciale-, ii, 252-253 Clark, E. B., ii, 511, 573, 581, 740-741, 742 Cleland, J., i, 429, 438

420 „ .,.,«,, Cleland, J., l, 4Z», Broman, i, xv, 11, 418-421, Coakley C . G ., ii, 366 429. 532-533, 544-546; n, rnU : n : 454

439, 532-533, 544-546 ; 11 189, 279-281, 369, 473, 482, 491, 605, 612, 632, 641-644, 647-649, 654657, 677 Brosike, G., i, 304 Brouha, i, 279 Brucb, C, i, 372 Bruckner, A., ii, 240 Brugsch, Th., and Unger, E^i, 280; ii, 57, 58 Brunn, v., ii, 207 Brunner, C, i, 195, 253; "' 441 „ •• a Q Bryce, T. H., 1, xvi; 11, 49, 227, 234, 278, 514 — and Teacher, i, xvi, 26 28, 31, 103, 104, 105-107, 113, 116, 117, 119, 124, 125, 126, 127, 196, 523 524; ii, 295, 303 — , Teacher, and Kerr, 1, xvi, 18, 24, 54, 105 Bucura, C, i, 145, 172; 11, 161 Budde, M., i, 165, 166 Budge, ii, 739 Biihler, A., ii, 652, 939 Bumm, E., i, 170 ^ Bunting, C. H., 11, _749 Burckhardt, B., i, xi

Collin, i, 454 Colombo, Matteo Bealdo, 1, xi, xvii . Concetti, L., ii, 398 Conclin, i, 457 Dubrueil, ii, t Cone, CI., 1, 250, 253, 256 ; Duckworthj i; 108 Contino, 11, 250 Duclos, J., ii, 258 Cornet, i, 348 Duesberg, J., i, 8 Corning, H., n, 2o5, 2o6

Davis, D. M., ii, 183, 681 682 Davydow, ii, 181 Debeyre, A., ii, 405, 430 Debierre, i, 390 Dedekind, F., ii, 224, 229, 230, 236, 625, 626 Delamare, G., ii, 391 — and Dieulafe, ii, 381 Denis, P., ii, 266 Descomps, P., ii, 320, 935 Dewitt, Miss L. M., ii, 437, 439 Dexter, F., ii, 675 Deyl, J., 229 Diamare, V.. ii. 158 Dieckmann, ii, 258 Diem, F., i, 266, 276, 277 Diemerbroeck, ii, 291 Disse, J., i, 109, 115, 122, 312; ii, 213, 377, 880 Dittrich, P., ii, 392 Dixon, A. F., ii, 141 Dobers, ii, 284 — and Baum, ii, 282 Dogiel, A. S., ii, 437 Dohrn, A., ii, 13, 139, 652 Dollinger, i, xiii Doorme and Lams, ii, 882 Double, see Le Double. Draispul, E., ii, 286 Dreesmann, ii, 428 Drevfuss, ii, 279, 280, 281, 286 Drevsel, M., i, 251, 252 Driesch, i, 229 Driessen, i, 139, 146, 148 _ Drummond and Muir, ii, 534 Dryault, A., ii, 227, 234 Dubrueil, ii, 669

Cosmettatos, ii, 254 Coste, i, xv Coulter, ii, 614 Councilman, W. T, ii, 526 Cova, i, 104, 130 Cruveilhier, i, 431, 439 Cunningham, D. J., ii, 380 Curschmann, ii, 398 Cuvier, ii, 293 Czajewicz, i, 255 Czermack, N.. ii, 390 Czinner and Hammerschlag, ii, 269 D Dalton, i, 182 Damany, see Le Damany.


Dandy, W. E., i, 528; ii, 32, 34, 303, 306, 454, 594, 595, 643, 645 Dantschakoff, Wera, ii, 500 T-* -1-* r>* • • • •

Burckhardt, «., 1, xi. ~" ^Tr» n • ~m Burkard, O., i, 254, 260-261 DanzD. J- <*•>/> f 1 " Burrows, M. T., ii, 640 ! Dareste, 1, 230; 11, 227

— and Meves, ii, 882 Duhamel, i, 311 Diihrssen, i, 12, 18 Dumas and Prevost, ii, 528 Dursy, E., i, 404; ii, 208, 210, 340, 343 Duval, i, 43, 107 Duvse, van, ii, 227 Dwight, T., i, 353, 358, 385 E Eberth, C. J., ii, 364 Ebner, v., i, 6, 55, 176, 272, 303; ii, 183, 186, 351, 710. 712-713 Ebstein, W., ii, 373-374 Ecker, i, 23, 195; ii, 440 Eckhardt, i, 54 Edinger, ii, 26 Edwards, i, 195 Eggeling, H., i, 277, 279, 343 Egger, G, i, 311


Ehrlich, ii, 507, 515, 516, 517, 518 Ehrmann, S., i, 253 Eitelberg, E., ii, 281 Elze, C, i, xvi, 56-58; ii, 135, 224, 317, 371, 385, 392, 414, 453, 580, 609, 610, 614, 615, 652, 658, 661, 662, 663, 671, 672 — , see also Keibel and Elze. Engel, ii, 513 Erdheim, J., ii, 467, 468, 471, 472, 473 Ernst, P., i. 249; ii, 641, 642 Eschricht, i, xiv, 274 Eschweiler, R., ii. 281 Essick. ii. 65 Eternod, A. C. F., i, xv, 40, 42, 55, 66, 104, 195-196, 294; ii, 32. 303-304, 307, 308, 587, 589. 592, 593, 594, 633 Eustachi. Bartholomeo. i. xi Evans. H. M., ii. 570, 571, 601, 608, 640. 727. 731 Evatt. J. E., i, 258 Ewald and Kiinne, ii, 408 Ewart and Schaffner. ii. 485

Fabricius ab Aquapendente, HieronTmus, i, xii; ii, 293-294 Falchi, F.. ii. 243, 253 Falcone, i, 7 Falk, E., i, 379 Falkenstein, i, 252 Fallopia, Gabriele, i, xi Farabeuf, Lop., i, 369 Faraboeuf, M., ii, 319 Fawcett, Ed., i, 353-355, 42S, 431, 440-441; ii, 652 Fedorow, V., ii, 580, 631 Fehling, H., i, 379 Fein, J., ii, 479-480 Felix, W., ii, 404, 430, 431, 587, 594-595, 598-599, 600, 604, 632, 644, 658, 752 Fer§, i, 230 Ferrari and Marchesini, i, 454 Ferrein, ii, 428 Fetzer, ii, 590 Feuerstack, W., ii, 512 Fick, R., ii, 209 Fidele, i, 180 Fischel, A., i, 205, 238, 472, 482; ii, 233, 234, 982 Fischer, ii, 392 — , Ernst, i, 275 — , Eug., i, 435-436 Fischl, R., ii, 372, 377, 378, 380, 391 Flechsig, P., ii, 27, 54, 104 Vol. II.— 65

Fleischer, B., ii, 254 Fleischnninn, ii, 652 Flemming, YV., i, 6, 298; ii, 515, 520 Flint, J. M., ii, 473, 47 1, 482, 483, 485-488, 570, 575, 631 Flower, i, 440 Foa and Salvioli, ii, 528 Fol, H., i, xv ; ii, 429 Forssner. H., ii. 313, 356 35S, 368, 3S2-383, 385, 391, 394, 39S Fossati, G., i, 145 Foster, ii. 36S Fox, H., ii, 450, 456, 460 461. 402 Frankl, O., ii, 934 Franqur, O. v., i. 123, 134, ii, 907 Fransen. J. W. P., ii. 649, 651 Fraser, i, 195, 455 Frasetto, Fabio, i, 439 Frassi, L., i. xvi, 35 sq., 104, 116, 124, 126, 127, 128-130, 135-136, 149, 195, 469; ii, 303. 589 Frazer, J. E.. ii. 477. 479, 481 Frederic, i. 195. 252 . Freiberg, ii, 534 Freund, H. W., and Thom§, R., i, 18, 105 Freytag, Fr., ii, 513 Friedenthal, H., i, 274 Friedlander. Fr. v.. i. 311 Friolet, H., i, 104, 116, 148, 149 Fritsch, i, 189-190, 194 Fritz, W., ii, 249 Frohlich, A., and Grosser, O., i, 261-262 Frommer, A., ii, 398 Froriep, A., i, 339, 345, 346, 404; ii, 133-135, 139, 150, 218-221, 227, 228, 233, 235, 246 Fuchs. H.. i. 419, 420, 432, 441: ii. 234. 279. 280, 281. 570, 625 — , 518 Fiirbringer, M., i, 366 Fusari. R., ii. 3S7 Fuss, S., i, 146 Futamura, i, 457-458. 509 517 Fiith, i, 105, 118

Gabriel ides. A., ii. 249 Gage, S. H., i, 195, 253; ii, 44 — , Susanna Phelps, i. xv Galen, i. xi, xii, 385; ii, 294 Ganfini, i, 346

Garbiglieb 734-7 35 Garcia, S. , and Sanger, M., 274 Gardiner, J. \\ t 234 441 230, 240; ii, 586 Gaskell, ii, 1 ii ; 477 Gaupp, E., ij, 147, 148, 158, 428, 429, ,175, 460-461, ii, 271, 279 Gavazzeni, G. --., i, x iii, xv, Gebhard, ii, 0(443, 158, 176, Gegenbaur, C, 76, 281-284, 366, 382; iig, 310, 431, 573, 669 l; ii, 25, 58, Gemmil, i, 255 4, 278, 368, Gerard, L., ii, 85, 388, 390, Gerauldel, E., i*, 409, 415, Gerlaeh, L., i, .9, 436, 455, Getzowa, S., ii G, 487-490, 471-472 3, 571, 581, Giacomini, Carlo, 745, 748, 211, 218, 221 235 , ii. 180 — , E., ii, 157 >2, 65, 195, Giese, H., i, 134, 295, 327, Giffhorn, H., ii, 3] 439. 441. Giglio-Tos, Erman ii, 16, 31, 505 ;, 229, 278, Gley. ii. 460 587, 594, Godlewski. i. 465- 737, 745, Goette. ii, 474 Goez, A., ii, 253 Pankul. Goldstein, K., ii, 86, h. Golgi, ii, 9 Golodetz, i, 251 Golowinski, J., i, 298 Golubew, ii, 581 Gonner, A., i, 172 Goodall, A., and Paton, N.


D., ii, 9S2 Goppert, E., ii, 476, 479, 576, 586, 659-660. 664, 666 Gosset, A., ii, 685 Gottschalk, i, 128 Gottschau. ii. 175 Graaf, Regner de, i, xiii Graberg, J., ii, 183-186, 346 Gradenigo, G.. i, 409 : ii, 282-283. 287 Graefenberg, E., i, 382-385, 457. 491-494, 496-499 Grafe, E., ii, 599, 602. 604 Granville, i. 202. 210 Gray, i. 357 Greef, R., ii, 256 Grefberg, W., i, 276 Greil, A., i, 49 ; ii, 462, 474 Grimm, i, 255Grosehuff, K.. ii. 460. 461, 465, 468, 472 Grosser, O., i. 91. 92, 102, 104. 109, 120, 123. 137.


150. 523: ii. 291. 296, 311, 313, 446. 453. 469, 511, 601, 611, 612. 617.


628. 034. 638. 666. 668, 676. 680, 683. 085. 689

Born, a., i, 231, Brezina, 211, 254, 343, 470, 536, 544, A -> *> 2bl > 981-982 .. a _.


Bossi, i, 12 u > 8 ' 6 Bottcher, A., i, 4 '78, 439 Bouin, M. and ? 6 Bourcart, ii, S** 1 * *£ J ..


Boveri, Th., i, Werth, n,921, Bracliet, A., i ..


541-542; ' "' 157 > 244 218, 403 711 ' 734 Bradley, 0. ' fog h 4/4 a 7 - ii ^3 9 4 Branca, A., V ' ' "' - <5 ' "*' _, Q., and 3 894 • w Brand, E., n «• 395-396, 3 Braun, i, 82 Ml Braus, i, 3» | 7 Bremer, J. '" .. ntkA 317, 355 ^ »> 234 572, 579 l« Breschet, • "> 2 o» 732 9 4 Bresslau, 1 11 . ...,__, .. Breuss, K., v., i, xm, 180; n, Brezina, E _ . „„ ,„, O., ii, 6/, O., ii, 430, 434, BrinkerhoF , . .


534 and Wieting, l, 252 Brissn -iton, W. F., ii, 381 4.0 .im. i, xiii pjammar, J. A., i, xvi, 433; ii. 189. 272-278, 279, 285.


286. 343, 344, 347, 348, 405, 446, 450-452, 455 459. 460. 462-467. 470 472. 477. 493. 514, 614.


9S2 Hammersehlag- and Czinner.


ii, 269 Hanan. ii. 441 Hannover. Ad., i, 404, 412, 428 Hansemann. D.. ii. 392. 398 — . v.. ii. 438. 481 Happe. H. i. 134, 146-148 Happich. C. ii. 312, 365, 367-368 Hardesty, ii. 2. 6-8, 9. 23, 25 Hardivillier, d'. ii, 363, 368, 4S2. 483, 488 Harrison. R. G., i, 231, 360, 456-457; ii, 13, 14. 22.


23. 24. 12j> Hart, Berry, i. 117 Hartmann, i, 377, 439 Harvey, i, xii, xiii Hasler. i, 1S4 Hasse, C. i. 195: ii, 434, 485 Hasselwander. i, 377-378, 389 Hatsehek, B., ii, 188

Hauch, E., ii, 842, 855, 858, 860, 862, S63 Hayem, ii, 512 Head, H., i, 262 Heape, W., i, 102-103 Hebert and Kirmisson, ii, 428 Hecker, i, 184, 186, 195, 200 Hedinger, E., ii, 398 Heerfordt, C. F., i, 454 ; ii, 244 Hegar, K., i, 202; ii, 928 Hegetschweiler, J., ii, 279 Heidenhain, M., i, 258, 454; ii, 515, 517 Heider, i, 1 Heisler, i, 195 Held. ii. 13, 257 Hellv. K. K., ii, 431, 435, 440 Helmholtz, i, 420 Hemming, i, 255 Henckel. Fr., ii, 229, 256 Hendrickson. W. F., ii, 416 417 Henke and Revher, i, 371— 373 Henle. J., i. 268, 271, 272: ii. 412 — . and KSlliker, A. v., ii, ISO Henneberg, B., i, 17, 172, 440: ii, 282, 283 Henneguy. i, 7 Hennig. C, i, 7. 379; ii, 392 Hensen, V., i, 12, 15, 29, 1S6, 195-196; ii, 13, 298, 300 Hepburn, D., i. 258; ii, 642 Herbst. i. 230, 455 Herff, O. v., i, 117, 136. 168; ii. 590 Hering, ii. 407-408, 409.


414. 415. 417 Herring. P. T., and Simpson. S., ii, 420 Herrmann. G., and Tour neux. F., ii. 57. 514 — . and Verdun, P., ii, 461, 471-472 Hertwig, O., i, 2, 14, 49, 229, 231, 234. 404, 414 417, 433, 437; ii, 117, 423, 9S1 Herwerden, M. van, i, 102 Herzoe:, F., ii, 882, 963 — , H., i, 454; ii. 245, 249 — , M., ii, 297-299 Hess, W., ii, 586 Heuer, G. J., ii, 719, 730, 731 Hewlett, A. W., ii. 364 Hill, E. C. ii. 654 — , J. P.. and Wilson, E.


B., i, 46

Hilton, W. A., ii, 388. 391, 396 Hippel, E. v., ii, 229, 240, 257, 258 Hirsch, K., ii, 250 His, W., i, xiv-xvii, 22-24, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 69, 71, 118, 119, 130, 141, 175, 182, 184-188, 194-197, 205-208, 215-221, 224 225, 234-235, 237, 328, 526, 530-532, 534, 535, 541, 543, 544; ii, 2, 6, 11, 12, 13, 33, 47, 48, 53, 54, 63, 64, 78-84, 86-89, 96-99, 102. 118, 121, 149, 189-193, 194, 209, 213, 220, 221, 246, 266, 285, 287, 294, 308, 309, 310, 312, 320, 327, 335, 337, 340, 343-344, 348, 368369, 404-405, 408, 431, 449, 452, 455, 456, 458459, 470, 476, 477, 482484, 498,- 544, 565, 569, 571, 587, 618, 619, 622, 630, 636, 637, 639, 640, 652, 671, 672, 673, 737738, 740, 981 — . jun.. W.. i. xvi; ii. 132, 149. 266 3 272, 371 Hitschmann and Adler, i, 97-101, 117 — and Lindenthal, i, 104, 130. 132. 153, 155, 158, 16S, 169 Hoboken. X., i, xiii; ii, 291 Hoehe, A., ii, 640 Hoehstetter, F., i, xvi, 27, 59, 68, 71; ii, 101, 171, 172, 193, 223, 224, 225, 226. 230-232, 337, 536, 561, 574, 587, 605, 612, 623, 635, 642, 652, 653656, 657, 658, 666, 667, 687, 689, 690, 692, 698, 776 Hoeven. van der, i, 122 Hofbauer, L, i, 94-95, 126, 143; ii, 511 Hoffmann, A., ii, 183 — , C. K„ ii, 158, 256, 602 — , M., ii, 639 Hofmeier, i, 18, 103 — , M.. i, US, 128-130 Holl, M., i, 6, 359, 373 Holsti, O. N., i, 94 Holzapfel, K., i, 169 Holzbach, E., ii, 934 Honore, Ch., i, 7 Howell, W. H., ii, 515, 521, 534 Howes, ii, 651 Hoyer, ii, 518, 738 Hrdlicka, i, 195 Huber, G. C, ii, 9, 43, 50, 51, 120, 121, 151, 152

Hubrecht. A. A. W., i, 20, 28, 44, 48, 51-53, 91, 95, 96, 105, 123-124, 147; ii, 513. 588 Huguier, ii, 967 Hunter, John, i, 311 — , William, i, xiii, 121 Huntington and McClure, ii. 713, 72(1. 741. 742 Huxlev. i, 271, 272 Ilvrtl, J., i, 19, 171, 439; ii, (iC.lt

Ibraham, J., ii, 380 Ide, i, 248 Ihering, H. v., i, 436 Inaba, M., ii, 175 Ingalls, N. W., i, xv, 471, 472, 482; ii, 182, 313, 314, 315, 318, 322, 403, 405, 406, 430, 434, 454. 462, 485, 604, 606, 623. 648, 652, 672, 710 Israel. O.. ii, 287 Issmer, i, 180, 184, 185, 1S6, 195, 196, 198 Iwase, i, 177

Jablonowski, J., i, 50 Jach, E., ii, 392 Jackson, C. M., i, 195; ii, 330, 392, 426, 533 Jacobi, E., ii, 247 Jacoby, Mart, i, 404 Jadassohn, i, 253 Jahrmarker, E., ii, 357, 361, 369 Jamain, i., 438, 439 Jankelowitz, A., ii, 430 Janosik. J., i, 7. 195; ii, 405, 429, 431. 513 Jarisch, i, 253 Jeannulatos, P., ii, 249 Jeidell, H., ii, 654 Jhering, i, 436 Johnson. F. P., ii, 321, 358 360, 362. 364. 365, 373, 374, 376, 382-389, 393 Johnston. J. B., ii, 16, 33, 78, 141 Jollv. ii. 498. 500, 501, 506.


508, 512, 513, 520, 734 Jones, i. 255 — . A. W., and Keith, A., ii, 330 Jonson, A., ii, 982 Jordan. H. E., i, 174; ii.


318 Jores, L., i, 255 Jost, J., ii. 523 Jung. C, ii. 297. 300 — . Ph.. i. xvi. 27. 29. 94.


103. 114. 116. 119. 124.


125. 126. 127. 135. 137.


152

K Kadvi. H., ii, 639-640, 641 Kallius, E., i, 243, 422-424; ii, 190, 196, 207, 208, 211, 212, 213, 343, 345, 454, 476-482 Kalopothakes, M., ii, 378 Kampen, van, i, 420, 435 436 Kantor, H., ii, 428 Kasahara, ii, 439 Kastner, i, 472, 4S2 Kastsehenko, N., i, 148; ii, 162, 2S4. 456, 457, 459 Kaufmann, ii, 3S9 Kazzander, G., i, 372 Kehrer, E., i, 95: ii, 934 Keibel. F., i, xi, xvi, 1, 18, 19, 21, 32, 43, 48, 59, 66, 67, 82. 195, 469; ii, ISO. 189. 191, 193, 219. 220. 228, 232, 247, 266, 295, 296, 308, 315, 323-325, 335, 384, 501, 589, 773, 833, 870, 871, 872, 980, 983 — and Elze. i, xv, xvi, 24, 40, 41, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67, 70, 91, 262, 277, 528, 530, 543; ii, 32, 171, 182, 1851S6. 189-191, 194, 197, 219-220, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 228, 230, 232, 249, 250, 254, 265, 266. 295. 296, 307. 308, 311, 317. 318, 322, 324, 327, 35S, 365, 410, 411, 429431, 434, 594, 599, 635, 648, 657, 983 Keil. K„ ii. 229 Keith. A., ii, 313 — , and Jones, A. W., ii, 330 Kelly, i, 229 Kerekring. Th.. i, 426, 439 Kermauner. i, 155 Kerr. Brvce. and Teacher.


i, xvi. 18, 24. 54, 105 Kessler. L., ii. 234, 236 Kidd. W., i. 259 Kiernan. F.. ii. 414. 420, 422. 42S Kieser, D. G.. ii. 292 Kiesow. F.. ii. 1S5 Killian. G.. i. 415, 416; ii.


200-206. 281 Kirk. E. G.. ii. 379 Kirmisson and Hebert. ii.


428 Kirschstein, ii. 253 Kjellberg, Knut. i, 441 Klaatsch, ii. 651 Klein. E., ii. 365-367 — . G.. i. 170 — ii, 51 S Kliemenscewicz. ii. 515

Kling, ii, 734-735 Klopp, A., and Sanger, M., ii, 428 Ivnape, V., ii, 234 Knower, i, 230, 240; ii, 586 Kohlbrugee, ii, 477 Kohn, A., ii, 147, 148, 158, 159, 162, 175, 460-461, 465, 467 Kolliker. A. v., i, xiii. xv, 23, 55, 103, 143, 158, 176, 195, 244, 276, 281-284, 303, 304-308, 310, 431, 435, 439, 454; ii, 25, 58, 197, 211/234, 278, 368, 373, 380, 385, 388, 390, 395-396, 404, 409, 415, 41S, 419. 429, 436, 455, 474, 475, 476, 487-490, 507, 508, 528, 571, 581, 679, 738-739, 745, 748, 937 — and Henle. J., ii. 180 Kollmann, J., i. 22, 65, 195, 196. 240, 294, 295, 327, 414-417. 434. 439, 441, 472. 482-483; ii, 16, 31, 32. S9, 103-105, 229, 278, 307. 431, 459, 587, 594, 599, 682, 734, 737, 745, 746, 807 Kolosoff. G.. and Pankul.


F... i. 259 Kolster. R., ii, 654 Kon, J., ii, 408 Konigstein, ii, 251 Kopsch. i. 50 Korff, K. v., ii, 351-352 Kormann. B.. i, 279 Korschelt, i. 1. 2 Kos^mann. R., ii, 909, 913 Kostanecki. v.. ii. 508, 515, 520, 530-532 — , and Bistrzycki, ii, 281 Koster, i. 172 Kovter. Volcher. i. xii Krauso. R.. ii. 266. 269. 270 — . W., i. 9. 243, 257, 258, 377. 438: ii. 180. 181, 182, 1S3, 573, 641, 667, 669 Krauss. F., 257 Krawetz. i. 343 Kreidl and Mandl. i, 172 Kretz. i. 27, 28 Kreuter. E.. ii. 357-358, 359. 365. 368. 391. 394 Krieger, ii, 934 Kromayer. i. 247. 256. 257 Kromer. P.. i. 19. 159: ii, 454 Kriickmann. E., ii. 247. 248 Kuliga, P.. ii. 391 Kiilz, L.. ii. 852-853. 856 857. 864 Kuntz. A., ii. 371. 390 Kupffer. C. v.. ii. 188. 310.


408. 410

Kiirsteiner, W., ii, 465 466, 471 Kiiss. M. G., ii, 381 Kussmaul, A., ii, 932, 933, 934 Kiister, H., ii, 437-439 Kvrle, J., and Weichsel baum, A., ii, 437-439

Lachi, i, 439 Laguesse, E., i, 195, 298; ii, 437-438 Lau is and Doorme, ii, 882 Lange, 0.. ii, 241, 242. 258 Langer, K., i, 254, 260; ii, 739 Langer-Toldt, i, 439 Langerhans, ii, 181 Langhans, Th., i, 122, 123, 132-133, 135, 139, 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 158, 161, 169, 175 Langley, ii, 152 Lankester, see Ray-Lank ester. Laskowsky, ii, 371 Launois. P., and Roy, P., i, 324 Lazarus, i, 373 Leboucq, H., i. 352. 373.


379; ii, 210, 662, 667 Leche, W., i, 377 Le Damanv. P.. i. 379 Le Double", A. F., i, 431, 438, 439 Lee, i, 195 Leeuwenhoek, i, xiii Legal, ii, 211, 254 Lesav and Tourneux, ii, 926 Legueu, F., ii, 860 Lehman. Miss H., ii, 613 614 Leidw i. 438-439 Leimgruber, f;.. ii. 271 Lemery, i. 233 Lengniek. i. 426 Lenhossek. M. v., i. 17. 147, 470: ii. 9. 16. 234 Lenzi. ii, 490 Leonowa. O. v.. i. 455 Leopold. G., i. 21. 33. 103.


104. 113. 117. 119-121.


124-125. 126. 130. 134.


162. 182 — and Mironoff. i. 182-183 — and Ravano. i. 121. 182. 183 Lethebv. H., i, 19 Letulle. M., ii, 392 — . and "NTattnn-Larrier. ii, 431. 436. 440 Leucknrt. i. 183 Levaditi. i. 252 Levi, G.. i. 401. 402. 404.


410, 412

Levy, i, 231 Lewinski, i, 259-260 Lewis, F. T., i, xv ; ii, 291, 295, .325, 331, 355, 36S, 381, 393, 403, 407, 414, 429, 475, 582, 604, 608, 612, 614, 630, 675, 680682, 683, 685, 686, 689690, 691, 692, 698, 7 in, 713, 715, 71S, 723, 741742 — , and Thyng, F. W., ii, 384. 392-393, 441, 454 — , Th.. ii, 518 — , W. H„ i. xvi, 379, 381, 454. 456, 457, 483, 490491, 494; ii, 122, 127, 228, 9S1-9S2 — , and Bardeen, Charles R.. i. 457. 471. 473-474, 476-478, 4S6-489; ii, 119, 122 Lewis, i, 231. 240 Leydig. F„ ii. 157-159 Leven. E. v. d.. ii. 377 Lichtenberg. A., ii, 966 967 Lieberkiihn. X.. ii. 424. 737 Liepmann, i. 159 Lieutaud, i. 439 Lifschitz. Sophie, ii, 74^.


749 Lindberg, ii, 982 Lindemann, P.. i. 323 Lindenthal, O., i. 176 — . and Hitschmann. i. 104.


130, 132, 153, 155, 158, 168, 169 Linser. P.. ii. 490 Lissauer, ii. 56 Lobenhoffer, W., ii, 410 Lobstein, J. F., ii, 291, 294 Lock. L. A. H., and Berry, R. I. A., ii. 397. 982 Lockwood, C. B., ii. 398 Locy, W. A., ii. 614 Lode. A., i. 15 Loeb, i. 229. 230. 253 Loewv. i. 256. 260 Loisel. G.. i. 255 Lombardo, i, 253 Lonnberar. J., i. 171. 173 174 Lott, i, 12 Loven. i. 310 Low. A., i. xv. 440-441 : ii.


219. 227. 306. 307. 310.


454, 599 Li'iwenhardt - Si°ismund. i.


121 Lowit. ii. 504. 507. 520 Lowv. i, 172 Lubosch. W.. ii. 21S Lucien, M., i. 372 Ludwig. ii. 738 Luna. E., ii. 654 Liineburor. E.. i. 281 Lunghetti. B.. i. 323

Luschka, H. v., i, 426 : ii, 162, 331, 33S, 675, 679 Lustig, ii, 183 Luzet, ii, 748 Lwoff, B., i, 50 M Macalister, A., i, 431, 439; ii, 654 MacCallurn, J. B., i, 469; ii, 739 MacClure, C. F. W., ii. 665, 685, 723, 742 — . and Huntington, ii, 713, 720, 741-742 McGill, Caroline, i, 458464; ii, 366 MacGillavry, T. H., ii, 409 Mackay, J. J., ii, 633, 642, 652 Mackenzie, F. S., ii, 325326 McMurrich, J. Playfair, ii, 291, 313, 335 Malassez, ii, 513 Mall, Franklin P., i, xv, xviii, 31, 180, 202, 221, 238, 294, 298-301, 303, 306, 312, 323, 327, 3^8, 329, 350, 351, 356. 378, 389, 390, 424, 425, 427, 428, 430, 431, 432. 43643S, 440, 457, 469, 482, 523; ii, 32. 60, 61. 75, 90-93, 101, 102, 121, 140, 142, 305, 306, 307, 317, 320, 321, 322, 326, 327328, 390, 406, 407, 408. 413, 418. 420. 421. 422. 426, 429, 498, 570, 575, 586, 587, 605, 608-609, 612, 624. 625. 637, 642, 647, 653. 673-679, 687689, 747-748 Mallorv. F. B.. ii, 309 — and Wright, ii, 521 Malpighi, i, xii: ii. 420 Manchot, C, ii, 638 Mandelbaum, i, 195 Mandl. L.. i, 97, 172 — and Kreidl, i., 172 Mangakis. K.. ii, 196 Marchand. F.. i. 31. 33-34, 55. 115. 124. 127, 130.


139, 140, 142. 148, 205; ii, 91, 104, 162 Marchesini and Ferrari, i, 454 Maresch. R„ ii, 40S. 472 Markowski. J., i. 357: ii, 680 Marshall, i, 185: ii. 673.


680 Martin, i. 238 — . H.. ii, 630 Marwedel, G., ii. 309 Matys. V.. ii, 254


Maurer, F., i, 263-264, 277, 465, 469; ii, 162, 368, 405, 460-462, 471, 472, 512 Maximow, A., ii, 464, 467. 498-500, 503, 504, 50S, 509, 511, 514, 518-519. 523-524, 527, 532, 749 Mayer, S., i, 46 < .


Mayet, i, 356-357, 378 Maziarsky, S., ii, 437 McGill, McMurrich, see Mac.


Mead, C. S., i, 399, 409, 420 Meckel, J. F., i, xiv, 233, 427, 438-439; ii, 293, 317, 320, 385-386, 391, 395, 396, 428, 654 Meek, A., i, 469 Melmert, ii, 980 Meijere, de, i, 263, 277 Meirowsky, E., i, 252, 255 MHissenos, i, 118 Melzer, S. J., ii, 738 Menge, C, ii, 909 Merk, L., i, 256 Merkel, F., i, 252, 298, 312. 379, 439; ii, 196. 213, 214, 475, 482, 487, 489, 490 — , and Orr. A., ii. 256 — , i. 195; ii, 271 Merttens, J., i, 33, 104, 182, 185, 195 MeveSj i, 8 — and Duesberg. ii. 8S2 Merer. A. W.. i. 174. 195; ii. 16. 317. 737 — , Rob., i. 262: ii. 174, 587, 602, 752. 897. 922, 924. 930, 934, 939 — , S., ii, 158 Mevnert. ii. 76 Michaelis. i. 195-200 Michel. F.. i. 324 Mierzejewpki. L.. ii. 720.


730 Mies, J., i, 441 Mihalkovies. V. v.. i. 414 415, 438; ii, 196, 197.


202, 212 Minot, Ch. 8.. i. 28. 53. 96.


119, 147. 195, 244, 328.


439. 525; ii. 229. 278.


299-302. 303. 304. 325.


368-369. 407. 498. 502 504, 511, 524. 582. 630.


671 Mironoflf and Leopold, i.


182 Mitsukuri, K., ii. 175 Moldenhauer, ii. 285, 287 Mollier. i. 366: ii. 408. 410.


534-535, 590. 740. 74* — and Riickert. ii. 498, 571 Monesi. L.. ii. 254

Morgagni, i, 233, 235; ii, 326 Morgan, i, 230, 231 Morpurgo, B.. i, 469 Morris, i, 439 Moschcowitz, E., ii. 428 Mosei - , i, 358, 371 Muir, R., ii, 534 — and Drummond, ii, 534 Miiller, Charlotte, i, 334, 339, 343, 345 — , Erik, i, xvi: ii. 9, 576.


659, 661. 664-667 — , H., i, 310, 348 — , Johannes, i, xiv — . W., ii. 745 Munch, F. E.. ii, 2S4 N Xaegeli. ii, 508 Xagel. W., i. xvi. 1-5, 121; ii, 909, 921 Xakai, i. 255 Xarath. A., ii. 473. 482 493 Xattan-Larrier. L.. ii. 410.


418 — , and Letulle. M., ii, 431, 436, 440 Xauwerciv. C ii. 440 Xeal. ii. 24 — , H„ ii, 256 Xeedham, Gualtherus, i, xiii Xelson. E. M.. i. 9 Xeugebauer, L. A., i. 172 Xeumann. E., i, 455: ii, 360-362. 377. 409-410.


440. 527, 528. 534 — i. 304; ii, 513. 532 Xitabuch. R., i, 127, 151, 152 Xoorden. W. van., i. 404 Xnck, A., ii, 737 Xusbaum. T„ ii. 336 Xussbaum. M.. i. 17. 454.


457. 458: ii, 122. 188^ 234. 244. 250. 256

Oehl. i. 250 Ohlert, B., i, 275 Okamura, T., i. 244, 2S2, 284 Oken, ii. 291-294. 320 Oilier, i, 311 Onodi, A. D.. ii. 148 Opie. E. L.. ii. 437-439 Oppel. A., ii. 256, 586 Oppler. i, 251 Orr. A., and Merkol. Fr..


ii. 256 Osaki ami Zumstein. ii, 229 Osliima. T.. i. 274 Otis. W. J., ii. 324

Paladino, i, 7 Paltauf, R., ii. 162 Pander, Christian, i, xiii Pankul. E.. and Kolosoff, G., i, 259 Panum, i. 215-222, 233, 234, 235, 238 Pappenheim, ii. 513, 519 Pardi. J., ii. 513. 527 Tarker. G. IE. i, 439 , — , and Tozier, C. H., ii, 685 Parsons, F. G., ii, 329 Passarge, i, 255 Paterson. A. M., i, 343, 359, 469: ii, 14S Paton. X. D., and Goodall, A., ii, 9S2 Patterson, i. 294 Patzelt. V.. ii. 393-395 Pearce. R. M.. ii. 437-439 Pee, P. van. ii, 234, tisl Pels Leusden, i. 149 Pensa. A., ii, 488, 631. 723 Perna, G., i. 382, 431 Peter, K.. i. 415-416: ii, 188, 192, 193. 196, 200, 201. 204, 205. 211. 266, 614. S54. 856. 862. 863 Peters, H.. i, xvi, 24. 27, 28, 104. 109-116, 117-127.


130, 136, 137, 182, 1S5, 186. 195, 523, 525; ii, 295-296 Peueker, H.. ii. 472 Pfannenstiel, J., i, 94, 104, 118-120, 124, 130, 134, 136, 137. 139, 149, 158, 159, 167, 168 Pfitzner, i. 192. 194. 323.


385 Phelps Gage. Susanna, i, xv Philip. ii,"475 Philippson. L,, i, 259, 260 Phisalix. C., i. xv; ii, 415, 429. 434, 745 Pick. L.. ii. 934 Piel, ii. 287 Piersol. G. A., i, 195; ii, 272, 447, 450, 456. 457, 698 Pinkus, F., i, 243, 277 Piper. H.. i. xv. 535: ii, 410. 431. 609. 635. 74."i Piatt. Miss J., ii. 256 Poekel. i. xiv Poirier, i. 354-355. 377.


389, 425, 426. 429. 430, 438, 439, 440 — and Charpv. i. 352 355 Polinski. W., ii. 730 Poliakoff. ii. 512, 513 Poll. H.. ii. 171 Pollitzer. S., i. 283 — . H.. ii. 520 Pnlzl. Anna. ii. 209. 340


Poncet, A., i, 324 Ponzo, M., ii, 183 Popoff, D., ii, 670 — , N., ii, 54, 894, 895, 919 Popowsky, J., i, 478-479; ii. 668, 669 Portal, i, 438 Post, i, 253 Posth, M., i, 354, 355 Pouchet, ii, 512 Pougnauld, C, ii, 427 Preisich, K., ii, 391 Prenant, A., ii, 456, 460, 471, 514 Prevost arid Dumas, ii, 528 Pryor, J. W., i, 3S9-390

Quain, R., i. 351, 353, 356, 357, 373-378, 385-390, 426, 427, 430, 439; ii, 697-698 R Rabl, H., i, 7, 195-196, 250-251, 255, 256, 366; ii. 158, 450, 451, 455, 456, 461-464, 46 i, 576 — , C, i, 59, 82, 195-196; ii. 162, 228-232, 234, 281, 455-456. 459, 57z, 573 Raffaele, ii, 602 Rambaud and Renault, i, 351, 355, 378, 390, 429 433, 436-440 Ramon v Cajal, i, 252; ii, 13, 243, 245 Ramstrom, M., ii, 180 Ranke, J., i, 426-428 Ranvier, L., i, 247, 250 251. 284, 301. 303, 310, 454; ii, 21, 24, 181, 182, 504, 512-513. 710, 732, 739 Eathke, H., ii. 309, 5&7, 617, 618, 628 Rauber, A., i, 439 Ravano and Leopold, i, 121.


183 Ravenel, i, 358 Ravn, i. 532, 542, 544, 546; ii, 424, 657 Ray-Lankester, i, 47 Recklinghausen, v., ii. 738, 934 Refort, L. L.. ii, 739 Reh. i, 263 Reichel. P.. ii. 325-326. 872 Reichert. i. 22, 103, 120.


121, 181-185. 195-196, 421. 441: ii, 528 Eeid, D. G., ii. 319 Rein, G„ i. 278, 279 Reinhardt, Ad., i. 330 Reinke, ii, 480, 614 Remak. R.; i, xiii; ii, 148.



368, 404, 415, 460, 474, 528, 581 Renault, see Rambaud. Renaut,.J., ii, 513, 520, 573 Resink, i, 91, 123 Retterer, C. R., ii, 513 — , Ed., i, 256, 298-305, 306, 310; ii, 390, 459 Retzer, ii, 569 Retzius, G., i, 6, 11, 59, 83-90, 193. 195: ii, 100, 211, 234, 271 Reuter, K., i, 505, 509; ii, 255-256 Rex, H., ii, 255, 407, 413, 426, 674 Reyher, ii, 377 — and Henke, i, 371-373 Ribbert, H., ii, 367 Rickenbaclier, ii, 269 Riebold. G.. ii, 367, 368 Riedel, ii, 863 Rieliinder, A., ii, 161, 830 831 Riess, L., ii. 412, 415 Rindfleisch, ii, 508, 534 Robin, i. .147 Robinson, A., i, 92, 195; ii, 325-326, 482, 571 Rodenacker, i, 82, 365 Rohr, K.. i. 151 Rohrer, F„ ii, 287 Romanovsky, R., and Winiwarter, J. v., ii, S97 Romberg, i, xvi Romiti, i, 439 Rosenberg, E., i, 323, 358 Rosenstadt, B., i, 244, 250, 253, 282 Rosger, P., ii, 926 Rossi Doria, Tullio, i, 34, 104, 116, 117, 130, 132 Roth, ii, 479 ; A., i. 12 — \ M., ii, 392 Roud, A., ii, 176 Rouget, ii, 581 Rousseau. Emman., i, 438 Rnux. i. 54: ii, 980-9S1 Roy, P.. and Launois, P., \, 324 Rubaschkin, W., i. 2; ii, 10, S82 Riickert, ii. 447. 571 — and Mollier. ii. 498, 571 Rudolph, ii. 935 Rug. ii. 669 Ruge, i. 160-161, 366, 503 — , G., i. 343: ii. 284. 428, 486, 492, 573, 659, 669 Runge, ii, 905 Ruysch, Fr., ii, 195, 206

Sabin, Elorence R.. ii, 570, 709. 710, 713. 730, 734, 741. 745

Sabourin and Brissaud, ii, 420 Saint-Hilaire, i, 233 Sakurai, T., ii, 618 Sala, ii, 711-713, 720-721 Salenskv, W., ii, 625 Salvi, ii, 612, 669 Salvioli, ii, 375 — and Foa. ii, 528 Salzer, H., ii, 677, 679 Sandstrom, ii, 461 Sanger, M., and Klopp, A., ii, 428 Santorini, J. D., ii, 429 Sappey, i, 377, 390, 425, 427, 430, 432, 438-439 Sato, Toshio, ii, 272 Saxer, ii, 511, 513, 514, 711, 719-720, 734 Schafer, ii, 504, 513 Schaffer, J., i, 467; ii, 183, 357, 361-364, 467, 471 Schaffer, O., ii, 286 Schaffner and Ewart, ii, 485 Schaper, i. 231; ii, 2, 4-5, 72, 73 Schauinsland, H., i, 346, 360 Schauta, i, 104, 169 Schawlowski, I., ii, 680 Scheel, O., ii, 175 Schenk. S. L., ii, 368, 371, 398. 407. 421 — , and Birdsall. ii. 148 Schickele, i, 132-134, 155 Schiffmann. J., i, 255 Schirmer. ii, 253 Schlaginhaufen, O., i, 258 259 Schlater, O.. ii, 295 Schmidt, i. 189. 194 — , Ch., ii. 280 — , E.. i. 414 — , Hugo, i. 279-280 — , M. B.. ii. 410, 528, 529, 531, 532. 533 — , V., ii. 480 Schmitt. Heinr.. i, 278 Schmorl, G.. i. 176. 253 Schneider, i. 252 Schoenfeld, i, 93 Schomburg, H., i, 373, 501, 503-504 Schon. W., ii, 242 Schoneraann, A., ii, 200, 204. 211 Schorr, G.. ii. 209, 341 Scliottliinder. i, 7 Schreiber. i. 252 Schreiner. K. E.. ii, 799 Schrenk, i, 439 Schridde, H.. i, 248; ii, 356-357, 361-365, 367, 383, 500, 502, 528 Sehulin, K., i, 321, 371, 372.


384, 385


Schultze, B. S., i, 173 — , Max, i, 247, 302 — , 0., i, 17, 71, 91, 195, 230, 254, 261, 278-279, 331, 337, 438, 439; ii, 13, 235-236, 242, 278, 357, 625 Schumacher, S. v., i, 350; ii, ISO — , and Schwarz, C, i, 7 Schiippel, ii, 392 Schur, H., and Wiesel, J., ii, 157 Schwalbe, G., i, 252, 277, 304, 436; ii, 183, 210, 281-2S4. 286-287 — , E., ii, 364, 667 Schwann, i, 465; ii, 13, 23, 580, 737, 739 Schwarz, C, and Schumacher. S. v.. i. 7 Schwegel, i, 377, 390 Schweigger-Seidel, ii, 250, 750, 863 Schwendener, i, 275 Sedgwick, i, 51 Seefelder and Wolfrum, ii, 249-250 Seessel. A., ii, 310, 336 Seevers and Bonnot, ii, 675 Seiffer. i, 262 Seiler, i, xiv; ii, 250 Seitz, L., ii, 865 Selenka, i. 20. 21, 43, 55; ii. 296 Sellheim. H., i, 179; ii, 982 Semon, B., ii, 652 Serres, i, 390, 436, 438 Sewall. H., ii, 373-376 Sewell, B. B. S., i, 376 Seydel, ii, 192 Sfameni, i, 159 Shambaugh, ii. 271 Sharper, i, 306, 307, 310 Sherrington. Ch. S.. i. 262 Siebenmann, F., ii, 269, 272, 279, 281 Siegenbeek van Heukelom.


i. 32-34, 104, 115. 116, 119, 123, 126, 137, 149 Sigismund, see Lowenhardt Sigismund. Simpson. S.. see Herring. Smith. G. Elliot, i. 451: ii, 88. 91, 101 — . Miss H. YV.. ii. 686 Sobotta. J., i, 2, 18, 118: ii. 353 Soederlund. G.. and Backman, A., ii, 982 Sommerring, i. xiii. 195 Soulii. A., and Bardier.


E.. i. 518; ii. 452. 476 479 — . and Bonne, ii, 614, 685 — , and Tourneux, F., ii, 452

Soulie, A. H., ii, 158-159, 171, 173, 177 Spalteholz, W., i, 254-255, 298, 301-303; ii, 7S, 698 Spampani, ii, 234 Speciale-Cirincione, ii, 252253 Spee, F. Graf v., i, xv-xvi, 24, 2S-29, 30, 36-38, 40, 54, 55, 66, 103, 104, 107, 113. 117, 118, 119, 121, 123, 124, 127, 130, 147, 148, 109, 174, 195, 294, 428, 430, 431, 436, 439, 469, 523-526; ii, 31,296, 298-300, 303, 304, 305, 317, 500. 587, 589-590 Spemann, H., i, 230, 231; ii, 228, 982 Spieghel, Adrian van den (Spigelius), i, xii, xviii Spix, i, 439 Spoendli, Heinr.. i, 404 Spuler, A., i, 298; ii, 967 Spurgat, ii, 197 Stahr, H., ii. 186, 340 Stangl, E., ii, 439-440 Steffeek, P., i, 155, 159 Steiner. F.. i, 426 Steno. Nic, i, xiii; ii, 197 Sternberg, M.. i. 428 Sterzi, G., ii, 59, 634, 639640, 641 Stieda, i, xiv, 439 — , A., ii, 325, 339 — , K„ ii, 162 — . L., i, 365, 451; ii, 470 Stilling, H., ii, 162 Stockard, i, 231, 240 Stockel, i, 7 Stoerk, O., ii; 850-851, 853855 Stohr, Ph., i. 249, 263-269, 272. 274, 277, 330, 454; ii. 390. 393, 397, 459, 467, 514, 737 Stolper, L., i, 104, 113 Stoss, ii. 431 Strahl. H.. ii, 229 — i. 91-93, 108, 123, 127, 171: ii. 587 — and Carius, i. 526 Strassmann. F.. i. 12, 201 Stratz, i. 103 Strazza. G.. i, 518 Strecker. F„ ii, 331, 364.


367. 373-376, 378 Streeter. G. L.. i, xvi. 195: ii. 1. 144. 266. 267, 268, 272. 273 Strelzoff. Z. G.. i. 310. 311 Stricht. C. van der, ii, 588 — . van der, ii. SS2 — . X. van der, i. 7: ii, 270 — . O. van der. ii. 410. 49 S.


508. 509. 515, 520. 531.


534. 749

Strieker, S., ii, 581 Strong, ii, 30 Stubenrauch, i, 195 Studnicka, F. K., i, 248 Suchannek, i, 178 Sudler, ii, 454 Suidas, ii, 294 Sutton, i, 428 Swaen, A., i, xv, 542-545; ii, 403, 404, 405, 424, 426, 431 Swammerdam, i, xiii Swiecicki. v., ii, 287 Swjetschnikow, i, 427 Syk, J., ii, 982 Symington, J., ii, 286, 440 ^vmmers, D., ii, 440 Szilv, A. v., i, 299, 454; ii, 228, 233, 234, 244-249 Szymonowicz, i, 307-309

Tandler, J., i, xvi, 121, 195, 190, 243; ii, 232, 24S, 249, 266, 382, 383, 385, 390, 391, 431, 450, 452453. 462, 465. 470, 534, 585, 605, 609, 613-617, 621-623. 625. 627, 628629, 630, 646-648, 652653. S19 Tarenetzky, A., ii, 318, 328-329 Teacher, i, 1 — and Bryce, i, xvi, 24-27, 31, 103, 104-107, 113, 116, 117, 119, 124-125, 126, 127, 196, 523, 524; ii, — , Kerr and Bryce, i, xvi, 18, 24-27, 54. 105 Teichmann, ii, 736, 738 Tenchini, i, 358 Testut, i, 430, 439 Tettenhamer. ii, 455 Teuffel. i. 255 Thane. <;. D.. i. 439; ii, 643, 652 Thiersch. C. ii, 934 Thilenius, G., i, 323, 385, 390 Thoma. E.. ii. 421, 574-575 Thome. R., and Freund, H.


W., i. IS. 105 Thomson. A., i. xiv. xv, 18, 23. 103. 195. 351. ii. 426 — , P., ii. 310-312. 403-404.


405, 473. 536. 670 — . ii. 454 Thyng, F. W. s ii. 317, 331, 430, 440 — , and Lewis. F. T.. ii.


384, 392-393, 441, 454 Tiedemann, F.. i. xiv: ii, 967

Toldt, C, i, 187, 195, 196200, 255, 426, 428, 429, 430, 432, 436, 437, 439, 441; ii, 318, 329, 371379, 052, 745, 855, S58, 861 — , and Zuckerkandl, E., ii, 407, 409, 410, 415, 417, 418, 419, 421, 422, 428 — jun., K., i, 452 Tonkoff, W., ii, 745, 746 Torkel. ii. 380 Tornatola, ii, 234 Torneau, i, 238 Torn i or. i. 230 Tourneux, F., ii, 278, 399 — , and Hermann. G., ii, 57, 514 — . and Soulie, A., ii, 452 — . and Verdun. P.. ii. 465, 470 — . J., ii. 870 — . and Legay, ii. 926 Tozier. C. H.. and Parker, G. H., ii, 685 Trepinski, ii. 54. 55 Tsehaschin. S.. ii. 882 Tuckerman, F., ii. 183. 347 Tiirstisr. J., ii. 571. 578, 581, 584 Tvzzer and Brinkerhoff. ii. ' 534 u Ucke, ii, 241 Unger, E., and Brugsch, Th., i, 280; ii, 57, 58 Unna, P. G., i, 244, 247 248, 250-251, 253, 255, 256, 266, 274, 282, 284 2S5 Urbantschitsch, H. V., ii, 281, 285 Uskow, i. 534-535, 541-542; ii, 424 Ussoff, S. A., i, 330

Valenti, G., i, 343 Vassmer, i, 134 Van Wyhe, ii, 188, 189 Vedova, T. della, ii, 193.


197, 200, 202, 205, 20S.


211 Veit. i. 116. 147: ii. 819 Vejdowsky, i, 229 Velpeau, 'i, 524; ii, 294 Verdun, P., ii, 469 — , and Herrmann, G., ii, 461, 471-472 — , and Tourneux, F., ii, 465, 470 Versari. R.. ii, 235-241, 625 Vesal. i, xi Vialleton, L., ii, 571

Vignal, W., ii, 23, 24, 25 Villemin and Ancel, i, 121 Virchow, H., ii, 229, 235, 237 — , R., i, 426, 439; ii. 411, 737 Voigt, Chr. Aug., i. 262, 274-275 — , J., i, 126; ii, 385-387 Voit, M., i. 399 Volker, O., ii, 429. 431 Voll, A., ii, 236 Vomer, H, i, 271 Vosmaer, ii. 513. 572-573 Vossius, ii, 229-230 Vriese, B. de, i, xvi; ii, 622. 623. 630, 659, 663.


666-669 Vrolik. A. J., i, 433; ii,

W Wagner, i, 466 — , R., i, xiv. 195 Waldeyer, W., i, 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 55, 123, 147, 156, 163, 195, 250, 304: ii, 830, S84 Wallisch. i, 441 Walter, H. E., i, 279 Wargaftig, G., i. 3 , 2 Warthin, ii, 518 Weber, A., i, 438 ; ii, 473 — , E. H., i. xiv. 455; ii.


409, 528 — , M., i. 263 — , S., ii, 868 Webster. I. CI., i, 134, 142, 149, 169 Wecker, de, ii. 253 Wederhake, J* i, 13, 139 Weichselbaum, A., ii, 381, 441 — , and Kvrle, J., ii, 437 439 Weidenreich. i. 250. 251, 453; ii, 498, 501, 505, 507, 513-519 Weisert. i, 256; ii, 9 Weiss. A., i. 346-347, 348 — , L., ii, 257 Welcker. H.. i. 387, 426 Wendt, H.. ii. 278 Wepfer, ii, 420 Werth and Grusdew, ii, 021. 927 Westphal, A„ ii, 26 Weysse, i, 182 Wharton Jones, Thomas, i, xiii, xiv, 22 Whipple, I. L.. i, 258, 259, 276 Whiting. A. J., ii, 750 Wiedersheim. R., i, 275, 366: ii, 161 Wiedersperg. G. v., i. 11

Wiesel, J., ii, 161, 174, 176 — , and Biedl, A., ii, 157 — , and Schur, H., ii, 157 Wieting and Hamdy, i, 252 YVijlie. J. W. van/ ii. 189.


255-256 Williams, L. W.. i, 182, 198.


203, 205, 328, 334, 339, 411; ii, 599, 601 Wilms, i. 389 Wilson. E. B.. i. 2 — and Hill, J. P., i, 46 — , H. C, i. 258 — i, 229-230 Wimpfheimer. C. i, 276.


277 Winckel. v., i. 229. 23S: ii.


909, 930, 934 Winiwarter. H. v., ii, 882.


SS4 — , J. v., and Romanovsky, R., ii, 897 Winkler, i. 158 Wirsung, G.. ii. 429 Wolff, J., i, 311, 440 — , Kasp. Fried., i, xiii: ii.


292-293 Wolfler, A., ii. 470 Wolfram, ii. 234 — and Seefelder. ii. 249250 Wolska, W.. i. 161 Wormser. E.. i, 150, 175 Wright, J. H.. ii, 441, 521523 — and Mallory. ii, 521 Wrisbersr. ii, 291 Wyder, Th., i. 18; ii, 926 Wy^s. v., i. 324

Youna'. A. H.. ii. 656

Zabel. E., i, 431 Za^orsky, ii, 669 Zander," i, 244, 250, 281 284; ii, 345 Ziegler, F., i, xv, 40, 66 Zietschmann, ii, 518 Zilliacus, i, 249 Zimmermann. K. W., i, 298, 505; ii, 256, 310, 613 614, 635 Zondek, M.. ii. 279 Zuckerkandl, E., i, 431; ii.


91, 154, 157, 199-202, 282. 456. 460, 471. 575.


659, 662-663, 666. 668 — , see also Toldt, C. Zumstein. J., ii, 682, 683, 685 — , and Osaki, ii, 229 Zweifel. i. 12, 18; ii, 419