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==GLOSSARY==
+
CHAPTER XVII
  
 +
THE EAR
  
Terms still in common use, though now ‘discardedare included in this list,
 
with a certain number of proper names coming in the same category.
 
  
 +
The organ of hearing is divided into three parts—the external,
 +
middle, and internal ear.
  
Abdomen, a word of uncertain derivation, but possibly from abdo,
 
I hide or conceal.
 
  
Aberrant, wandering from the normal
+
External Ear.  
source.  
 
  
Acervulus, a little heap.  
+
The external ear consists of the auricle (or pinna) and the external
 +
auditory meatus. The former has been already described (see p. 1294)*
 +
The external auditory meatus extends from the bottom of the
 +
concha to the membrana tympani, and is about 1 inch in length.
 +
It consists of two parts—outer, or cartilaginous, and inner, or osseous.
 +
The cartilaginous part, which is also fibrous, is about J inch in length,  
 +
and the osseous part, which lies within the petrous portion of the
 +
temporal bone, is about § inch long. The widest part of the meatus
 +
is its orifice, which is oval, the long measurement being vertica .
 +
The narrowest part is situated in its osseous portion, about T mch
 +
from the tympanic membrane, and it is known as the isthmus. There
 +
is another constriction of the canal situated near the deep end of t e
 +
cartilaginous part, and produced by a projection which is placed
 +
antero-inferiorly. The chief direction of the canal is inwards and
 +
slightly forwards. At first it is also inclined upwards, then backwards,
  
Acervulus cerebri, brain-sand.
+
and finally downwards. . ,  
  
Acetabulum, a vessel for holding
+
The cartilaginous part is continuous with the cartilage of the auricle,  
vinegar; a juggler’s cup. But
+
and is attached to the external auditory process of the temporal bone.
used by Pliny to signify hipsocket.
+
Its cartilage is folded so as to form a deep groove which is open at its
 +
upper and back part, the cartilaginous deficiency being completed
 +
by fibrous tissue. In the anterior wall of the cartilaginous part are
 +
two clefts (called the fissures of Santorini ) which are occupied by fibrous
 +
Ssuf In important and close inferior relation of the cartilaginous
  
Acinus, any juicy berry with stones
+
meatus is the parotid gland (see Fig. 1027). ,  
— e.g., the grape; the kernel in the
 
berry.
 
  
Acrocephalous, having a pointed or
+
The osseous part has been described in connection with the temporal
conical head.
+
hone (d IQ4) At its deep end there is a narrow groove, called the
 +
sulcus tvmianicus, which forms about five-sixths of a circle, the
  
Acromion, the point or summit of  
+
deficiency being placed superiorly, at the V^femporaf^The
the shoulder.
+
rinp- ic completed by the squamous part of the temporal bone, me
  
Acusticus, a, um, pertaining to sound,
+
tympanic membrane is set obliquely within the tympanic sulcus
or to the sense of hearing.  
+
being inclined in such a way that its front part is nearer the nudd
 +
line of the body than its back, and its lower part nearer the middle
 +
line than the upper. The floor and anterior wall of the meatus
 +
consequently longer than the roof and posterior wall.  
  
Adamantoblast, enamel germ cell.
+
^ 1671
  
Adductor canal, subsartorial canal.
 
  
Adenoid, glandular.
 
  
Aditus, an approach or access.
+
1672
  
Adrenal, near to the kidney.
 
  
Advehens, carrying to.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Afferent, carrying to.
 
  
Agger, a mound or rampart.  
+
The meatus is lined with skin, which is continuous with that of
 +
the auricle. In the osseous part of the canal the skin is very thin,
 +
and is provided with vascular papillae, but is destitute of glands and
 +
hairs.. It is reflected over the outer surface of the membrana tympani,
 +
of which it forms the outer layer. In the cartilaginous part of the canal
 +
the skin is thicker, and is provided with hairs, connected with the
 +
follicles of which are sebaceous glands. In addition to these there are
 +
convoluted tubular glands, similar in structure to sweat-glands, and
 +
called the ceruminous glands, which secrete the ear-wax.  
  
Agminated, disposed in columns.
+
Blood-supply.—The arteries are derived from the posterior auricular
 +
of the external carotid, the deep auricular of the first part of the maxil
  
Ala, a wing.
+
Upper Part ofHelix
  
Ala cinera, vagal triangle.
 
  
Albicans, white.
+
Lateral Ligament of the Malleus
  
Albuginea, whitish.
+
1
  
Alcock’s canal, pudendal canal.
+
Incus
  
Allantois, sausage-like.
 
  
Alveolus, a little trough.
+
Semicircular Canals
  
Alveus, a trough.
 
  
Amacrine, without a long fibre.
+
Concha
  
Ambiguus, dark, obscure.
 
  
Ameloblast, enamel germ.
+
External Auditory
 +
Meatus
  
Ammonis, cornu, horn of Ammon,
 
who was represented as having
 
the head of a ram.
 
  
  
Amphiarthrosis, literally, articulation on both sides. Secondary
+
Malleus
cartilaginous joint (fibro-cartilage).
+
Vestibule
 +
__ Cochlea
 +
x , Tympanum
  
Ampulla, a flask.
+
Tensor Tympani Muscle
  
Amygdala, an almond.  
+
Apex of Pet. Portion
 +
of Temporal Bone
  
Anastomosis, literally, an outlet; the
+
_Anterior Lig. of  
communication of branches of
 
vessels with one another.
 
  
Anconeus, pertaining to the elbow.
+
the Malleus
  
Ankylosis, bony union between two
+
-Internal Carotid
bones which are normally separate.
 
  
Annulus, a little ring.
+
Artery
  
Ansa, a handle, loop, or brace.
 
  
Ansa cervicis, ansa hypoglossi.
+
Lobule
  
Anserinus, pertaining to a goose.
+
Pharyngotympanic Tube
  
Antecubital, in front of the elbow.
 
  
Antibrachium, forearm.
+
Parotid Gland
  
Anticubital fossa, cubital fossa.
 
  
Anticus, in front, anterior.
+
Tip of Styloid Process of
 +
Temporal Bone
  
Antinion, opposite to the inion.
 
  
Antrum, a cave or cavity.
+
Tympanic Membrane
  
Antrum of Highmore, maxillary
+
Iug. 1027. General View of the Right Organ of Hearing (after
sinus.
 
  
Antrum, mastoid, tympanic antrum.  
+
Hirschfeld and Leveill£).  
  
Anus, a ring.  
+
The external ear and middle ear are seen in section.  
  
Aorta, literally, the lower end of the
 
trachea; a carrier.
 
  
Apertura piriformis, anterior aspect
+
iary, and the anterior auricular branches of the superficial temporal.
of nose.  
+
The veins follow the course of the arteries.  
  
Aponeurosis, an expansion from a
+
Lymphatics. These pass to the mastoid glands and to the preauricular lymphatic glands.  
tendon.  
 
  
Aponeurosis, lumbar, lumbar fascia.  
+
Nerves. The auriculo-temporal nerve gives two branches to the
 +
meatus, upper and lower, which enter it by passing between the
 +
cartilaginous and osseous walls. The upper branch supplies the skin
 +
covering the upper part of the membrana tympani, while the auricular
 +
branch (Arnold s nerve) of the vagus supplies that of the osseous
 +
part of the canal in its lower and back part, and also that covering
 +
the lower part of the membrana tympani.  
  
Aponeurosis, pharyngeal, pharyngobasilar fascia.  
+
Early Condition of the Meatus.—At birth the osseous part of the
  
Apophysis (‘ grow from ’), a process
+
canal is represented by the tympanic annulus and a small portion of
or swelling on a bone.
 
  
Appendix ventriculi laryngis, saccule.
 
  
Aqueductus cerebri, aqueduct of
 
  
  
mid-brain.
 
  
Aqueductus Fallopii, facial canal.
 
Arachnoid, like a spider’s web.
 
  
1698
 
  
  
  
  
GLOSSARY 1699
 
  
  
Arantii, corpus, nodule (in cusps of
 
aortic and pulmonary valves).
 
  
Archenteron, primitive intestine.
 
  
Arcuatus, curved.
 
  
Area acustica, vestibular area.
 
  
Areola, a small open place.
 
  
Arnold’s ganglion, otic ganglion.
 
  
Arnold’s nerve, tympanic nerve.
 
  
Artery, literally, an air vessel; the
+
THE EAR
trachea was known as the arteria
 
aspera; a bloodvessel which carries
 
the blood from the heart.
 
  
Arthrodia, from the Greek word
 
meaning * a joint ’; applied to a
 
gliding joint.
 
  
Arthrosis, plane joint.
+
1673
  
Arytenoid, pitcher-like.  
+
the squamous part of the temporal bone. It is connected by fibrous
 +
tissue to the cartilaginous framework of the auricle, and within this
 +
fibrous tissue the osseous canal is formed by two outgrowths from the
 +
tympanic annulus.  
  
Ascending frontal convolution, precentral convolution.
 
  
Ascending parietal convolution, postcentral convolution.  
+
Middle Ear.  
  
Aspera, rough.  
+
I he middle ear, or tympanum, is an irregular space within the
 +
petrous part of the temporal bone, which lies between the membrana
 +
tympani externally and the outer osseous wall of the internal ear or
 +
labyrinth internally. It is lined with mucous membrane, and it
 +
communicates with the naso-pharynx by means of the pharyngotympanic tube, through which it receives air. It has three parts:
 +
(1) the tympanum proper, or cavum tympani; (2) the attic, or epitympanic recess; and (3) the tympanic or mastoid antrum.  
  
Asterion, a star.  
+
The tympanum proper (or cavum tympani) is situated between the
 +
tympanic membrane and the outer wall of the internal ear. Its
 +
contents are as follows:
  
Astragalus, the ankle-bone; a die
+
1. A chain of ossicles (malleus,  
(pi. dice); talus.
 
  
Atlas, a support; refers to Atlas,  
+
incus, and stapes), with
who carried the earth on his
+
their ligaments.  
neck.  
 
  
Atresia, imperforation.  
+
2. Muscles.  
  
Atrium, the hall in a Roman house.  
+
The vertical and antero-posterior diameters (inclusive of the attic)
 +
are fully \ inch. The transverse measurement is from | to £ inch,
 +
except opposite the centre of the membrana tympani, where it is
 +
only T V inch, and the shape of its cavity may, perhaps, be visualized
 +
by likening a cast of it to a biconcave disc about the size of a threepenny piece.  
  
Attic, epitympanic recess.  
+
The tympanic cavity has six walls—lateral, medial, roof, floor,
 +
anterior, and posterior.  
  
Attollens, raising up, elevating.  
+
The lateral wall is formed chiefly by the tympanic membrane,  
 +
which has the handle of the malleus fixed to it, and slightly by the
 +
tympanic annulus, within the circumference of which there is a groove,
 +
called the tympanic sulcus, in which the membrane is set. The tympanic annulus and sulcus are interrupted superiorly by a notch, called
 +
the tympanic notch. In front of the tympanic annulus is the open,
 +
inner extremity of the squamo-tympanic fissure, which lodges the
 +
processus gracilis of the malleus, and transmits the tympanic branch
 +
of the internal maxillary artery. At the inner end of the fissure is
 +
the opening of the iter chordce anterius, by which the chorda tympani
 +
nerve leaves the tympanum.  
  
Attrahens, drawing to or towards.  
+
The (medial) wall (see Fig. 1028) separates the tympanum from the
 +
internal ear or labyrinth. It is very irregular, and is formed by the
 +
following parts :
  
Auditory, pertaining to the organ, or
+
1 The fenestra vestibuli. 3 - The promontory.  
sense, of hearing.  
 
  
Auerbach’s plexus, myenteric plexus.  
+
2. Projection of the facial canal. 4 - The fenestra cochleae.  
  
Auricle, the external ear.  
+
5. The sinus tympani.  
  
Auricle (O.T.), atrium (heart).
 
  
Auricular appendix (O.T.), auricle.  
+
3. Nerves.  
  
Azygos, without a pair, single.  
+
4. Bloodvessels.  
  
Bacillary, pertaining to a small staff
+
5. Air.  
or rod.  
 
  
Balanus, an acorn.
 
  
Barba, a beard.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Bartholin’s duct (great duct of Rivini),
 
  
principal sublingual duct.
+
^74
  
Basilar, belonging to the base.
 
  
Basilic, royal, important.  
+
The fenestra vestibuli is situated in a depression, called the fossa
 +
ovalis, at the upper part of the inner wall, and it leads into the cavity
 +
of the vestibule. It is irregularly oval, and is elongated from before
 +
backwards. It is occupied by the foot-piece of the stapes, and the
 +
annular ligament which connects the circumference of the foot-piece
 +
to the margin of the opening, the margin being covered by cartilage.  
  
Basion, base.  
+
The projection of the facial canal lies above the fenestra ovalis.
 +
The canal, which contains the facial nerve, is here directed backwards,
 +
and has walls of a paper-like thinness.  
  
 +
The promontory is seen below the fossa ovalis, between it and the
 +
fossa rotunda, and slightly in front of both. It is a rounded promin
  
Bechterew, nucleus of, superior
+
Mastoid
vestibular nucleus.
 
  
Bell, nerve of, nerve to serratus
+
Antrum
anterior.
 
  
Bellini, ducts of, terminal collecting
 
tubules of kidney.
 
  
Biceps, having two heads.
 
  
Bicornis, two-horned.
+
Sinus Tympam Outlet of Facial Canal at
 +
Stylo-mastoid Foramen
  
Bicuspid (teeth), pre-molar.  
+
kiG. 1028. Section through the Petrous and Mastoid Portions of the
 +
Temporal Bone, showing the Tympanum and Mastoid Cells.  
  
Bigelow, Y-shaped ligament of, iliofemoral ligament.  
+
ence made by the first turn of the cochlea, and is grooved by the nerves
 +
of the tympanic plexus.  
  
Biventer, having two bellies.  
+
The fenestra cochlese is situated in a funnel-shaped depression
 +
called the fossa rotunda, below and behind the promontory. It leads
 +
into the scala tympani of the cochlea, and in the recent state is closed
 +
by the secondary membrane of the tympanum.  
  
Bowman’s capsule, capsule of glomerulus.  
+
1 he sinus tympani is a depression behind the promontory, and
 +
between the fossa ovalis and fossa rotunda. In close relation to this
 +
is the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal.  
  
Bowman’s membrane, anterior elastic lamina of cornea.  
+
The roof of the tympanum is a thin plate of bone, called the tegmen
 +
tympani, which forms part of the anterior surface of the petrous part
 +
of the temporal bone.  
  
Brachium, the arm.  
+
The floor, narrower than the roof, is a thin plate of bone which
 +
separates the tympanum from the jugular fossa.  
  
Brachium conjunctivum, superior
 
cerebellar peduncle.
 
  
Brachium pontis, middle cerebellar
 
peduncle.
 
  
Brachycephalic, short-headed.
 
  
Bregma, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ to moisten/
 
  
Broca, area of, parolfactory area.
 
  
Broca, band of, diagonal band.
 
  
Bronchiole, a little bronchus.
 
  
Bronchus, literally, a draught; the
 
windpipe.
 
  
Bryant’s triangle, (1) horizontal line
 
from anterior superior spine;
 
(2) vertical line from top of great
 
trochanter; (3) line joining anterior superior spine to top of
 
great trochanter.
 
  
Bubonocele, a variety of tumour in
 
the groin.
 
  
Buccinator, a trumpeter.
 
  
Bulla, a knob; a bubble.
+
THE EAR
  
Burdach, fasciculus of, fasciculus
 
cuneatus.
 
  
Burns, falciform process of (ligament
+
1675
of Hey), superior cornu of saphenous opening.
 
  
Burns’ space, suprasternal space.
 
  
Bursa, a sac containing fluid.  
+
The anterior wall is narrow, owing to the descent of the roof, and
 +
the inclination towards each other of the outer and inner walls. In
 +
it are the openings of two canals, the upper of which lodges the tensor
 +
tympani muscle, whilst the lower is the osseous part of the pharyngotympanic tube. The two orifices are separated by the margin of the
 +
processus cochleariformis. The carotid canal lies just in front of the
 +
lower part of the anterior wall.  
  
Bursa omentalis, lesser sac.
 
  
Cacumen, tip, peak, or end.
 
  
Caecum, blind.  
+
Fig. 1029.—Diagrammatic Outline of Tympanum and Associated
  
 +
Recesses.
  
  
 +
The posterior wall is formed by the anterior or tympanic surface
 +
of the petrous part of the temporal bone. From above downwards
 +
the following parts are seen: (1) the opening of the mastoid antrum,
 +
which communicates with the attic of the tympanum, or epitympanic
 +
recess; (2) a depression called the fossa incudis, receiving the short
 +
process of the incus* (3) a small conical projection, called the pyramid,
 +
at the summit of which is an opening for the tendon of the stapedius
 +
muscle (posteriorly the canal within the pyramid, which contains the
  
  
  
 +
Mastoid Antrum
  
GLOSSARY
 
  
 +
Lateral Semicirc.C. ~ *
 +
Pyramid •
 +
Sinus Tympanum —
  
1700
 
  
Caeruleus, dark blue.
+
-Epitympanic Recess
  
Calamus, a reed-pen.
+
-Site of Geniculate Ganglion
  
Calcaneum, the heel.
+
Fenestra Vestibuli
  
Calcar, a spur.
+
Promontory
  
Calcination, reduction to a powder
+
Fenestra Cochleae
(or line) by heat.
 
  
Calcis, of the heel.
 
  
Calix, a cup or goblet.
+
Fir jo^o_ Diagram to show Course and Relations of Facial Canal on
  
Callosal convolution, gyrus cinguli.  
+
' 'the Medial and Posterior Walls of the Tympanum.  
  
Calloso-marginal fissure, sulcus cinguli.
 
  
Callosum, hard, thick.
+
stapedius muscle, passes downwards in the posterior wall of the
 +
tympanum, and communicates with the descending part of the canal
 +
which contains the facial nerve; this explains how the branch of that
 +
nerve to the stapedius reaches the muscle); and (4) the iter chordae
  
Calvaria ( calva , the bald scalp), the
+
posterius, for the chorda tympani nerve. .  
upper part of the skull.  
 
  
Canalis reuniens, ductus reuniens.
+
Tympanic Membrane.-This is the membrane which closes the
 +
inner extremity of the external auditory meatus. It is situated on
 +
the outer wall of the tympanum, of which it forms the chief part, and
 +
it is set for the most part in the sulcus tympamcus, which marks the
  
Cancellated, lattice-formed, reticulated.
 
  
Canthus, the angle of the eye.
 
  
Capillary, pertaining to the hair;
 
a vessel of hair-like minuteness.
 
  
Capitellum, a small head.
 
  
Capsular, suprarenal.
 
  
Caput gallinaginis, urethral crest.
 
  
Caput medusae, varicose veins radiating from umbilicus in portal
 
obstruction.
 
  
Cardia, the opening of the stomach;
+
1676
the heart.
 
  
Cardiac, pertaining to the heart
 
(originally to the stomach).
 
  
Cardinal, principal or chief.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Carina, a keel.
 
  
Carneae, pertaining to flesh.  
+
inner surface of the tympanic annulus. Superiorly, however, where
 +
the ring is wanting, the membrane is attached to the tympanic notch
 +
(of Rivinus). This part of it is thinner and looser than the rest, and
 +
is called the membrana flaccida, or Shrapnell’s membrane. The
 +
attachment of the membrana tympani to the sulcus is by a thickened
 +
ring of fibres, called the annulus fibrosus. This annulus passes from
 +
the extremities of the notch to the short process of the malleus in the
 +
form of two bands, the anterior and lateral ligaments of the malleus,
 +
which form the lower boundary of the membrana flaccida. The membrane is set obliquely in the tympanic sulcus, so that its lower part
 +
forms an acute angle with the floor of the meatus externus, and its
 +
upper part an obtuse angle with the roof of the passage.  
  
Carotid, stupefying; or perhaps from
 
two Greek words meaning ‘ head ’
 
and ‘ ear.’
 
  
Carpus, the wrist.
+
Superior Ligament of Malleus
  
Cartilages, alar, lower lateral cartilage.
 
  
Cartilages, lateral, upper lateral cartilage (of nose).
+
Head of Malleus
 +
Insertion of Tensor Tympani
  
Cartilages, Santorini, of, corniculate
+
Chorda Tympani Nerve
cartilage.
 
  
Cartilages, Wrisberg, of, cuneiform
 
cartilage.
 
  
Caruncula, a little piece of flesh.
+
Pharyngo-tympanic
 +
Tube
  
Caruncula sublingualis, sublingual
 
papilla.
 
  
Carunculae myrtiformes, carunculae
 
hymenales.
 
  
 +
Superior Ligament of Incus
 +
Body of Incus
  
Cauda, a tail.
+
Attic of Tympanum
  
Caudate, tailed.
+
^ Short Process of
 +
Incus
  
Caudate lobe (O.T.), tail of caudate
+
L ’\ST ^Posterior Liga^ ment of Incus
lobe.
 
  
Cavernous, full of hollows or cavities.
+
s ^_Long Process of  
  
Centimetre (cm.), § of an English
 
inch.
 
  
Cephalic, pertaining to the head.
+
_Processus Orbicu
Cerato, horny.
+
1 & • laris of Incus
  
Ceruminous, pertaining to wax.
+
y ' 0 _Handle of Malleus
Chiasma, two lines placed like an X.
 
Choana, a funnel.
 
  
Choanse, posterior apertures of nose.
+
Choledochus, bile-receiving.
 
Chondral, pertaining to cartilage.
 
  
Choroid (Chorioid), like skin.
+
_Membrana Tympani
Cinereus, ash-coloured.
 
  
Cingulum, a small girdle.
 
Circumflexus, bent around.
 
Circumvallate papillae, vallate papillae.
 
  
Cisterna, a cistern or reservoir.
 
Clarke, posterior vesicular column of,
 
  
thoracic (dorsal) nucleus.
 
Claustrum, a bulwark, barrier, or
 
inclosure.
 
  
Clava, a club; gracile tubercle.
+
Fig. 1031.—The Right Membrana Tympani, Malleus, and Incus
Clavicle, from clavis, a key, or possibly a hoop-stick.  
+
(Internal, Posterior, and Superior View) (Spalteholz).  
  
Cleido-, pertaining to the clavicle.
 
Clinoid, like the knob of a bedpost.
 
Clitoris, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ I shut up ’ or ‘ enclose.’
 
  
Clivus, a slope.  
+
The tympanic membrane is somewhat oval. In the vertical
 +
direction it measures about 10 mm., and horizontally from 8 to 9 mm.
 +
The handle of the malleus lies between the mucous and fibrous layers
 +
of the membrane, and descends to a point a little below its centre,
 +
where it ends in a small knob, from which the radiating fibres of the
 +
membrane proceed. This knob is firmly attached, and, being directed
 +
inwards, the membrane is consequently drawn inwards at that point,
 +
and its outer surface presents a slight conical depression, the deepest
 +
part of which is called the umbo.  
  
Cloaca, a sewer or drain.  
+
Structure.— The membrane consists of three layers—external,  
 +
middle, and internal.  
  
Coccyx, a cuckoo.  
+
The external or cutaneous layer is very thin, and is derived from
 +
the skin of the external meatus. It contains no glands, is freely provided with bloodvessels and nerves, and is covered by stratified
 +
squamous epithelium.  
  
Cochlea, a snail.
 
  
Cochlea, membranous, duct of cochlea.
+
/
  
Cochleariformis, spoon-like.
 
  
Coeliac, pertaining to the belly.
 
Colliculus, a little hill.
 
  
Colliculus, quadrigeminal body.
 
Colliculus seminalis, urethral crest.
 
Colon, the great gut.
 
  
Columns, rectal (Morgagni), anal
 
columns.
 
  
Comes, a companion.
 
  
Comma tract, semilunar tract.
 
  
  
Line 479: Line 468:
  
  
GLOSSARY
 
  
  
Complexus, literally, folded together;
+
THE EAR
encompassing.
 
  
Concatenatae, chained together.
 
Concatenate glands, deep cervical
 
(lymph) glands.
 
  
Concha, a shell.
+
1677
  
Condyle (‘ knuckle ’), a small round
+
The middle or fibrous layer forms the proper substance of the
prominence covered by cartilage.  
+
membrane, and consists of fibrous tissue. The fibres are radial and
Coni vasculosi, lobules of epididymis.  
+
circular. The radial fibres lie beneath the cutaneous layer, and radiate
Conjunctiva, connecting.
+
from the handle of the malleus to the annulus fibrosus. The circular
Conniventes, winking or blinking.  
+
fibres are deep to the radial fibres, and are most numerous towards the
Conoid, cone-like.  
+
circumference of the membrane. Both sets of fibres are absent from
 +
the membrana flaccida.  
  
Conoid tubercle, coracoid tuberosity.
+
The internal or mucous layer is continuous with the mucous membrane of the tympanum, and is covered by a single layer of squamous
Conus arteriosus, infundibulum.
+
epithelium.  
Conus elasticus, crico-vocal membrane.  
 
  
Convoluta, rolled together.  
+
The membrana flaccida, pars flaccida, or Shrapnell’s membrane, has
 +
cutaneous and mucous layers only. These are united by connective
 +
tissue, which is so loosely arranged that the membrane is flaccid. This
 +
part is very liable to perforation.  
  
Coracoid, like a crow or raven.  
+
Cone of Light.—Extending from the knob, in which the handle of
 +
the malleus terminates, downwards and inwards to the antero-inferior
 +
margin of the membrana tympani there is seen a specially bright
 +
reflection, triangular in outline, with the apex towards the umbo.
 +
This is called the cone of light.  
  
Cord, vocal, false, vestibular folds.  
+
Arterial Supply of the Tympanic Membrane.—(1) Deep auricular
Cord, vocal, true, vocal fold.  
+
branch of the maxillary artery. This vessel, which passes through the
Cordiform, heart-shaped.  
+
anterior wall of the external meatus, supplies the cutaneous layer. It
 +
descends from the skin of the roof of the meatus along the course of the
 +
handle of the malleus to the umbo, where it divides into branches
 +
which radiate towards the circumference of the membrane. (2) The
 +
stylo-mastoid branch of the posterior auricular; and (3) the tympanic
 +
branch of the maxillary. The former artery enters the tympanum from
 +
the facial canal, and the latter through the squamo-tympanic fissure.
 +
Branches from them supply the mucous layer, and form an anastomotic
 +
ring around the circumference of the membrane. The fibrous layer
 +
receives its arterial supply from the vessels of the cutaneous and
 +
mucous layers.  
  
Cords (gangliated, lumbo-sacral,
+
The veins join the external and internal jugular.  
etc.), trunks.  
 
  
Cornea, horny.  
+
Nerve-supply.—(1) The auriculo-temporal of the mandibular, (2) the
 +
auricular branch of the vagus, and (3) branches from the tympanic
 +
plexus.  
  
Corniculum, a little horn.  
+
Secondary Membrane of the Tympanum.—This membrane closes
 +
the fenestra cochleae on the inner wall of the tympanum, and separates
 +
the tympanic cavity from the scala tympani of the cochlea. It is
 +
concave towards the tympanum, and, like the membrana tympani,
 +
consists of three layers. The external layer is formed by the tympanic
 +
mucous membrane; the middle layer is fibrous; and the internal layer is
 +
formed by the lining membrane of the cochlea.  
  
Cornu ammonis, hippocampus.  
+
The mastoid antrum and mastoid air-cells are described with the
Coronal, literally, pertaining to a
+
temporal bone on p. 188, while the Eustachian or pharyngo-tympanic
crown; transverse.  
+
tube is dealt with on p. 1378.  
  
Coronary, encircling.
 
  
Coronoid, like a crooked beak.
+
1678
Corpora albicantia (brain), corpora
 
mamillaria.
 
  
Corpus (of long bone), shaft.
 
  
Corpus adiposum buccae, buccal pad.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
Corpus arantii, nodule (aortic and
 
pulmonary valves).
 
  
Corpus cavernosum penis, corpus
 
cavernosum.
 
  
Corpus cavernosum urethrae, corpus
+
Lateral Process
spongiosum.
+
Long Process
  
Corrugator, a wrinkler.
 
  
Cortex, the bark or outer covering.
 
Costal, pertaining to a rib.
 
  
Cotyloid, cup-like.  
+
Ant.  
  
Cowper’s gland, bulbo-urethral gland.
+
Process
Coxa, the hip.
 
  
Cranium, the skull.
 
  
Crassum, thick, dense, or bulky.
+
Plandie
Cremaster, a suspender.
 
  
Cribriform, sieve-like.
 
  
 +
Fig. 1032.—The Malleus.
  
1701
+
1. anterior view; 2, posterior view.
  
Cribrosa, perforated with sieve-like
 
pores.
 
  
Cricoid, like a ring.  
+
Ossicles of the Tympanum.  
  
Crista tuberculi majoris, lateral lip
+
The tympanum contains three small bones, arranged in the form
of bicipital groove.  
+
of a chain which extends from the membrana tympani to the fenestra
 +
vestibuli. The bones are the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. The
 +
malleus is related to the membrana tympani, the stapes to the fenestra,
 +
and the incus occupies an intermediate position between these two.  
  
Crista tuberculi minoris, medial lip
+
The malleus is so named from its resemblance to a hammer. It is
of bicipital groove.  
+
composed of a head, neck, handle, and two processes, long and short.  
  
Crucial, pertaining to, or shaped like,
+
T 2 The head is the upper, enlarged,  
a cross.
 
  
Crural, pertaining to the leg.  
+
Facet for incus rounded end. Posteriorly it has
  
Crural canal, femoral canal.  
+
a saddle-shaped facet, directed
 +
obliquely downwards and inwards,
 +
for articulation with the incus in a
 +
synovial joint. The neck is the
 +
constricted part below the head.
 +
The handle (; manubrium) is directed
 +
downwards, inwards, and backwards
 +
from the neck; it is compressed
 +
from before backwards, slightly
 +
curved, and ends in a knob. It
 +
lies between the fibrous and mucous layers of the membrana tympani,
 +
descending to a point a little below the centre of the membrane. It
 +
is firmly attached to the fibrous layer by its periosteum. The tensor
 +
tympani muscle is inserted into the inner part close to its root. The
 +
long or anterior process (processus gracilis ), which is slender, springs
 +
from the front of the neck, and is directed forwards and downwards to
 +
the petro-tympanic fissure, where it is embedded in fibres which form
 +
part of the anterior ligament of the malleus, and connect it to the
 +
margins of the fissure. The long process is in the adult for the most
 +
part replaced by fibrous tissue except close to the neck of the malleus.
 +
In early life it is continuous with Meckel’s cartilage. The short or
 +
lateral process is situated immediately below the long process. It is
 +
directed laterally to the upper part of the
 +
membrana tympani, with which it is connected by the annulus fibrosus. It is also
 +
connected with the extremities of the notch
 +
by the anterior and posterior malleolar
 +
ligaments.  
  
Crural ring, femoral ring.  
+
Ihe incus resembles an anvil. It consists
 +
of a body and two processes—short and
  
Crural septum, femoral septum.
+
long. The body is thick, somewhat four- ^ ~ Head ° f Sta fu
  
Crus, cerebral peduncle.  
+
sided, and laterally compressed. Anteriorly y^ 08 '
  
Crusta, basis pedunculi.
+
it presents a saddle-shaped articular surface
  
Cryptorchismus, concealment of the  
+
for the head of the malleus, with which it forms a synovial joint.
testis.  
+
The short process is directed backwards, is tipped with cartilage, and
 +
articulates with the fossa incudis on the posterior wall of the tympanum. The long process is directed downwards and medially, behind
  
Cryptozygous, hidden arches.
 
  
Cubitum, the elbow.
+
Facet
  
Cucullaris, pertaining to a cowl or
+
for Malleus
hood.
 
  
Culmen, the top or summit.
+
/ Short Process
  
Cuneate, wedge-shaped.
+
/
 
 
Cuneiform bone (hand), triquetrum.
 
 
 
Cuneus, a wedge.
 
 
 
Cupola, a dome.
 
 
 
Cymba, a boat or skiff.
 
  
Cystic, pertaining to the gall-bladder.
 
The condition of a thin-walled
 
swelling containing fluid or semifluid.
 
  
Cytoplasm, formative yolk; protoplasm in a cell.
 
  
Dacryon, a tear.
+
Long Process
  
Dartos, skinned or flayed.
 
  
Deciduous, falling away.
+
'*■' Lentiform Nodule for
 +
Head of Stapes
  
Decussation of lemnisci (fillet), sensory decussation.
 
  
Deferens, carrying away.
+
THE EAR
  
Deiters, nucleus of, lateral vestibular
 
nucleus.
 
  
Dens, odontoid process.
+
1679
  
Dens serotinus, wisdom tooth.
 
  
Dentate fascia, dentate gyrus.  
+
and parallel to the handle of the malleus. Its lower extremity is bent
 +
inwards, and becomes narrowed into a neck, upon which is placed a
 +
disc-like knob of bone, called the os orbiculare, which is covered by
 +
cartilage for articulation with the head of the stapes. In early life,
 +
and up to the sixth month of intra-uterine life, this process forms a
 +
separate ossicle.  
  
Descemet’s membrane, posterior elastic lamina of cornea.  
+
The stapes resembles a stirrup. It has a head, neck, two crura,  
 +
and a foot-piece or base. The head is directed laterally, is concave
 +
and covered by cartilage, and articulates with the processus lenticularis
 +
of the incus. The neck is the constricted part which lies immediately
 +
internal to the head. Posteriorly it gives
 +
insertion to the stapedius muscle. The
 +
crura are anterior and posterior respectively,
 +
and spring from the neck. They diverge as
 +
they pass inwards, and are attached to the
 +
foot-piece near its extremities. The anterior
 +
crus is straighter and shorter than the
  
Detrusor, from detrudo, I drive away.  
+
posterior. The foot-piece or base is some- Malleus
 +
what oval, is directed medially, and occupies incus,,
 +
the fenestra ovalis, which it almost completely fills; its circumference is covered by
 +
cartilage, being attached to the margins of
 +
the fenestra by annular ligamentous fibres. Stapes-
 +
The arch formed by the crura and foot-piece _ ~
  
Deutoplasm, literally, wet plasm;
+
is occupied by a delicate membrane, which tympanic Os
nutritive yolk.  
+
is attached to a slight groove on the inner sicles in Position.
 +
aspect of the arch.  
  
 +
Development of the Tympanic Ossicles— The malleus and incus are usually
 +
regarded as being developed from the proximal end of Meckel’s cartilage,
 +
which forms the cartilaginous bar of the first or mandibular arch. According to
 +
some authorities, however, the incus is developed from the hyoid bar. The stapes
 +
is developed from the dorsal part of the hyoid bar of the second visceral arch.
  
 +
Ligaments of the Ossicles.—The synovial joints between the malleus
 +
and incus and between the incus and stapes are provided with thin
 +
capsular ligaments. The ligaments which connect the ossicles to the
 +
walls of the tympanic cavity are five in number, three of them belonging
 +
to the malleus, one to the incus, and one to the stapes.
  
 +
The ligaments of the malleus are anterior, lateral, posterior, and
 +
superior. The anterior ligament is arranged as a fibrous band which
 +
extends from the root of the long process to the petro-tympanic fissure,
 +
through which it passes to be attached to the spine of the sphenoid
 +
bone. The lateral ligament (or malleolar fold) extends from the
 +
short process to the anterior extremity of the tympanic notch. The
 +
posterior ligament extends from the short process to the posterior
 +
extremity of the notch. The superior ligament extends from the head
 +
of the malleus to the roof of the attic or epitympanic recess.
  
 +
The ligament of the incus connects the short process, near its
 +
posterior extremity, to the fossa incudis.
  
  
1702
 
  
  
GLOSSARY
+
i68o
  
  
Dia-, through or between.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Diaphragm, a partition.
 
  
Diaphysis grow between ’), the  
+
The annular ligament of the stapes connects the circumference of
shaft of a bone, or the part which  
+
the foot-piece, which is covered by cartilage, to the margin of the  
grows between the epiphyses.  
+
fenestra vestibuli, which is also covered by cartilage.  
  
Diarthrosis, an ‘ apart ’ joint— i.e.,
+
Muscles of the tympanum are the tensor tympani and the stapedius.  
a ‘ free ’ joint (the articular surfaces being free to play upon each
 
other); synovial joint.  
 
  
Diencephalon, the ’tween-brain or
+
Tensor Tympani— Origin .—(i) The cartilaginous part of the  
inter-brain; thalamencephalon.  
+
pharyngo-tympanic tube; (2) the apex of the petrous part of the
 +
temporal bone; and (3) the wall of the osseous canal through which
 +
the muscle passes.  
  
Digastric, having two bellies.  
+
Insertion, —The medial aspect of the handle of the malleus close to
 +
its root.  
  
Diploe, a doubling.  
+
Nerve-supply.—A branch from the otic ganglion, and through it
 +
from the internal pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the
 +
fifth cranial nerve.  
  
Discus proligerus, cumulus ovaricus.  
+
The muscle consists of a fleshy belly, about inch long, and a
 +
delicate tendon. In passing backwards to the tympanum it lies in a
 +
canal, the entrance to which is situated within the petro-squamous
 +
angle of the temporal bone. The canal is placed above the osseous
 +
part of the tube, from which it is separated by the processus cochlearifor mis. On entering the tympanum the tendon of the muscle bends
 +
sharply over the edge of the processus cochleariformis, and then passes
 +
laterally to reach its insertion. The tendon forms very nearly a
 +
right angle with the fleshly belly.  
  
Diverticulum, from diverto, ‘ I separate/ or ‘ part/ or ‘ go a different
+
Action. —To render tense the membrana tympani by drawing
way.
+
inwards the handle of the malleus, and along with it the membrane.  
  
Dolichocephalic, long-headed.  
+
Stapedius Origin. —The wall of the canal within the pyramid, and
 +
of the continuation of this canal in front of the descending part of the
 +
facial canal.  
  
Dorsal, pertaining to the back
+
The tendon emerges from the canal within the pyramid through a
aspect.  
+
small orifice on the apex.  
  
Dorsum, the back.  
+
Insertion. —The posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes.  
  
Douglas, pouch of, recto-uterine or
+
Nerve-supply. —The facial nerve.  
recto-vaginal pouch.  
 
  
Douglas, semilunar fold of, arcuate
+
Action. To draw the head of the stapes backwards. The result
line.
+
is that the front part of the foot-piece of the stapes is tilted away
  
Duct, nasal, naso-lacrimal duct.  
+
from the vestibule, and its back part is pressed inwards towards the
 +
vestibule.  
  
Ductus deferens, vas deferens.  
+
Movements of the Ossicles.—The malleus and incus both act as
 +
levers of the first kind, the fulcra of which are represented by an axis
 +
passing backwards from the slender process of the malleus. When a
 +
sound-wave presses the tympanic membrane inward, the handle of the
 +
malleus travels inward with it, and the head of the malleus, or short
 +
arm of the lever, moves outward. The upper part, or short arm of
 +
the incus lever, must move out too, since it is attached to the head
 +
of the malleus, and the long process moves inward, thus pressing the
  
Ductus perilymphaticus, aqueduct of
+
stapes into the fenestra ovalis and compressing the perilymph in the
 
cochlea.  
 
cochlea.  
  
Duodenum, twelve (probably fingerbreadths) .  
+
Ihe secondary membrane of the tympanum, stretched across the
 +
fenestra rotunda, is bulged outward by the perilymph, thus allowing
 +
vibrations to travel through that fluid.  
  
Ebur, -oris, ivory.
 
  
Eburnea, pertaining to ivory.
+
/
  
Ectopia, a displacement.
 
  
Efferent, carrying out.
+
THE EAR
  
Embolif ormis, beak-shaped or wedgeshaped.
 
  
Emissary, sent out.
+
1681
  
Emulgent, milking, straining out.  
+
Mucous Membrane of the Tympanum.—The tympanic mucous
 +
membrane is continuous anteriorly with that of the naso-pharynx
 +
through the pharyngo-tympanic (or Eustachian) tube. Posteriorly it is
 +
prolonged into the mastoid antrum, and thence into the mastoid cells.
 +
It forms the internal layer of the tympanic membrane, and the external
 +
layer of the secondary membrane of the tympanum. It also furnishes
 +
sheaths for the tendons of the tensor tympani and stepedius muscles,
 +
and for the chorda tympani nerve. Two folds extend downwards from
 +
the roof of the attic or epitympanic recess, one in front of and the other
 +
behind the superior ligament of the malleus. The former is connected
 +
with the head of the malleus, and the latter (sometimes described as
 +
the superior ligament of the incus) with the incus.  
  
Enarthrosis, ball-and-socket joint.  
+
Attic or Epitympanic Recess and its Pouches.—The part of the
 +
tympanic cavity which lies above the level of the upper margin of the
 +
tympanic membrane is called the attic or epitympanic recess, as distinguished from the atrium or tympanum proper. It contains the
 +
head and neck of the malleus, and the body and short process of the
 +
incus. These divide it incompletely into two compartments—outer
 +
and inner. The outer attic is subdivided into two pouches—superior
 +
and inferior. The superior pouch is partially separated from the
 +
inner attic by the two mucous folds which have been already referred
 +
to as descending from the roof of the attic in front of and behind the
 +
superior ligament of the malleus. The inferior pouch of the outer attic
 +
is known as the pouch of Prussak. It is bounded laterally by the
 +
membrana flaccida, superiorly by the lateral ligament of the malleus,
 +
which partially separates it from the superior pouch, and internally
 +
by the neck of the malleus. The pouch communicates posteriorly
 +
with the tympanic cavity by an opening which is situated a little above
 +
the level of the bottom of the pouch. If fluid, therefore, should
 +
accumulate in Prussak’s pouch, it may readily lead to perforation of
 +
the membrana flaccida.  
  
Encephalon, the contents of the head
+
Two other pouches are present—namely, the anterior and posterior
or skull.  
+
recesses or pouches of Troltsch. These lie one in front of and the other
 +
behind the handle of the malleus, and are produced by the fold of
 +
mucous membrane which invests the chorda tympani nerve.  
  
Endocardium, ‘ within the heart ’;
+
The tympanic mucous membrane is covered for the most part by
the lining membrane of the cardiac
+
columnar ciliated epithelium, except over the ossicles and membrana
chambers.  
+
tympani, where the epithelium consists of a single layer of squamous,
 +
non-ciliated cells.  
  
Endognathion, literally, inner jaw.  
+
The tympanic or mastoid antrum is supplementary to the tympanum proper, or cavum tympani, behind which it is situated. It
 +
communicates by a large irregular opening with the attic, and is
 +
lined with mucous membrane, which is continuous with that of the
 +
attic and cavum tympani. Opening from the antrum there are the
 +
mastoid cells, which are lined with mucous membrane, continuous
 +
with that of the antrum.  
  
Endosteum, ‘ within a bone ’; the
+
The average measurements of the antrum are as follows: vertical,
medullary membrane.
+
about Q millimetres; antero-posterior, about n millimetres; and
  
Ensiform, sword-like.
+
106
  
  
Ensiform process, xiphoid process.
+
1682
  
Entomion, a notch.
 
  
Ependyma, from Greek words meaning ' clothing upon/
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Ephippium, a saddle.
 
  
Epi-, upon or over, above.  
+
transverse, about 8 millimetres. The roof is formed by the thin
 +
tegmen tympani, which enters into the formation of the middle fossa
 +
of the base of the skull, and is consequently related to the temporal
 +
lobe of the cerebrum and its meninges. The genu and descending
 +
limb of the sigmoid sinus lie behind the antrum, and a little farther
 +
back is the cerebullum. The facial nerve, as it traverses the descending part of its canal, lies in the posterior wall of the cavum tympani,
 +
close to the medial wall and in front of the mastoid antrum. This
 +
part of the nerve is on a plane anterior to the mastoid process, and is
 +
nearly flush with the opening of the antrum. The ampulla of the
 +
lateral semicircular canal of the internal ear gives rise to a slight
 +
eminence on the medial wall at its anterior part.  
  
Epicardium, upon the heart.  
+
The lateral wall corresponds on the surface with the area of the
 +
suprameatal triangle of Macewen, and is formed by the postmeatal
 +
plate of the squamous portion of the temporal bone. For a description
 +
of this triangle, which is the region selected for mastoidectomy , and also
 +
for the mastoid cells, see the description of the temporal bone.  
  
Epididymis, upon the testicle.  
+
Summary of Important Structures closely related to the Mastoid Antrum.  
  
Epiglottis, cushion of, tubercle of
+
1. Temporal lobe of cerebrum and its meninges (roof).  
epiglottis.  
 
  
Epiotic, upon or over the ear.  
+
2. Genu and descending limb of sigmoid sinus, and farther back the cerebellum (posterior wall).  
  
Epiphysis (‘ grow upon ’); a process
+
3 - Facial nerve (posterior wall of cavum tympani, close to medial wall and
of a bone which has a secondary
+
nearly flush with antral opening).  
centre of ossification.  
 
  
Epiploon, from a Greek verb meaning
+
4 - Lateral semicircular canal (anterior part of medial wall).
‘ to float upon/
 
  
Epipteric, upon a wing.  
+
The upper part of the antrum communicates, as stated, with the
 +
attic of the cavum tympani, but the lower part is shut off by bone from
 +
the cavity of the cavum tympani.  
  
Epipteric bone, sutural bone at
+
The mucous membrane of the mastoid antrum is continuous with
pterion.  
+
that which lines the mastoid cells. Anteriorly it is also continuous
 +
with the mucous membrane of the attic and cavum tympani or tympanum proper. The mucous membrane of the cavum tympani is
 +
continuous anteriorly with that of the pharyngo-tympanic tube, and
 +
the mucous membrane of the tube is continuous with that of the
 +
naso-pharynx. This extensive and continuous tract of mucous
 +
membrane is covered by columnar ciliated epithelium except in the
 +
following regions: (1) the promontory; (2) the tympanic ossicles;
 +
(3) the tympanic membrane; (4) the mastoid antrum; and (5) the
 +
mastoid cells. In these regions the epithelium consists of a single
 +
layer of squamous, non-ciliated cells.  
  
Epistropheus, axis.  
+
It is of considerable importance to note that micro-organisms
 +
may pass from the naso-pharynx through the tube into the cavum
 +
tympani and attic, and thence into the mastoid antrum and mastoid
 +
cells. Purulent affections of these regions may therefore readily be
 +
caused in this manner. Such affections may subsequently involve
 +
(1) the temporal lobe of the cerebrum and its meninges, (2) the genu
 +
and descending limb of the sigmoid sinus, and (3) the internal ear or
 +
labyrinth.  
  
Epoophoron, above the egg-bearing
 
organ.
 
  
Erythroblast, red (cell) germ.
+
/
  
Ethmoid, like a strainer.
 
  
Eustachian cushion, tubal elevation.
+
THE EAR
  
Eustachian spine (of medial pterygoid plate), processus tubarius.
 
  
Eustachian tube, pharyngo-tympanic
+
1683
tube.
 
  
Eustachian valve, valve of inferior
+
Arteries of the Tympanum. —The principal arteries are: (1) the tympanic
 +
branch of the maxillary, and (2) the stylo-mastoid branch of the posterior
 +
auricular. The tympanic artery enters through the petro-tympanic fissure, and
 +
supplies the membrana tympani and front part of the tympanum. The stylomastoid artery enters the facial canal through the stylo-mastoid foramen, and
 +
passes from the descending part of the canal into the tympanum. It supplies
 +
the back part of the cavity and the mastoid cells, and it forms, with the tympanic
 +
artery, a ring round the circumference of the membrana tympani.
  
vena cava.  
+
In addition to the foregoing two arteries, the following three arteries enter
 +
the tympanic cavity: (1) the petrosal branch of the middle meningeal, which
 +
enters from the facial canal, into which it passes through the hiatus; (2) the
 +
tympanic branch of the ascending pharyngeal, which accompanies the nerve
 +
through the tympanic canaliculus; and (3) the tympanic branch of the internal
 +
carotid, which enters by a minute foramen on the posterior wall of the ascending
 +
part of the carotid canal in company with a sympathetic twig from the carotid
 +
plexus.  
  
Exognathion, literally, outer jaw.  
+
The veins of the tympanum pass to the pterygoid plexus, the superior petrosal
 +
sinus, the internal jugular vein, and the pharyngeal plexus.  
  
Exomphalos, out of the navel.  
+
Nerves of the tympanum are described on pp. 1325 and 1400.  
  
Facet (French, facette, a little face),
+
Internal Ear.  
a small plane surface, usually
 
articular.  
 
  
Falciform, sickle-like.  
+
The internal ear is the essential part of the organ of hearing, and
 +
is known as the labyrinth from its remarkable complexity. It consists
 +
of two parts—namely, the osseous labyrinth and the membranous
 +
labyrinth.  
  
Fallopian tube, uterine tube.  
+
Osseous Labyrinth.  
  
Falx, a sickle.  
+
The osseous labyrinth is a cavity situated within the petrous part
 +
of the temporal bone, and is divided into three parts—namely, the
 +
vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea. These divisions
 +
are lined with a delicate periosteum, between which and the contained
 +
membranous labyrinth there is a clear fluid, called the perilymph.  
  
Falx aponeurotica inguinalis, conjoint tendon.  
+
Vestibule.—The vestibule is the central division of the osseous
 +
labyrinth. The semicircular canals lie behind it, and the cochlea is
 +
situated in front of it. In the lateral wall is the fenestra vestibuii, which
 +
is occupied by the foot-piece of the stapes and its annular ligament.
 +
The medial wall has anteriorly a depression called the fovea spherica
 +
or spherical recess, which corresponds to the lamina cribrosa at the
 +
deep end of the meatus auditorius internus. It is pierced by apertures
 +
for the passage of filaments of the auditory nerve to the saccule.
 +
Behind and above the fovea spherica there is a ridge, called the vestibular crest, which lies obliquely. Posteriorly it bifurcates, and
 +
between its two divisions there is a small depression, called the cochlear
 +
recess, in which are openings for nerve filaments to the canalis cochlese.
 +
Anteriorly it becomes somewhat triangular, and forms a pyramid,
 +
which is pierced by nerves to the utricle.  
  
Fascia, a bandage, or a bundle of  
+
The roof of the vestibule, behind and above the crista vestibuii,  
reeds.  
+
has an oval depression, called the elliptical recess, which encroaches on
 +
the inner wall and lodges the recess of the utricle. It is pierced by
 +
nerves to the ampulke of the superior and external semicircular canals.  
 +
Below the fovea elliptica is the opening of the aqueduct of the vesti
  
Fascia bulbi, fascial sheath of eyeball.
+
1684
  
Fascia, Camper’s, superficial layer of
 
superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.
 
  
Fascia, Colies’, deep layer of superficial fascia of perineum.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
  
 +
bule, which leads to the posterior surface of the petrous part of the
 +
temporal bone about J inch external to the orifice of the meatus
 +
auditorius internus. It transmits the ductus endolymphaticus and
 +
a minute vein.
  
 +
Anteriorly the vestibule communicates with the scala vestibuli
 +
of the cochlea, and posteriorly are the five openings of the semicircular
 +
canals.
  
/
+
Semicircular Canals.—The osseous semicircular canals are situated
 +
behind the vestibule. They are three in number—superior, posterior,
  
  
 +
Cupola of Cochlea
 +
Petrous part of Tern- 5
  
 +
poral Bone
  
GLOSSARY
 
  
 +
Facial Canal
 +
A
  
1703
 
  
  
Fascia, coraco-clavicular, clavi-pec
+
Superior Semicircular Canal
toral fascia.
 
  
Fascia infundibular, internal spermatic fascia.
 
  
Fascia intercolumnar, external spermatic fascia.
+
Fenestra Vestibuli
  
Fascia, Scarpa’s, deep layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal
+
Lateral Semicircular
wall.
+
Canal
  
Fascia, Sibson’s, suprapleural membrane.
 
  
Fasciculus, a small bundle.
+
Posterior Semicircular
 +
Canal
  
Fasciola cinerea, splenial gyrus.
+
Vestibule
  
Fastigium, a roof.
 
  
Fauces, the throat.
+
Fenestra Cochleae
  
Fauces, anterior pillar, glosso-palatine arch.
 
  
Fauces, posterior pillar, pharyngopalatine arch.
+
_ Superior Semicircular Canal
  
Fel, the gall-bladder.
 
  
Femur, the thigh.
+
Inner Wall of Canal '
 +
of Cochlea
  
Fenestra, an opening, a window.
+
Helicotrema
  
Fenestra ovalis, fenestra vestibuli.
 
  
Fenestra rotunda, fenestra cochleae.
+
Lamina Spiralis
  
Ferruginea, pertaining to iron-rust.
 
  
Fibula, a buckle, clasp, or brace.  
+
Crus Commune of Sup. and
 +
Post. SemicircularCanals
  
Fillet, lemniscus.
 
  
Filum, a thread.
+
Posterior Semicircular
 +
Canal
  
Fimbria, a fringe.
+
Lateral Semicircular
 +
Canal
 +
Elliptical Recess
 +
\ Crista Vestibuli
 +
Spherical Recess
  
Fimbriatum, fringed.
 
  
Fissure, a cleft or slit.  
+
1 \ .  
  
Fistula, .a pipe or tube.
+
1 '
  
Flechsig, tract of, posterior spinocerebellar tract.
+
> Orifice of Aqueductus Vestibuli
 +
Recessus Cochlearis
  
Flocculus, a little lock of wool.
 
  
Fold, bloodless (Treves), ileo-caecal
+
Fenestra Cochleae
fold.  
+
Scala T.ympani Scala Vestibuli
  
Fold, ileo-colic, vascular fold of
+
Fig. 1035. —The Osseous Labyrinth of the Left Side (Lateral View).
caecum.  
+
A, entire; B opened (Hirschfeld and Leveille; B, modified).  
  
Fold, recto-vesical, sacro-genital fold.
 
  
Follicle, a small bag or sac.  
+
and lateral—and they open into the vestibule by five circular apertures,  
 +
the contiguous ends of the superior and posterior canals having a  
 +
common orifice. Each canal forms about two-thirds of a circle, and
 +
each presents at one end an enlargement, called the ampulla. The
 +
superior semicircular canal occupies a vertical position, and lies transversely as regards the long axis of the petrous part of the temporal
 +
bone, giving rise to the eminentia arcuata on its superior surface.
 +
Its ampullary end (antero-external) opens independently into the upper
 +
part of the vestibule above the ampullary orifice of the external canal.  
  
Fontana, spaces of, spaces of iridocorneal angle.
 
  
Fontanelle, a small spring.
 
  
Foramen, an aperture or a hole.
 
  
Forceps, a claw of a beetle.
 
  
Fornicatus, pertaining to an arch.
 
  
Fornix, an arch or a vault.
 
  
Fossa, a ditch or trench.
 
  
Fossa, antecubital, cubital.
 
  
  
Fossa ovalis, saphenous opening.
 
  
Fossa, rhomboid, floor of fourth
 
ventricle.
 
  
Fossa, spheno-maxillary, pterygopalatine fossa.
 
  
Fourchette, a fork.
+
THE EAR
  
Fovea, a small pit.
 
  
Foveola, a very small pit.
+
1685
  
Frenulum, a small bridle.
 
  
Frenum, a bridle.  
+
Its non-ampullary end unites with the non-ampullary end of the
 +
posterior canal to form the crus commune, and the two open by a  
 +
common orifice into the vestibule. The posterior semicircular canal
 +
arches backwards towards the posterior surface of the pars petrosa,
 +
with which it is almost parallel, and, like the superior, it occupies a
 +
vertical position. Its ampullary end (inferior) opens independently
 +
into the lower and back part of the vestibule, and its non-ampullary
 +
end, as just stated, joins that of the superior canal. The lateral
 +
semicircular canal arches outwards, and occupies a horizontal position.
 +
Its extremities are independent of those of the other two canals,
 +
and they open by separate apertures into the upper and back part
 +
of the vestibule. Its ampullary end is in front.  
  
Frontal, pertaining to the forehead.  
+
Cochlea.—The osseous cochlea is situated in front of the vestibule.  
 +
It consists of a tube coiled spirally upon itself, like a snail s shell,
  
Frontal spine (of frontal), nasal spine.
 
  
Fundiform, sling-like.
 
  
Funicular, pertaining to a cord.  
+
Fig. 1036. _Median Section of the Left Osseous Cochlea of Man
  
Funiculus, a slender rope, a cord.  
+
from Apex to Base (Arnold).  
  
Furcalis, pertaining to a two-pronged
 
fork.
 
  
Furcula, a small two-pronged fork.  
+
S.V. Scala Vestibuli
 +
S.T. Scala Tympani
  
Fusca, dark or dusky.
 
  
Galactophorous, milk-carrying.  
+
L.S.O. Lamina Spiralis Ossea
 +
C.C. Central Canal of Modiolus
  
Galea, a helmet.
 
  
Galea aponeurotica, epicranial aponeurosis.  
+
M.A.I. Internal Auditory Meatus
  
Galen, great vein of, great cerebral
 
vein.
 
  
Galen, veins of, internal cerebral
+
and is conical. Its base is opposite the lamina cribrosa at the deep
veins.  
+
end of the meatus auditorius interims; and its apex, known as the
 +
cupola is directed outwards and slightly forwards towards the canal
 +
which contains the tensor tympani muscle. Its length from base to
 +
apex is about i inch. It consists of (1) a winding tube, called the
 +
spiral canal of the cochlea ; (2) a central pillar, called the modiolus,
 +
round which the spiral canal turns; and (3) a thin plate of bone, called
 +
the osseous spiral lamina, which winds spirally round the modiolus
 +
and projects into the spiral canal of the cochlea. . .  
  
Gallinaginis, of a woodcock.  
+
The spiral canal of the cochlea (cochlear canal or tube) winds round
 +
the modiolus which forms its inner wall. It describes two and threenuarter turns, and its basal turn or coil gives rise to the promontory on
 +
the inner wall of the tympanum. At the cupola it ends in a blind
 +
extremity. It gradually diminishes in size from base to cupola; its
  
Gallus, a cock.
 
  
Ganglion, a swelling or excrescence.
 
  
Ganglion, aortico-renal, lower part
+
i686
of coeliac ganglion.
 
  
Ganglion, Gasserian, trigeminal ganglion.
 
  
Ganglion, jugular (O.T.), superior
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
ganglion of ninth.
 
  
Ganglion, jugular (B.N.A.), superior
 
ganglion of tenth.
 
  
Ganglion, lenticular, ciliary ganglion.  
+
length is about 32 millimetres; and its diameter is about 2 millimetres
 +
at the base, where it is greatest.  
  
Ganglion, Meckel’s, spheno-palatine
+
The modiolus is the central pillar round which the spiral canal of
ganglion.  
+
the cochlea turns, and it forms the inner wall of that canal. It commences at the cochlear area of the lamina cribosa at the deep end of the
 +
internal auditory meatus, and extends almost to the cupola, gradually
 +
tapering. It is traversed by minute canals for branches of the cochlear
 +
division of the auditory nerve. One of these canals occupies the
 +
centre of the modiolus, and is called the central canal of the modiolus.
 +
This canal begins at the foramen centrale of the cochlear area of the
 +
lamina cribrosa, and it transmits the nerve-filaments for the apical
 +
coil. The other canals, which have no special name, commence at
 +
the tractus spiralis foraminosus of the cochlear area of the lamina
 +
cribrosa, and they transmit the nerve-filaments for the other coils—
 +
middle and basal. At successive levels these canals change their
 +
direction, and pass outwards to the attached margin of the lamina
 +
spiralis, to be presently described. Here they coalesce and form a
 +
winding canal, called the spiral canal of the modiolus, which lodges
 +
the spiral ganglion or ganglion of Corti. From this canal secondary
 +
canals for nerve-filaments pass into the lamina spiralis.  
  
Ganglion nodosum (B.N.A.), inferior ganglion of tenth.  
+
The osseous spiral lamina is a thin plate of bone, which winds
 +
spirally round the modiolus, to which it is attached. It projects from
 +
the modiolus into the spiral canal of the cochlea throughout the windings
 +
of the latter, and it extends for about half-way towards the outer wall
 +
of the cochlear canal. It divides that canal incompletely into two
 +
passages or scalar —an upper or scala vestibuli, and a lower or scala
 +
tympani, the commencement of which is at the fenestra cochleae.  
 +
Close to the cupola the lamina spiralis terminates in a hook-like process,
 +
called the hamulus. The spiral lamina consists of two plates of bone,  
 +
between which there are canals for nerve-filaments, these canals being
 +
offsets of the spiral canal of the modiolus, which, as has been said,
 +
contains the spiral ganglion or ganglion of Corti. They extend to the
 +
free margin of the spiral lamina. The free margin of the lamina
 +
spiralis is, in the recent state, attached to the outer wall of the spiral
 +
canal of the cochlea by means of the basilar membrane or basilar
 +
lamina, and the scala vestibuli and scala tympani are now completely
 +
separated, except in the region of the hamulus, where they communicate
 +
through an opening, called the helicotrema.  
  
Ganglion, ophthalmic, ciliary ganglion.  
+
The lamina cribrosa, at the deep end of the internal auditory
 +
meatus, will be found described in connection with the temporal
 +
bone (p. 190).  
  
Ganglion, petrous (O.T. and B.N.A.),
+
At the lower end of the scala tympani is the upper opening of the
 +
aqueductus cochleae, which passes downwards and medially to the
 +
posterior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone. It transmits
 +
a small vein to the inferior petrosal sinus, and establishes a communication between the scala tympani and the subarachnoid space.  
  
inferior ganglion of ninth.
 
  
Ganglion, semilunar, trigeminal ganglion.
 
  
 +
THE EAR
  
  
 +
1687
  
  
 +
Membranous Labyrinth.
  
 +
The membranous labyrinth is situated within the osseous labyrinth,
 +
and its constituent parts receive the terminal branches of the auditory
 +
nerve. It is separated from the periosteal lining of the osseous labyrinth by the perilymph, and it contains the fluid known as the endolymph. In the case of the vestibule and the osseous semicircular
 +
canals the. membranous labyrinth corresponds more or less with
 +
them; but in the case of the osseous cochlea it forms part of the septum
 +
between the scala tympani and scala vestibuli, and contains a passage
 +
called the membranous canal of the cochlea (ductus cochleae).
  
  
1704
 
  
 +
Fig. 1037. —Diagram of Membranous Labyrinth.
  
GLOSSARY
+
Vestibular Part of the Membranous Labyrinth.—The vestibule
 +
contains two membranous sacs—namely, the utricle and the saccule
  
 +
_which are in close contact, but do not communicate with each other
  
Ganglion, stellate, first thoracic
+
directly. These sacs contain endolymph.  
ganglion.  
 
  
Ganglion, submaxillary, submandibular ganglion.  
+
The utricle is the larger of the two sacs, and into it the membranous
 +
semicircular ducts open. It occupies the upper and back part of the
 +
vestibule, a portion of it, known as the recessus utriculi, lying in the
 +
fovea elliptica. Near the crista vestibuli the wall of this recess receives
 +
fibres of the auditory nerve and is thickened, this part of it being called
 +
the macula utriculi. From the anterior and medial part of the utricle
 +
a minute canal, called the ductus utriculi («ductus utriculo-saccularis ),
 +
passes to join the ductus sacculi, and so form the ductus endolymphaticus (see Fig. 1037).  
  
Gartner’s duct, duct of epoophoron.
 
Gastric, pertaining to the stomach.
 
  
Gastrocnemius, the belly of the
 
leg.
 
  
Gemellus, paired or double.
 
  
Geminus, twin or twofold.
 
  
Geniculate, knee-like.
 
  
Genio-, pertaining to the chin.
 
Gennari, stria of, visual stria.
 
  
Genu, the knee.
 
  
Gerota’s capsule, renal fascia.
+
1688
Giacomini, banderella or frenulum,
 
tail of dentate gyrus.
 
  
Gimbernat’s ligament, pectineal part
 
of inguinal ligament.
 
  
Ginglymus, a hinge.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Ginglymus, hinge-joint.
 
  
Giraldes, organ of, paradidymis.  
+
The saccule, which is somewhat oval, lies in front of the utricle,
Glabella, without hair; smooth.  
+
and occupies the fovea spherica, where it is near the opening leading
Gladiolus, a small sword.  
+
into the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. Through the openings of the
 +
fovea spherica it receives filaments of the auditory nerve, and this
 +
portion of the saccule, being thickened, is known as the macula sacculi.  
 +
Interiorly the saccule is connected with a small canal, called the
 +
ductus reuniens, which opens into the canal of the cochlea, or ductus
 +
cochlearis, not far from its closed vestibular end. From the posterior
 +
part of the saccule a minute canal, called the ductus sacculi, passes off,
 +
which is soon joined by the ductus utriculi, and so the ductus endolymphaticus is formed. This latter duct traverses the aqueductus
 +
vestibuli, and, having reached the posterior surface of the petrous
 +
part of the temporal bone, it ends in a small blind dilatation, called the
 +
saccus endolymphaticus , which lies beneath the dura mater. The saccule
 +
and utricle are thus indirectly connected by means of the ductus sacculi
 +
and ductus utriculi; and the saccule communicates with the ductus
 +
cochlearis by means of the ductus reuniens.  
  
Gladiolus, body of sternum.  
+
Semicircular Ducts.—The membranous semicircular ducts correspond in outline to the osseous semicircular canals, within which they
 +
lie; they form about two-thirds of a circle, and each has an ampulla
 +
at one end, which is situated within the ampulla of the osseous canal.
 +
They are elliptical in transverse section, and open into the utricle by
 +
five orifices, the non-ampullated ends of the superior and posterior
 +
canals being united, so that these two open by a common orifice
 +
forming the crus commune. The convex wall of each canal is attached
 +
to the periosteal lining of the osseous canal, whilst the concave wall is
 +
practically free from the osseous wall, and is bathed by the perilymph.
 +
These canals contain endolymph.  
  
Gland, Bartholin’s, greater vestibular
+
Structure.—The walls of the utricle, saccule, and membranous
gland.  
+
semicircular canals consist of three layers: an outer or fibrous layer,
 +
which is vascular; a middle layer, or membrana propria, which is translucent; and an inner or epithelial layer. In each ampulla the middle
 +
layer, or membrana propria, projects into the cavity of the canal from
 +
the peripheral wall, this projecting part being known as the septum
 +
transversum. It partially divides the interior of the ampulla into two
 +
compartments, and its free margin, which is covered by the auditory
 +
epithelium, is called the crista acustica or ampullaris. The epithelial
 +
layer consists of a single stratum of squamous cells, except in those
 +
regions to which the filaments of the auditory nerve are distributed. These regions are as follows: (i) the macula (acustica)
 +
utriculi; (2) the macula (acustica) sacculi; and (3) the crista of each
 +
ampulla.  
  
Gland, Cowper’s, bulbo-urethral
+
The macula utriculi is the thickened part of the antero-inferior wall
gland.  
+
of the recessus utriculi, and is lined with auditory epithelium. The
 +
macula is covered by calcareous particles, called otoconia, which
 +
consist of crystals of calcium carbonate. The macula sacculi is the
 +
thickened part of the anterior wall of the saccule, and is also lined with
 +
auditory epithelium covered by otoconia. The crista ampullaris, as
  
Glenoid, like a shallow socket.
 
Glisson’s capsule, hepato-biliary capsule.
 
  
Globosus, round or spherical.
+
THE EAR
Globus, a globe or sphere.
 
Glomerulus, a small ball of thread.
 
Glosso-, pertaining to the tongue.
 
Glottis, the mouthpiece of a flute.
 
Gluteal, pertaining to the buttock.
 
  
Gnathic, pertaining to the jaw.
 
Gnathion, the jaw.
 
  
Gomphosis, a bolting together.
+
1689
Gonion, an angle.
 
  
Gracilis, slender.
 
  
Grisea, grey.  
+
we have seen, is the free margin of the septum trailsversum in each
 +
ampulla, and is covered by auditory epithelium.  
  
Gubernaculum, a rudder.  
+
The auditory epithelium is of the columnar variety, and consists of
 +
two kinds of cells, auditory and sustentacular. The auditory cells are
 +
nucleated, and each is provided at its free extremity with a slender,
 +
tapering, hair-like filament, which projects into the cavity. These
 +
filaments are sometimes spoken of collectively as auditory hairs, and
 +
the cells are hence called hair-cells. Their deep extremities fall short
 +
of the membrana propria. The sustentacular cells lie between the haircells, and are elongated and nucleated. Their deep extremities are
 +
attached to the membrana propria, and their free extremities give rise
 +
to a kind of limiting membrane. The auditory nerve-fibres pierce
 +
the membrana propria, and, having lost their medullary sheaths, the
 +
axons end in arborizations round the deep ends of the auditory or
 +
hair cells.  
  
Gula, the gullet.
+
Superior Semicircular Duct
  
Gustatory, pertaining to taste.
 
Guttural, pertaining to the throat.
 
Gyrus, a circle; a crook.
 
  
 +
Lateral Semicircular Duct i
  
Habenula, a small thong or rein.
 
Hsemorrhoidal, associated with
 
haemorrhoids.
 
  
Hallux, the great toe.
+
Posterior Semicircular Duct
  
Ham, a thing bent or crooked.
 
Hamular, hook-shaped.
 
  
Harmonia, a fitting together.
 
Hartmann’s pouch, sacculation at
 
junction of neck and body of gallbladder.
 
  
Hassall, corpuscles of (thymus), concentric corpuscles.
+
Facial Nerve
  
Haustrum, a machine for drawing
 
water.
 
  
Heister’s valves, spiral valve.
+
Crus Commune of Superior and
Helicine, spiral.
+
' l Posterior Semicircular Ducts
  
Helicotrema, hole of a spiral.
+
j r Ampulla
  
Helix, a coil or spiral.  
+
_ l Nerve to Ampulla
 +
Nerve to Utricle
 +
~ . Nerve to Saccule
 +
_ Cochlear Nerve
  
Hepar, the liver.
 
  
Hepatic, pertaining to the liver.  
+
Fig. 1038. —The Membranous Semicircular Ducts, showing the Distribution of the Branches of the Auditory Nerve to their Ampullae
Hernia, a sprout; a rupture.  
 
Hesselbach’s triangle, inguinal triangle.
 
  
Hiatus, a gap.  
+
(Breschet).  
  
Hiatus Fallopii, hiatus for superficial
+
Membranous Cochlea.—The membranous cochlea is situated within
petrosal nerve.  
+
the osseous cochlea, and fills the gap which is left by the lamina
 +
spiralis. It consists of two membranes, the basilar membrane and the
 +
vestibular membrane (membrane of Reissner, Fig. 1040), which enclose
 +
between them the ductus cochlearis, or scala media. 1 he osseous
 +
cochlea in the recent state is therefore divided into three spiral
 +
passages—the scala tympani, the scala vestibuli, and the ductus
 +
cochlearis. The scala vestibuli is continuous with the scala tympani
 +
at the cupola through an aperture, called the helicotrema ; and at the
 +
base of the cochlea it opens upon the anterior wall of the vestibule.
 +
The scala tympani begins at the fenestra cochleae, and in the recent
 +
state is separated from the tympanic cavity by the secondary membrane of the tympanum. The scala media, or ductus cochlearis,  
 +
communicates near its lower end with the saccule by means of the ductus
 +
reuniens. The scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph,
 +
which is continuous with the perilymph of the vestibule and osseous
 +
semicircular canals. The scala media contains endolymph, which is
 +
continuous with that of the saccule,
  
Highmore, antrum of, maxillary
 
sinus.
 
  
Hilum, a little thing; a trifle.
 
  
Hippocampus, a seahorse.
 
Hippocampus major, hippocampus.
 
Hippocampus minor, calcar avis.
 
Hircina, pertaining to a goat.
 
  
His, bundle of, atrio-ventricular
+
1690
bundle.
 
  
Homodynamic]
 
  
Homogenesis see Chapter I.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
Homologous )
 
  
Houston’s valves, horizontal folds of
 
rectum.
 
  
Huguier, canal of, anterior canaliculus for chorda tympani.  
+
Basilar Membrane.—The basilar membrane extends from the free
 +
margin of the lamina spiralis to the crista basilaris, or lower part of
 +
the spiral ligament, a thickening of the periosteum of that part of the
 +
outer wall of the cochlea which forms the outer wall of the scala media,  
 +
or ductus cochlearis. It separates the ductus cochlearis from the scala
 +
tympani, and is divisible into two zones, inner and outer. The inner
 +
is called the zona arcuata, and supports the spiral organ. The outer
 +
is known as the zona pectinata, and extends from the foot-plates of
 +
the outer rods of this organ to the crista basilaris. The basilar membrane consists of a homogeneous membrana propria, with fibres embedded in it, the fibres being most numerous in the zona pectinata.  
  
Humerus, the upper part of the arm;
+
Vestibular Membrane, or Membrane of Reissner.—This is a delicate
the shoulder.  
+
membrane which extends from the upper surface of the lamina spiralis
 +
a short distance from its free margin to the outer wall of the cochlea,
 +
where it is attached to the periosteum a little above the outer attachment of the basilar membrane. It separates the cochlear duct from the
 +
scala vestibuli, and consists of very delicate connective tissue lined on
 +
each side with a single layer of squamous epithelium.  
  
Hunter’s canal, subsartorial canal.
 
Hyaline, glassv.
 
  
Hyaloid, like glass.
+
Osseous Spiral Lamina
  
Hydatid, a watery vesicle.
 
  
Hydrocele, a watery tumour.
+
Vestibular Membrane
 +
Basilar Membiane
  
Hymen, the marriage deity.
 
  
 +
Scala Vestibuli
  
/
+
Ductus Cochlearis
  
  
 +
Sc' NYll ESy/: ,'-.;
  
 +
| Scala Tympan*
  
  
  
  
GLOSSARY
+
Fig. 1039.
  
  
1705
+
-Vertical Section of the Cochlea of a Fcetal Calf, showing
 +
THE SCALAE AND MODIOLUS (KoLLIKER).
  
  
Hyoid, like the Greek letter upsilon.  
+
The scala media, or ductus cochlearis, is situated between the
 +
basilar membrane and the vestibular membrane. It is triangular in
 +
transverse section, and has a roof, an outer wall, and a floor. The
 +
roof is formed by the vestibular membrane (see Fig. 1040). The
 +
outer wall is the wall of the cochlea and its periosteum, between the
 +
external attachments of the basilar membrane and the vestibular
 +
membrane. The periosteum in this region is much thickened, and
 +
forms the spiral ligament of the cochlea, the lower part of which gives
 +
rise to the crista basilaris. The floor is formed by the basilar membrane, and a part of the upper surface of the lamina spiralis. It has
 +
been seen that the basilar membrane separates the ductus cochlearis
 +
from the scala tympani. The ductus ends above in a closed extremity
 +
at the cupola, and it has a similar ending at the base of the cochlea.
 +
Near its lower blind extremity it receives the ductus reuniens, by
 +
which it communicates with the saccule.  
  
Hypo-, beneath or under.
+
It has just been shown that part of the floor of the cochlear duct
 +
is formed by some of the lamina spiralis. In the recent state it is
 +
of some thickness, which is due to a thickening of its periosteal
  
Hypophysis, ‘ grow beneath.’
 
  
Hypothenar, beneath the palm of the
+
/
hand.
 
  
Ileum, implying twists or coils.
 
  
Ilium, literally of the soft parts—
 
i.e., of the flank; os ilium, the bone
 
of the flank.
 
  
Ima, lowest.
 
  
Impar, dissimilar (in number), unequal.
+
THE EAR
  
Incisivus, cutting into.
 
  
Incisura jugularis, suprasternal notch.
+
1691
  
Incisura scapularis, suprascapular
 
notch.
 
  
Incisura semilunaris (ulna), trochlear
+
covering. This fibrous thickening forms the limbus laminae spiralis
notch.  
+
(see Fig. 1040).  
  
Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped.  
+
Its outer margin is crescentic, the deep notch being called the sulcus lamince
 +
spiralis. The sulcus has two lips, upper and lower. The upper is called the
 +
labium vestibulare, the upper surface of which is marked by several interlacing
 +
prominences and grooves. At the free margin of this labium the prominences
 +
assume the form of tooth-like projections, which are known as the auditory
 +
teeth. The lower lip of the sulcus is called the labium tympanicum. It is continued into the basilar membrane, and is perforated by a great number of apertures
 +
for the branches of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve.  
  
Infundibulum, a funnel.  
+
Spiral Organ (of Corti).—Over the upper surface of the inner part
 +
(zona arcuata) of the basilar membrane the epithelium undergoes
  
Inguinal, pertaining to the groin.
 
  
Inion, literally, the occiput.
 
  
Innominatum, unnamed.  
+
Fig. 1040.—The Organ of Corti (Wiedersheim, after Lavdowsky).  
  
Insula, an island.
 
  
Intercalary, inserted.  
+
1. Spiral Ligament
  
Internodium, the space between two
+
2. Limbus
knots or joints.  
 
  
Interparietal bone, membranous part
+
3. Sulcus Spiralis
of occipital as a separate bone.  
 
  
Interpositum, placed between.  
+
4. Inner Rod of Corti
  
Interstitial, belonging to interstices
+
5. Outer Rod of Corti
or small parts between the main
 
parts of bodies.
 
  
Intertubercular sulcus, bicipital
+
6. Tunnel of Corti
groove.  
 
  
Intumescentia, enlargement (spinal
+
7. Phalangeal Process of Outer Rod
cord).  
 
  
Iris, the rainbow.  
+
8. Inner Hair-cells
  
Ischiatic, pertaining to the hip.
 
  
Ischium, the hip.  
+
9. Outer Hair-cells
  
Isthmus, faucium, oro-pharyngeal
+
10. Cells of Deiters
isthmus.  
 
  
Isthmus rhombencephali, upper constricted end of fourth ventricle.  
+
11. Lamina Reticularis
  
Iter, a passage or road.  
+
12. Cells of Hensen
  
Jacobson, cartilage of, sub-vomerine
+
13. Cells o Claudius
cartilage.  
 
  
Jacobson, organ of, vomero-nasal
+
14. Spiral Ganglion
organ.  
 
  
 +
15. Cochlear Nerve
  
Jacobson’s nerve, tympanic nerve.  
+
16. Nerve-fibres to Hair-cells
  
Jejunum, empty or hungry.
 
  
Jugal, yolking.  
+
remarkable modification, and gives rise to the spiral organ or organ
 +
of Corti. The constituent parts of this very complicated organ are as
  
Jugular, pertaining to the throat.
+
follows:
  
Jugular notch (B.N.A.), suprasternal
+
1 The rods of Corti. 4. The cells of Hensen and of Claudius.  
notch.  
 
  
Jugum, a yolk.  
+
2 The auditory or hair cells. 5 - The lamina reticularis.  
  
Kerckring, ossicle, occasional centre
+
3! The cells of Deiters. 6. The membrana tectona.  
in posterior margin of foramen
 
magnum.  
 
  
Key and Retzius, foramina of  
+
The rods of Corti are arranged in two rows, inner and outer (see
 +
Fig 1041). Each rod consists of a foot-plate or base, an intermediate
 +
portion, and a head. The foot-plate, which is expanded, rests upon
 +
the zona arcuata of the basilar membrane, and the foot-plates of the
 +
inner rods are separated from those of the outer rods by a slight
 +
interval. As the rods rise the intermediate portions of the inner and
  
(Luschka), lateral apertures of
 
fourth ventricle.
 
  
Kobelt’s tubes, epoophoron.
 
  
Labbe, vein of, inferior anastomotic
 
vein (connects superficial middle
 
cerebral with transverse sinus).
 
  
Labrum, a basin.
 
  
Lacertus fibrosus, bicipital aponeurosis.
 
  
Laciniosum, full of folds, indented,
+
1692
jagged.
 
  
Lacrimal, pertaining to tears.
 
  
Lacteal, pertaining to milk.
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
Lactiferous, milk-carrying.
 
  
Lacuna, a hollow or cavity.  
+
outer rods incline towards each other, and the heads of the two sets
 +
of rods come into contact. In this manner a triangular tunnel is
 +
enclosed between the two sets of rods and the basilar membrane,
 +
which is called the tunnel of Corti. This extends along the entire
 +
length of the ductus cochlearis.  
  
Lacunee (of sagittal sinus), lacunae
 
laterales.
 
  
Lacunar, pertaining to a hollow or
+
phalangeal
gap.
 
  
Lacunar ligament, pectineal part of
+
PROCESS
inguinal ligament.
 
  
Lamella, a small plate.
 
  
Lamina, a plate.
+
IfSNER ROD
  
Lamina cinerea, lamina terminalis.
 
  
Lamina cribrosa, medial boundary
 
of internal auditory meatus.
 
  
Lamina papyracea, orbital plate of
+
BASILAR. MEMBRANE
ethmoid.  
 
  
Lamina quadrigemina, tectum.
 
  
Lateral, on the side of. Used in
+
The inner rods are more numerous than the outer, there being from
reference to the sagittal plane of  
+
5,000 to 6,000 of the former and about 4,000 of the latter. They
the body.
+
incline upwards and outwards. The head of each has a concavity on
 +
its outer side, above and below which there is a projecting portion, so
  
Lateral mass (ethmoid), labyrinth.  
+
that it resembles the upper extremity
 +
of the ulna, with its great sigmoid
 +
cavity and olecranon and coronoid
 +
processes. The concavity on the head
 +
of the inner rod receives the round
 +
head of the outer rod. Finally, the
 +
tic. 1041. A Pair of Rods of inner rods are shorter than the outer.
 +
Corti from the Rabbit’s Coch- The ou + pr rn d<? lpcc nnmprrmQ
  
Lateral sinus, transverse sinus.  
+
lea (Side View, highly mag- An ? ouler * oas j ^ re . Aess nui ? e 5 , 0US
  
Latissimus, broadest.
+
nified) (Schafer, in Quain’s ? nd lon § er than the inner, and they
  
Latum, broad.  
+
‘Anatomy’). ~ incline upwards and inwards. The
  
Lemniscus, a ribbon.  
+
head of each is divisible into two
 +
parts—inner and outer. Ihe inner part is round, and is received
 +
mto the concavity on the outer aspect of the head of the inner rod.
 +
The outer part is prolonged into a beak-like projection, called the
 +
phalangeal process, which forms part of the lamina reticularis, to be
 +
presently described.  
  
 +
The auditory or hair cells are arranged in two sets—inner and
 +
outer. Ihe inner hair-cells lie internal to the row of inner rods, and
 +
form a single row. They are from 3,000 to in number. Their
  
 +
free extremities, which lie close to the heads of the inner rods, are each
 +
provided with a tuft of short, hair-like filaments. The deep, nucleated
 +
ends of the cells are related to the terminal arborizations of nervefibres. Internal to the row of inner hair-cells there are two or more
 +
rows of columnar cells, which are continuous with the columnar
 +
epithelium of the sulcus spiralis laminae. The outer hair-cells are
 +
disposed in three or four rows external to the outer row of rods. They
 +
are much more numerous than the inner hair-cells. Their free extremities, like those of the inner cells, are each provided with a tuft
 +
of short, hair-like filaments, and their deep, nucleated ends are related
 +
to the terminal arborizations of nerve-fibres.
  
  
 +
1 he cells of Deiters, which are sustentacular, are situated between
 +
the rows of outer hair-cells. Each cell is nucleated and contains a
 +
slender filament, known as the sustentacular filament or phalangeal
 +
process. This filament is attached by its base to the basilar membrane, and is prolonged into the tapering upper end of the cell. It
 +
terminates in an expansion, which forms a phalanx of the lamina
 +
reticularis, to be presently described.
  
 +
The cells of Hensen are disposed as a continuous layer external
 +
to the lamina reticularis.
  
  
1706
 
  
  
GLOSSARY
+
THE EAR 1693
  
 +
External to the cells of Hensen there are the cubical or columnar
 +
cells of Claudius: these are merely an epithelial lining layer.
  
Leptorhine, having small narrow
+
The reticular lamina extends between the heads of the rods of
nostrils.  
+
Corti and the cells of Hensen. It consists of phalanges, which are
 +
arranged in two (or more) rows—inner and outer. The phalanges of
 +
the inner row are formed by the phalangeal processes of the heads of the
 +
outer rods of Corti. The phalanges of the outer row (or rows) are
 +
formed by the phalangeal processes of the cells of Deiters. Between
 +
the phalanges there are openings through which the outer ends of
 +
the outer hair-cells, with their crescentic tufts of hair-like filaments,  
 +
project.  
  
Levator, a lifter or raiser.  
+
The membrana tectoria, or membrane of Corti, which is elastic,
 +
is the most superficial structure in connection with the spiral organ.
 +
It extends from the limbus spiralis near, and external to, the attachment of the vestibular membrane to the region of the outer hair-cells.  
 +
It covers (1) the limbus laminae spiralis; (2) the labium vestibulare,
  
Lien, the spleen.
 
  
Lieno-, pertaining to the spleen.
 
Ligament, a band or bandage.
 
  
Ligula, a little tongue.
 
  
Limbic lobe, gyrus fornicatus.
+
- Hehcotrema
Limbous, pertaining to a border.
 
Limbus, a border.
 
  
Limbus fossae ovalis (or limbus
 
ovalis), annulus ovalis.
 
  
Limen, a threshold.
+
Scala Vestibuli
  
Linea, a line.
 
  
Lines, oblique (tibia), soleal line.
+
Membranous Spiral
Lines, oblique internal (jaw), mylohyoid line.
+
Lamina
  
Lines (occiput), nuchal lines.
 
  
Lines, popliteal, soleal line.
+
Scala Tympani
  
Lingual, pertaining to the tongue.
 
Lingula, a little tongue.
 
  
Lister’s tubercle, dorsal tubercle of
+
1
radius.
 
  
Longissimus, longest.
+
1
  
Longitudinal sinus, sagittal sinus.
+
Expansion of Cochlear Nerve
Lower, tubercle of, intervenous
 
tubercle (heart).
 
  
Lumbar, pertaining to the loin.  
+
Fig. 1042.—Section of the Cochlea, showing the Distribution of the  
Lumbricalis, like an earth-worm.  
+
Cochlea Branch of the Auditory Nerve (magnified) (Hirschfeld
Lunar, pertaining to the moon.
+
and Reveille).  
Lunula, a little moon; a crescent.
 
Luteum, of a yellow colour.  
 
  
Luys’ nucleus, subthalamic body.
+
and the auditory teeth; (3) the sulcus laminae spiralis; (4) the inner
Lymphatic, from lympha, pure or
+
hair-cells; (5) the inner and outer rods of Corti; (6) the cells of Deiters;
spring water; lymph.  
+
and (7) the lamina reticularis.  
  
Lyra, a lyre; hippocampal commissure.  
+
Auditory Nerve.—The auditory nerve, within the meatus auditorius
 +
internus, breaks up into two divisions—vestibular and cochlear.  
  
McBurney’s point (base of appendix),
+
The vestibular nerve, as it traverses the meatus auditorius internus, has a gangliform enlargement, the vestibular ganglion, and
 +
divides into three branches. These enter the vestibule through the
 +
foramina in the superior vestibular area of the lamina cribrosa at the
 +
deep end of the internal meatus. They are distributed to the macula
 +
utriculi and to the cristae acusticas of the ampullae of the superior
 +
and external semicircular canals.
  
junction of lower and middle
+
The cochlear nerve in the meatus auditorius internus divides into
thirds of spino-umbilical line.  
+
two branches—one to the macula sacculi, and the other to the crista
Macula, a spot.
+
of the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal. The filaments of
 +
the former, which has a gangliform enlargement, pass through the foramina in the inferior vestibular area of the lamina cribrosa, and the
  
Magendie, foramen, median aperture
 
of fourth ventricle.
 
  
Magnum, os, capitate bone.
 
  
Malar, pertaining to the cheek.
 
  
Malar bone, zygomatic bone.
 
Malleolus, a small hammer or mallet.
 
  
Malleus, a hammer or mallet.
 
  
  
Mamma, a breast or pap.
 
  
Mammilla, a little breast or pap.
 
Properly spelt mamilla.
 
  
Mandible, the chewing bone— i.e.,
 
lower jaw.
 
  
Manubrium, a handle or hilt.
 
  
Marshall, oblique vein, oblique vein
 
of left atrium.
 
  
Massa intermedia, interthalamic
+
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
  
connexus.
 
  
Masseter, the chewing muscle.
+
1694
  
Mastoid, breast- or pap-like (nipplelike).  
+
latter passes through the foramen singulare in the lamina cribrosa.
 +
The cochlear nerve, having parted with these two branches, breaks
 +
up into filaments which pass through the foramina of the cochlear
 +
area of the lamina cribrosa, and so reach the base of the modiolus
 +
of the cochlea. They traverse the canals of the modiolus, from which
 +
they pass into the canals between the two layers of the lamina spiralis.
 +
In doing so they have to cross the spiral canal of the modiolus, which
 +
is situated close to the attached margin of the lamina spiralis. This
 +
canal contains a ganglion, called the spiral ganglion, which follows
 +
the windings of the canal, and contains bipolar nerve-cells. As the
 +
auditory fibres pass from the canals of the modiolus into those of
 +
the lamina spiralis the course of each fibre is probably interrupted
 +
by a bipolar cell of the spiral ganglion. The nerve-fibres, leaving
 +
these bipolar cells, traverse the canals between the two layers of the
 +
lamina spiralis. Having lost their medullary sheaths, they pass
 +
through the foramina of the labium tympanicum on the outer margin
 +
of the limbus spiralis, and enter the basilar membrane, where they
 +
end in arborizations which are connected with the inner and outer
 +
hair-cells.  
  
Maxilla, jaw.  
+
Blood-supply of the Labyrinth.—The labyrinth derives its blood
 +
from the internal auditory, which is a branch of the basilar artery
 +
or of the anterior inferior cerebellar. The vessel traverses the meatus
 +
auditorius internus, and divides at its deep end into two branches—
 +
vestibular and cochlear. The vestibular artery supplies the utricle,
 +
saccule, and semicircular canals, and the cochlear artery supplies the
 +
cochlea.  
  
Meatus (pi. Meatfis), a passage or  
+
The veins of the labyrinth ultimately join to form one vessel, called
canal.  
+
the internal auditory vein, which opens into the inferior petrosal
 +
sinus. The aqueductus cochleae and the aqueductus vestibuli each
 +
transmit a vein; that which passes through the former joins the inferior
 +
petrosal sinus or the bulb of the internal jugular vein, and that which
 +
passes through the latter opens into the superior petrosal sinus.  
  
Meckel’s cave, cavum trigeminale.
 
  
Meckel’s diverticulum, diverticulum
+
Development of the Ear.  
ilei.  
 
  
Mediastinum, standing in the middle;
+
Internal Ear—Membranous Labyrinth. —The membranous labyrinth is
a partition.  
+
developed from the surface ectoderm in a manner similar to the development
 +
of the crystalline lens. Over a circumscribed area, corresponding to the upper
 +
end of the first visceral cleft, and upon the side of the hind-brain, the ectoderm
 +
becomes thickened and invaginated. A depression is thus formed, which is
 +
called the auditory pit. This pit becomes deepened, its mouth becomes constricted, and its lips, coming together, unite. The auditory pit then becomes
 +
transformed into a closed sac, called the auditory or otic vesicle, or otocyst.
 +
The auditory vesicle now becomes isolated from the surface ectoderm, and sinks
 +
into the adjacent mesoderm, taking up a position close to the side of the hindbrain.  
  
Medulla, marrow.  
+
The auditory vesicle, which is at first almost spherical, soon becomes pyriform, this being due to the formation of a process, called the recess of the labyrinth
 +
or vestibule, which is prolonged from its dorsal wall. As this process lengthens
 +
it gives rise to the ductus endolymphaticus, which occupies the aqueductus
 +
vestibuli of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The expanded terminal
  
Megacephalic, having a large head.
 
  
Megaseme, having a large index.
 
  
Meibomian glands, tarsal glands.
+
THE EAR
  
Meissner’s plexus, plexus of the submucosa.
 
  
Membrane, costo-coracoid, clavi
+
1695
pectoral fascia.
 
  
Meninges, membranes.  
+
part of the ductus endolymphaticus is called the saccus endolymphaticus, and it
 +
lies underneath the dura mater. The ventral aspect of the vesicle gives off a
 +
tapering diverticulum, which gives rise to the ductus cochlearis, or scala media,
 +
of the cochlea. This duct describes a bend, within which lies the cochlear
 +
ganglion of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve. As the duct elongates
 +
it continues to bend in a spiral manner, and so the ductus cochlearis is formed.
 +
The cochlear ganglion elongates, and follows the spiral turns of the duct, from
 +
which circumstance the ganglion is known as the ganglion spirale.  
  
Meniscus, a crescent.  
+
The three semicircular ducts are developed from the upper or cephalic part
 +
of the auditory vesicle, this part representing the future utricle. This portion
 +
of the vesicle presents two folds—vertical and horizontal. From the vertical
 +
fold the superior and posterior semicircular canals are formed, whilst the horizontal fold gives rise to the lateral semicircular canal.  
  
Meniscus (knee), semilunar cartilage.  
+
The auditory vesicle now becomes transversely constricted, and is divided
 +
into two sacs—large and small. The large sac is called the utricle, from which
 +
the semicircular ducts have just been developed. The small sac is called the
 +
saccule, from which the ductus cochlearis has been developed. The portion
 +
of this duct which communicates with the saccule becomes constricted, and
 +
forms the canalis reuniens of Hensen.  
  
Mental, pertaining to the chin.  
+
The constriction which completely divides the auditory vesicle into utricle
 +
and saccule also involves the vesicular end of the ductus endolymphaticus, and
 +
divides it into two ducts, called the ductus utriculi and ductus sacculi. This
 +
arrangement constitutes the only communication which now exists between the
 +
utricle and the saccule.  
  
Mesaticephalic, having a head with
+
As stated, the cochlear ganglion, or ganglion spirale, of the cochlear division
an index of mean value.  
+
of the auditory nerve lies within the spiral turns of the ductus cochlearis. As
 +
the osseous cochlea becomes formed, the ganglion spirale comes to occupy the
 +
spiral canal of the modiolus. The vestibular ganglion of the vestibular division
 +
of the auditory nerve lies in the internal auditory meatus after the completion
 +
of ossification.  
  
Mesencephalon, the mid-brain.  
+
The membranous labyrinth, hitherto considered, is entirely epithelial.
 +
Certain of its epithelial cells undergo important specializations to fit them for
 +
sensorial purposes. These cells form six groups in definite regions. These groups
 +
are as follows: (1) The crista acustica ampullaris, of which there are three, one in
 +
the ampulla of each of the three epithelial semicircular canals; (4) the macula
 +
(1 acustica) utriculi’, (5) the macula ( acustica) sacculi', and (6) the spiral organ {of
 +
Corti), specialized from the epithelial ductus cochlearis. The groups connected
 +
with the ampullae of the semicircular canals, the utricle, and the saccule, receive
 +
their nerve-fibres from the vestibular ganglion of the vestibular division of the
 +
auditory nerve. The organ of Corti receives its nerve-fibres from the cochlear
 +
ganglion, or ganglion spirale, of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve.  
  
Mesentery, in the middle of, or
+
Osseous Labyrinth. —The membranous labyrinth is surrounded by mesodermic
among, the intestines.  
+
tissue, which becomes disposed in four layers. These layers, from within outwards,
 +
may be spoken of as (1) the connective-tissue layer, (2) the gelatinous layer,
 +
(3) the perichondrial layer, and (4) the cartilaginous layer. The connectivetissue layer forms the connective tissue of the various parts of the epithelial
 +
labyrinth. The fibrous tissue of the gelatinous layer acquires vacuoles, and gives
 +
place to the various perilymphatic spaces, which contain a fluid called the perilymph. In the case of the cochlea, the scala vestibuli and scala tympani alone
 +
contain perilymph, the cochlear duct containing endolymph. The perichondrial
 +
layer forms the lining perichondrium of the periotic cartilaginous capsule, and
 +
subsequently becomes the lining periosteum of the osseous labyrinth. The
 +
cartilaginous layer forms the periotic cartilaginous capsule, which undergoes
 +
ossification, and gives rise, amongst other parts, to the osseous labyrinth, which
 +
jg q£ i ar ger size than the membranous labyrinth. The osseous semicircular canals
 +
conform in shape to the membranous semicircular ducts, but are of larger size.
 +
The osseous vestibule differs from the membranous vestibule in being a single
 +
osseous case, whereas its contents are the utricle and the saccule.  
  
Mesial, nearer to the sagittal plane
+
Whilst the perilymph lies external to the membranous labyrinth, the interior
of the body.
 
  
Meso-, in the midst of. In compounds usually implies a structure
 
like a mesentery, a peritoneal attachment fold.
 
  
Mesocephalic, pertaining to a head
+
1696  
of mean capacity.
 
 
 
Mesogastrium=meso- (q.v.) and
 
stomach.
 
 
 
Mesognathion, middle jaw.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Mesometrium=meso- [q-v.) and
 
womb.
 
 
 
Mesonephros, mid-kidney.
 
 
 
Mesorhine, pertaining to an intermediate nasal index; a condition
 
intermediate between broad-nosed
 
and narrow-nosed.
 
 
 
Mesosalpinx =meso- (q.v.) and tube.
 
 
 
Mesoseme, intermediate index.
 
 
 
Meta-, after or beyond.
 
 
 
Meta-nephros, hind-kidney.
 
 
 
Metencephalon, the after-brain.
 
 
 
Metopic, pertaining to the forehead.
 
 
 
Metopism, persistence of the metopic
 
or frontal suture.
 
 
 
Microcephalic, pertaining to a small
 
head.
 
 
 
Microseme, small index.
 
 
 
Middle commissure, interthalamic
 
connexus.
 
 
 
Millimetre (mm.), slightly less than
 
2V of an English inch.
 
 
 
Minimae, least, smallest.
 
 
 
Mitral, resembling an Asiatic headdress, or mitre.
 
 
 
Modiolus, the nave of a wheel.
 
 
 
Molar, pertaining to a mill, or to
 
grinding.
 
 
 
Monro, foramen, interventricular
 
foramen.
 
 
 
Mons veneris, mons pubis.
 
 
 
Montanum, pertaining to a mountain.
 
 
 
Monticulus, a small mountain.
 
 
 
Morbus, a disease.
 
 
 
Muliebris, pertaining to a woman,
 
feminine.
 
 
 
Miillerian duct, para-mesonephric
 
duct.
 
 
 
Multangulum majus, os, trapezium.
 
 
 
Multifidus, many cleft; divided into
 
many parts.
 
 
 
Musculo-spiral nerve, radial nerve.
 
 
 
Myelencephalon, marrow-brain.
 
 
 
Myeloplaxes, marrow-plates.
 
 
 
Myentericus, pertaining to the muscular tissue of the bowel.
 
 
 
Mylo-, pertaining to a mill.
 
 
 
Myocardium, the muscular tissue of
 
the heart.
 
 
 
Myrtiform, like a myrtle-berry.
 
 
 
 
 
1707
 
 
 
Nares, posterior, posterior apertures
 
of nose.
 
 
 
Naris (pi. nares), a nostril.
 
 
 
Nasal, pertaining to the nose.
 
 
 
Natal, pertaining to the buttock.
 
Natis (pi. nates), the buttock.
 
Navicular, pertaining to a boat.
 
Nephros, a kidney.
 
 
 
Neural, pertaining to a nerve.
 
Neuroglia, literally ‘ nerve glue.’
 
Nictitans, winking.
 
 
 
Norma, a rule or measure (aspect).
 
Notochord, string or cord of the back.
 
Nucha, the nape of the neck.
 
 
 
Nuck, canal, vaginal process.
 
Nucleus, a kernel.
 
 
 
Nuhn, glands, anterior lingual (seromucous) glands.
 
 
 
Nymphae, nymphs or goddesses of
 
the fountains, woods, trees, etc.;
 
labia minora.
 
 
 
Obelion, a horizontal line (perhaps
 
a little spit).
 
 
 
Obex, a bolt; a barrier.
 
 
 
Obturator, one who closes or stops
 
up.
 
 
 
Occipital, pertaining to the back
 
part of the head.
 
 
 
Odontoblast, a tooth-germ.
 
 
 
Odontoid, tooth-like.
 
 
 
Odoriferae, carrying odours.
 
(Esophagus, food-carrier.
 
 
 
Olecranon, head or point of the
 
forearm.
 
 
 
Olfactory, pertaining to smell.
 
Olfactory trigone, olfactory pyramid.
 
Olivary, pertaining to an olive.
 
Omentum, that which is drawn over.
 
 
 
Omentum, gastro - hepatic, lesser
 
omentum.
 
 
 
Omentum, gastro-splenic, gastrosplenic ligament.
 
 
 
Omo-, pertaining to the shoulder.
 
Omphalo-, pertaining to the navel.
 
Operculum, a cover or lid.
 
 
 
Ophryon, the eyebrow.
 
 
 
Ophthalmic, pertaining to the eye.
 
Opisthion, hinder or rear.
 
 
 
Opisthotic, behind the ear.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1708
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Optic, pertaining to sight.
 
 
 
Optic thalamus, thalamus.
 
 
 
Ora, a border or margin.
 
Orthognathous pertaining to a
 
straight (non-projecting) jaw.
 
 
 
Os incae, interparietal bone.
 
 
 
Os japonicum, bi-partite zygomatic
 
bone.
 
 
 
Os magnum, capitate bone.
 
 
 
Os, oris, a mouth.
 
 
 
Os, ossis, a bone.
 
 
 
Os tincae, external os of uterus.
 
Ossicle of Kerckring, occasional
 
centre in posterior margin of
 
foramen magnum.
 
 
 
Osteoblast, bone-germ.
 
 
 
Osteoclast, bone-destroyer.
 
Osteogenetic, bone-forming.
 
 
 
Ostium, a door, entrance, or exit.
 
Otic, pertaining to the ear.
 
 
 
Otoconia, ear-dust.
 
 
 
Otoliths, ear-stones.
 
 
 
Ovary, egg-forming organ.
 
 
 
Oxyntic, producing acid.
 
 
 
Pacchionian bodies, arachnoid granulations.
 
 
 
Pacinian corpuscles, lamellated corpuscles.
 
 
 
Palatum, the palate.
 
 
 
Pallium, a covering.
 
 
 
Palmar, pertaining to the palm.
 
Palpebra, an eyelid.
 
 
 
Pampiniform, tendril-like.
 
 
 
Pancreas, literally, all or completely
 
flesh.
 
 
 
Para-, near, by the side of.
 
Paradidymis, near the testis.
 
Parametrium, near the womb.
 
Parietal, pertaining to a wall.
 
Paroophoron, near the egg-bearing
 
organ; medial mesonephric tubules.
 
 
 
Parbtid, near the ear.
 
 
 
Parovarium, epoophoron.
 
 
 
Pars intermedia (Wrisberg), sensory
 
root of facial nerve.
 
 
 
Patella, a small dish; a plate.
 
 
 
Pecten, another name for the os
 
pubis; a comb.
 
 
 
 
 
Pectinatus, pertaining to a comb.
 
 
 
Pectineal or Pectineus, associated
 
with the pecten bone or os pubis.
 
 
 
Pectiniform, comb-like.
 
 
 
Pectoralis, pertaining to the breast.
 
 
 
Peduncle of corpus callosum, paraterminal gyrus.
 
 
 
Pelvis, a basin.
 
 
 
Penicillus, a painter’s brush or pencil.
 
 
 
Penis, a tail, or pendant process.
 
 
 
Peri-, around, about, or near.
 
 
 
Pericardium, around the heart.
 
 
 
Perineum, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I dwell, or am situated,
 
around/
 
 
 
Perineum, central point of, perineal
 
 
 
body.
 
 
 
Periosteum, around bone.
 
 
 
Periotic, around the ear.
 
 
 
Peritoneum, from a Greek word
 
meaning ‘ stretched around/
 
 
 
Peroneal or Peroneus, ‘ pertaining
 
to the peronee/ the Greek name for
 
fibula.
 
 
 
Petit’s canal, zonular spaces.
 
 
 
Petit’s triangle, lumbar triangle.
 
 
 
Petrous, rocky.
 
 
 
Phalanx, a rank of soldiers.
 
 
 
Pharynx, the throat.
 
 
 
Phenozygous, having visible arches.
 
 
 
Philtrum, a love potion.
 
 
 
Phrenic, pertaining to the diaphragm.
 
 
 
Pineal, belonging to, or like, a pinenut or pine-cone.
 
 
 
Pinna, a kind of shell-fish; a feather
 
or wing.
 
 
 
Pisiform, like a pea.
 
 
 
Pituitary, pertaining to phlegm or
 
mucus; hypophysis.
 
 
 
Placenta, a flat cake.
 
 
 
Plagiocephalous, pertaining to an
 
oblique or twisted head.
 
 
 
Planta, the sole of the foot.
 
 
 
Plantar, pertaining to the sole of the
 
foot.
 
 
 
Platycnemism, broadness of leg.
 
 
 
Platyrhine, having a broad nose.
 
 
 
Platysma, a broad sheet.
 
 
 
Pleura, a rib.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
iyog
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
i
 
 
 
 
 
Plexus, a twining or network.
 
 
 
Plexus, Auerbach’s, myenteric plexus.
 
Plexus, gulae, cesophageal plexus.
 
Plexus, Meissner’s, plexus of the
 
submucosa.
 
 
 
 
 
Plica, a fold.
 
 
 
Plica hypogastrica, lateral umbilical
 
 
 
 
 
fold.
 
 
 
Plica urachi, median umbilical fold.
 
Plicae palmatae (uterus), arbor vitae.
 
Pneumogastric, pertaining to the
 
breathing organs and stomach.
 
Pocularis, pertaining to a cup.
 
 
 
 
 
Pollex, the thumb.
 
 
 
Pomum Adami, laryngeal prominence.
 
 
 
Pons, a bridge.
 
 
 
Popliteal or Popliteus, pertaining to
 
the ham.
 
 
 
Porta, a gate.
 
 
 
Portal, pertaining to a gate.
 
 
 
Portio major and minor, sensory and
 
motor roots of trigeminal nerve.
 
 
 
Postaxiah r , , T
 
Preaxial / see Cha P ter L
 
 
 
Posterior vesicular column (Clarke),
 
thoracic (or dorsal) nucleus.
 
 
 
Posticus, posterior.
 
 
 
Poupart’s ligament, inguinal liga
 
 
 
ment.
 
 
 
Primary divisions (of spinal nerves),
 
 
 
anterior and posterior rami.
 
Proctodaeum, the threshold of the
 
 
 
 
 
anus.
 
 
 
Prognathous, having a projecting
 
lower jaw.
 
 
 
Proligerus, bearing offspring; germinating.
 
 
 
Pro-nephros, fore-kidney.
 
 
 
Pro-otic, before the ear.
 
 
 
Prosencephalon, the fore-brain.
 
 
 
Prostate, standing before; or, more
 
probably, pertaining to a porch
 
or vestibule.
 
 
 
Psalterium, a psaltery or instrument
 
of the lute kind.
 
 
 
Psalterium (lyra), hippocampal commissure.
 
 
 
Psoas, from a Greek word meaning
 
* the muscles of the loins,’ and
 
secondarily ‘ the loins themselves.’
 
 
 
 
 
Pterion, a wing.
 
 
 
Pterotic, pertaining to a wing.
 
Pterygoid, wing-like.
 
 
 
Pubes, the hair which appears on the
 
external genital organs at the age
 
of puberty.
 
 
 
Pubic, pertaining to the os pubis.
 
Pudendal, pertaining to the pudendum.
 
 
 
Pudendum, ‘ of which one ought to
 
be ashamed.’
 
 
 
Pudic, modest or chaste.
 
 
 
Pulmo, a lung.
 
 
 
Pulmonary, belonging to the lungs.
 
Pulvinar, a couch or cushion,
 
Putamen, trimmings or clippings.
 
Pyloric vestibule, pyloric antrum.
 
Pylorus, literally, a gate-keeper.
 
Pyriformis, pear-shaped.
 
 
 
Quadratus, square.
 
 
 
Quadriceps, having four heads.
 
Quadrigeminus, fourfold, four.
 
 
 
Racemose, pertaining to a cluster of
 
grapes; full of clusters; clustering.
 
Radius, a staff or rod; the spoke of
 
a wheel.
 
 
 
Ramus, a branch.
 
 
 
Ranine, pertaining to a frog.
 
 
 
Raphe, a seam.
 
 
 
Receptaculum, a receptacle.
 
Receptaculum chyli, cisterna chyli.
 
Rectus, straight.
 
 
 
Recurrent, running back.
 
 
 
Refractory, breaking up.
 
 
 
Reil, island of, insula.
 
 
 
Ren, a kidney.
 
 
 
Restiform, like a rope or cord.
 
Restiform body, inferior cerebellar
 
peduncle.
 
 
 
Rete, a net.
 
 
 
Retina, from rete, a net.
 
 
 
Retrahens, drawing back.
 
 
 
Retzius, cave, retro-pubic space.
 
Revehens, carrying back.
 
 
 
Rhinencephalon, the ‘ nose ’ or olfactory brain.
 
 
 
Rhinion, a nose.
 
 
 
Rhombencephalon, the rhomb-brain
 
(hind-brain).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1710
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Rhomboid ligament, costoclavicular
 
ligament.
 
 
 
Riedel’s lobe, an elongation of lower
 
margin of right lobe of liver (due
 
to pressure).
 
 
 
Rima, a cleft or chink.
 
 
 
Risorius, laughing.
 
 
 
Rivini, ducts, sublingual ducts.
 
 
 
Rolando, fissure, central sulcus.
 
 
 
Rostrum, a beak.
 
 
 
Rotula, a little wheel.
 
 
 
Rugae, wrinkles.
 
 
 
Saccus reuniens, sinus venosus
 
(heart).
 
 
 
Sacrum, sacred; derivation and original meaning very doubtful.
 
 
 
Sagittal, pertaining to an arrow;
 
antero-posterior.
 
 
 
Salpinx, a trumpet or tube.
 
 
 
Salvatella, saving, or making well.
 
 
 
Santorini, cartilages, corniculate cartilages.
 
 
 
Santorini, duct, accessory pancreatic
 
duct.
 
 
 
Santorini, fissures, clefts in cartilage
 
of exterior auditory meatus.
 
 
 
Saphenous, apparent, manifest.
 
 
 
Sartorius, pertaining to a tailor.
 
 
 
Scala, a ladder, flight of steps, or
 
staircase.
 
 
 
Scala media, duct of cochlea.
 
 
 
Scalenus, of unequal sides.
 
 
 
Scansorius, of, or for, climbing.
 
 
 
Scaphocephalous, having a head like
 
a boat.
 
 
 
Scaphoid, like a boat.
 
 
 
Scapula, a spade; probably from a
 
Greek verb meaning ‘ I dig/
 
 
 
Scarpa’s triangle, femoral triangle.
 
 
 
Schlemm, canal, sinus venosus
 
sclerae.
 
 
 
Schindylesis, a splitting or cleavage.
 
 
 
Sciatic (identical with Ischiatic),
 
pertaining to the hip.
 
 
 
Sclera, hard.
 
 
 
Sclerotic, hard; sclera.
 
 
 
Scrobiculus, a little ditch or trench.
 
 
 
Scrotum, a skin bag or pouch; a hide
 
(probably originally ‘ scortum J ).
 
 
 
 
 
Sebaceous, pertaining to grease.
 
Sella, a seat; a saddle.
 
 
 
Semilunar bone, lunate.
 
 
 
Semilunar fold of Douglas, arcuate
 
line.
 
 
 
Seminalis, pertaining to semen.
 
Septum, a fence or barrier.
 
 
 
Serotinus, that comes or happens
 
late.
 
 
 
Serratus, jagged like a saw.
 
 
 
Sesamoid, like sesame (a kind of
 
grain).
 
 
 
Shrapnell’s membrane, flaccid part
 
of membrana tympani.
 
 
 
Sibson’s fascia, suprapleural membrane.
 
 
 
Sigmoid, like the Greek letter S
 
 
 
(sigma).
 
 
 
Sigmoid cavity, greater, trochlear
 
notch.
 
 
 
Sigmoid cavity, lesser, radial notch.
 
Sigmoid cavity (of radius), ulnar
 
 
 
notch.
 
 
 
Sigmoid notch (mandible), mandibular notch.
 
 
 
Sinus, a cavity or hollow.
 
 
 
Sinus, Valsalva, of, sinuses of aorta.
 
Smegma, a cleanser.
 
 
 
Solar, relating to the sun.
 
 
 
Solar plexus, coeliac plexus.
 
 
 
Soleus, a sole or sandal; a sole-fish.
 
Sperma, seed or semen.
 
 
 
Spermatic, pertaining to semen.
 
Spermatoblast, a seminal bud.
 
Spermatozoa (plural), seminal
 
animals.
 
 
 
Sphenoid, wedge-like.
 
Spheno-maxillary fossa, pterygopalatine fossa.
 
 
 
Sphenotic, pertaining to the sphenoid
 
bone and ear-capsule.
 
 
 
Sphincter, binding or closing tight.
 
Spigelian lobe, caudate lobe.
 
Splanchnic, pertaining to viscera.
 
Splenium, a bandage or compress.
 
Splenius, pertaining to a bandage.
 
Squamous, scaly.
 
 
 
Stapes, a stirrup.
 
 
 
Stellatum, starry.
 
 
 
Stensen’s duct, parotid duct.
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Stephanion, a crown or wreath.
 
 
 
Sternebra, a segment of the sternum.
 
 
 
Sternum, the breast or chest.
 
 
 
Stomata, mouths or pores.
 
 
 
Stomatodaeum or Stomodaeum, the
 
threshold of the mouth.
 
 
 
Stria medullaris, stria habenularis.
 
 
 
Striae acusticae, auditory striae.
 
 
 
Striae medullares, auditory striae.
 
 
 
Styloid, pen-like.
 
 
 
Subflava, somewhat yellow.
 
 
 
Subiculum, an under layer or support.
 
 
 
Submaxillary, submandibular.
 
 
 
Substantia gelatinosa (Roland), gelatinous matter.
 
 
 
Sudoriferous, sweat-carrying.
 
 
 
Sulcus, a furrow.
 
 
 
Supercilium, an eyebrow.
 
 
 
Supracallosal gyrus, indusium griseum.
 
 
 
Sural, pertaining to the calf of the
 
leg.
 
 
 
Sustentaculum, a prop or support.
 
 
 
Sustentaculum lienis, phrenico-colic
 
ligament.
 
 
 
Suture, a sewing together, a seam.
 
 
 
Sylvius, aqueduct, aqueduct of midbrain.
 
 
 
Symphysis, growth together.
 
 
 
Syn-, with; together with (union or
 
harmony may be implied).
 
 
 
Synarthrosis, literally, a * together
 
with ' (direct) joint; fibrous joint.
 
 
 
Synchondrosis, bound together with
 
cartilage; cartilaginous joint.
 
 
 
Syndesmosis, bound together with
 
bands or bonds.
 
 
 
Synovia, resemblance to the white
 
of an egg.
 
 
 
Taenia, a band or ribbon.
 
 
 
Talus, a die (pi. dice); the ankle-bone.
 
 
 
Tapetum, a carpet or coverlet.
 
 
 
Tarsus, a broad flat surface; the
 
instep.
 
 
 
Tectorius, pertaining to a cover.
 
 
 
Tegmen, a covering.
 
 
 
Tegmentum, a covering.
 
 
 
Tela, a web.
 
 
 
Telencephalon, the end-brain.
 
 
 
 
 
1711
 
 
 
Temporal, pertaining to the temples
 
of the head.
 
 
 
Tendo Achillis, tendo calcaneus.
 
 
 
Tendon, from tendo, ‘ I stretch.’
 
 
 
Tenon’s capsule, fascial sheath of
 
eyeball.
 
 
 
Tentorium, a tent.
 
 
 
Tenuis, slender, small.
 
 
 
Teres, rounded.
 
 
 
Testis, a witness.
 
 
 
Thalamencephalon, the bedchamberbrain, or inter-brain.
 
 
 
Thalamus, a bedchamber; a marriage-bed.
 
 
 
Thebesian valve, valve of coronary
 
sinus.
 
 
 
Thebesian veins, venae cordis minimae.
 
 
 
Theca, a cover, case, or sheath.
 
 
 
Thenar, the flat of the hand.
 
 
 
Thorax, the breast or chest; a breastplate.
 
 
 
Thymus, thyme.
 
 
 
Thyroid, like a shield.
 
 
 
Tibia, a pipe or flute; the shin-bone.
 
 
 
Tinea, a small fish, perhaps the tench.
 
 
 
Tonsil, palatine, tonsil.
 
 
 
Tonsil, pharyngeal, naso-pharyngeal
 
tonsil.
 
 
 
Torcular, a wine-press (twisting is
 
implied).
 
 
 
Torcular Herophili, confluens sinuum.
 
 
 
Torus, a protuberance.
 
 
 
Torus tubarius, tubal elevation.
 
 
 
Trabecula, a little beam.
 
 
 
Trachea (‘ rough ’), the wind-pipe.
 
 
 
Trachelo-, belonging to the neck.
 
 
 
Tragus, a goat.
 
 
 
Trapezium, a table; a four-sided,
 
figure, no two sides of which are
 
parallel to one another.
 
 
 
Trefoil, having three leaves.
 
 
 
Treitz, muscle, suspensory muscle of
 
duodenum.
 
 
 
Treves, bloodless fold of, ileo-csecal
 
fold.
 
 
 
Triangular fascia, reflected part of
 
inguinal ligament.
 
 
 
Triangular fibro-cartilage, articular
 
disc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1712
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Triangular ligament, inferior or superficial layer; perineal membrane.
 
 
 
Triceps, having three heads.
 
 
 
Trigeminus, threefold, triple.
 
 
 
Trigdnocephalus, a triangular head.
 
 
 
Trigonum, a triangle; triangular.
 
 
 
Triquetrum, three-cornered; triangular.
 
 
 
Triticea, wheaten, or like a grain of
 
wheat.
 
 
 
Trochanter, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I roll, turn, or revolve.'
 
 
 
Trochlea, the wheel of a pulley.
 
 
 
Trochlear, pulley-shaped.
 
 
 
Trochlearthrosis, a pulley-joint.
 
 
 
Trochoides, wheel-like.
 
 
 
Trolard, vein of, superior anastomotic
 
vein.
 
 
 
Tuba, a trumpet.
 
 
 
Tubarius, pertaining to a trumpet.
 
 
 
Tube, auditory, pharyngo-tympanic
 
tube.
 
 
 
Tube, Eustachian, pharyngo-tympanic tube.
 
 
 
Tubercle, a small swelling.
 
 
 
Tubercle, articular, articular eminence.
 
 
 
Tubercle, greater multangular, of,
 
 
 
crest of trapezium.
 
 
 
Tubercle, Lister’s, dorsal tubercle of
 
radius.
 
 
 
Tubercle, Lower, of, intervenous
 
tubercle (heart).
 
 
 
Tubercle, radial, dorsal tubercle of
 
radius.
 
 
 
Tuberosity, an exaggerated tubercle.
 
 
 
Turbinals or turbinate bones, conchse.
 
 
 
Turbinate, whirled or coiled; like a
 
top.
 
 
 
Turbo, a whirl or coil; a top.
 
 
 
Turcica, Turkish.
 
 
 
Tympanum, a drum.
 
 
 
Ulna, the elbow, but more usually
 
the forearm.
 
 
 
Umbilicus, the navel.
 
 
 
Umbo, a boss or knob.
 
 
 
Unciform, hook-like.
 
 
 
Unciform bone, hamate.
 
 
 
Uncinate, furnished with a hook.
 
 
 
 
 
Ungual, relating to a nail.
 
 
 
Unguis, a nail.
 
 
 
Unicornis, one-horned.
 
 
 
Urachus, urine-holder.
 
 
 
Ureter, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ I pass urine.'
 
 
 
Urethra, the canal by which urine is
 
passed.
 
 
 
Uriniferous, urine-carrying.
 
 
 
Uterus, the womb or matrix.
 
 
 
Uterus masculinus, prostatic utricle.
 
Utricle, a little womb or matrix.
 
Uvea, from uva, a bunch of grapes;
 
a cluster.
 
 
 
Uvula, a small bunch of grapes.
 
 
 
Vagina, a scabbard or sheath.
 
 
 
Vagus, strolling about, wandering,
 
vagrant.
 
 
 
Valgus, bow-legged.
 
 
 
Vallecula, a little valley.
 
 
 
Vallecula Sylvii, vallecula cerebri.
 
Vallum, a rampart.
 
 
 
Valsalva, sinuses, sinuses of aorta.
 
Valve, bicuspid, left atrio-ventricular
 
valve.
 
 
 
Valve, Eustachian, valve of inferior
 
 
 
vena cava.
 
 
 
Valve, ileo-caecal, ileo-colic valve.
 
Valve, mitral, left atrio-ventricular
 
 
 
valve.
 
 
 
Valve, Thebesian, valve of coronary
 
sinus.
 
 
 
Valve, tricuspid, right atrio-ventricular valve (cusps are anterior
 
inferior medial).
 
 
 
Valve, Vieussens, superior medullary
 
velum.
 
 
 
Varus, bent or turned inwards.
 
 
 
Vas (pi. vasa), a vessel.
 
 
 
Velum, a curtain or veil.
 
 
 
Velum interpositum, tela choroidea.
 
Velum palatinum, soft palate.
 
Veneris, ' of Venus.’
 
 
 
Ventral, pertaining to the belly.
 
Ventricle of larynx, sinus of larynx.
 
Vermiform, like a worm.
 
 
 
Vertebra, primarily means a joint,
 
but more particularly a joint of
 
the spine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Vertex, the top or crown of the head.
 
 
 
Veru, a dart, javelin, or spear.
 
 
 
Verumontanum, urethral crest.
 
 
 
Vesalii, foramen, emissary sphenoidal
 
foramen.
 
 
 
Vesica, the urinary bladder.
 
 
 
Vesical, pertaining to the urinary
 
bladder.
 
 
 
Vespertilio, a bat.
 
 
 
Vestibular nucleus, principal or
 
dorsal; medial nucleus.
 
 
 
Vestigial, pertaining to a trace.
 
 
 
Vestigium, a trace or vestige.
 
 
 
Vibrissa, a stiff hair of the nostril.
 
 
 
Vicq d’Azyr, bundle of, mamillothalamic tract.
 
 
 
Vidian canal, pterygoid canal.
 
 
 
Vidian nerve, nerve of pterygoid
 
canal.
 
 
 
Vieussens, ansa of, ansa subclavia.
 
 
 
Vieussens, valve, superior medullary
 
velum.
 
 
 
Villus, shaggy hair; a tuft of hair.
 
 
 
Vinculum, a band or bond.
 
 
 
Vitelline, pertaining to the yolk of
 
an egg.
 
 
 
Vitellus, the yolk of an egg.
 
 
 
Vitreous, like glass, glassy.
 
 
 
Vola, the palm of the hand.
 
 
 
Volar, pertaining to the palm; palmar, or anterior.
 
 
 
Vomer, a ploughshare.
 
 
 
 
 
I 7 I 3
 
 
 
Vorticosse, full of whirlpools, eddying, coiled.
 
 
 
Vulva, a wrapper or covering.
 
 
 
Wharton’s duct, submandibular
 
duct.
 
 
 
Willis, circle of, circulus arteriosus.
 
 
 
Winslow, foramen, opening of lesser
 
sac.
 
 
 
Winslow, ligament, oblique posterior
 
ligament of knee.
 
 
 
Wirsung, duct, pancreatic duct.
 
 
 
Wolffian duct, mesonephric duct.
 
 
 
Wood’s muscle, abductor metatarsi
 
quinti.
 
 
 
Wormian bones, sutural bones.
 
 
 
Wrisberg, cartilage, cuneiform cartilage.
 
 
 
Wrisberg, ligament, accessory attachment of lateral semilunar cartilage.
 
 
 
Wrisberg, nerve, medial cutaneous
 
nerve of arm.
 
 
 
Xiphoid, like a sword.
 
 
 
Y-shaped ligament of Bigelow, iliofemoral ligament.
 
 
 
Zinn, inferior tendon or ligament
 
 
 
(eye), lower part of common tendinous ring.
 
 
 
Zinn, zonule, ciliary zonule.
 
 
 
Zygoma, a yoke.
 
 
 
==INDEX==
 
 
 
 
 
Arteries, nerves, ligaments, joints, muscles, and veins are classified under corresponding
 
headings. Where a number is given in heavy type, the principal reference is indicated.
 
 
 
 
 
Abapical pole of ovum, 25
 
Abdomen, 674, 754
 
 
 
division into regions, 755
 
Abdominal cavity, 756
 
pregnancy, 19
 
wall, 704
 
 
 
landmarks of, 704
 
Abducent nerve, 1166, 1447, 1616
 
in orbit, 1254
 
 
 
Abductor digiti minimi (foot), 646
 
(hand), 496
 
hallucis, 644
 
 
 
ossis metatarsi quinti, 643
 
pollicis brevis, 493
 
longus, 505
 
 
 
Abernethy, fascia of, 854
 
Aberrant ductules, 751
 
Abnormal definition, 5
 
Accessory bile-ducts, 779
 
 
 
nerve. See Cranial nerves
 
obturator nerve, 580, 847
 
process, 140
 
Acervulus cerebri, 1590
 
Acetabulum, 340
 
 
 
ossification of, 341
 
Acrocephaly, 270
 
Acromial anastomosis, 443
 
Acromion, 296 , 298
 
Acromio-clavicular joint, 444
 
Acromio-thoracic artery, 426
 
Adamantoblasts, 287
 
Addison's lines, 755
 
Adductor brevis, 577
 
hallucis, 649
 
longus, 576
 
magnus, 577
 
minimus, 578
 
pollicis, 494, 496
 
Adenoids, 1373
 
Agger nasi, 214
 
Aggregated nodules, 868
 
Air-cells, mastoid, i88
 
sphenoidal, 199
 
Akinesis, 9
 
Ala cinerea, 1490
 
 
 
of frontal bone, 181
 
orbitalis, 273
 
of sacrum, 148
 
temporalis, 275
 
 
 
 
 
Alae of ethmoid, 207
 
of vomer, 228
 
Alar thoracic artery, 427
 
Alimentary canal (embryonic), 23
 
Allantoic diverticulum, 31
 
Allantois, 31, 32, 33, 954
 
Alveolar arches, 1337
 
index, 269
 
point, 244, 268
 
process of maxilla, 214
 
Alveoli, pulmonary, 1028
 
Alveus, 1525, 1569
 
Ambiguus nucleus, 1625 , 1626, 1627
 
Ameloblasts, 287
 
Amitosis, 9, 12
 
Amnion, 27, 30, 32, 106
 
Amniotic cavity, 25, 26, 32
 
duct, 32
 
fluid, 106
 
folds, 31, 32
 
 
 
Amphioxus gastrulation, 35
 
mesoderm, 36
 
Ampulla of duodenum, 865
 
of ear, 1684
 
of rectum, 944
 
of vas deferens, 935
 
Amygdaloid nucleus, 1524, 1532
 
tubercle, 1524
 
 
 
Anal canal, development of, 965
 
of female, 978
 
lymphatics of, 964
 
of male, 945
 
structure of, 961
 
columns, 961
 
fascia, 922
 
membrane, 965
 
valves, 962
 
Analogy, 122
 
Anaphase, 10
 
 
 
Anastomosis, acromial, 443
 
cruciate, 538, 585 , 587
 
round, elbow-joint, 479
 
knee-joint, 548
 
scapular, 441
 
trochanteric, 585
 
Anatomical description, 2
 
snuff-box, 484
 
textbooks, 2
 
Anatomy, 1
 
 
 
 
 
1714
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1715
 
 
 
 
 
Anconeus muscle, 500
 
Angle, cranio-facial, 260
 
of eye, 1289
 
of mandible, 232
 
pubic, 339, 552
 
sacro-vertebral, 151
 
sternal, 102, 1013
 
subcostal, 165
 
subpubic, 344
 
 
 
Angles of pharyngeal lateral pouches. 70,76
 
Angular process, medial, 181
 
Animal cell, 8
 
Ankle-joint, 661
 
 
 
Annular-ligament of radius, 520
 
Annulus fibrosus—
 
 
 
of intervertebral disc, 1107
 
of tympanic membrane, 1676
 
ovalis, 1055
 
 
 
Ano-coccygeal body, 675
 
Ansa hypoglossi, 1206
 
 
 
lenticularis, 1531, 1539 , 1567
 
peduncularis, 1565, 1567
 
subclavia, 1239, 1335
 
Antecubital lymphatic glands, 452, 514
 
Antihelix, 1295
 
Antinion, 268
 
Antitragicus muscle, 1296
 
Antrum, definition, 115
 
pyloric, 760
 
tympanic, 188, 1681
 
Anus, 674
 
 
 
development of, 965
 
imperforate, 965
 
lymphatics of, 964
 
Aorta, abdominal, 825
 
 
 
branches of, 825
 
guides to bifurcation of, 708
 
arch of, 1037
 
 
 
development of, 1041
 
ascending, 1033
 
 
 
branches of, 1036
 
development of, 1037
 
great sinus of, 1036
 
descending, 1089
 
 
 
development of, 1094
 
embryonic, 51, 68
 
thoracic, 1033
 
varieties of, 1040
 
Aortic arches, 68, 91, 1118
 
isthmus, 1038
 
lymphatic glands, 832
 
nodule, 1063
 
orifice, 1062
 
 
 
position of, 1064
 
plexus, 811
 
sinuses, 1063
 
spindle, 1038
 
valve, 1062
 
vestibule, 1060
 
Aortico-renal ganglion, 809
 
Aperture, bony, of nose, anterior, 244
 
posterior, 251
 
 
 
median, of fourth ventricle, 1492, 1608
 
Apex of lung, 1021
 
Apical pole of ovum, 25
 
 
 
 
 
Aponeurosis, bicipital, 453
 
epicranial, 1156
 
palatine, 1351
 
palmar, 484
 
plantar, 642
 
Apophysis, 114
 
 
 
Appendices epiploicae, 768, 871
 
Appendix, vermiform, 764
 
 
 
development of, 63, 872, 883
 
mesentery of, 764, 787 , 884
 
Aquatic respiration, 1377
 
Aqueduct of mid-brain, 1488, 1560
 
 
 
development of, 58, 1561, 1589
 
of vestibule, 191, 264
 
Aqueductus cochleae, 193, 1165, 1686
 
Aqueous humour, 1661
 
Arachnoid granulations, 1599, 1609
 
membrane, cranial, 1608
 
spinal, 1413
 
 
 
Arbor vitae cerebelli, 1485
 
of uterus, 977
 
 
 
Arc, longitudinal, of skull, 269
 
Arch, coraco-acromial, 445
 
crico-thyroid, 1215
 
femoral, deep, 719, 734
 
jugular, 1175
 
nasal, 1154
 
palato-glossal, 1350
 
palato-pharyngeal, 1350
 
palmar, deep, 484, 497 , 499
 
superficial, 483, 487, 498
 
plantar, 614, 657
 
subpubic, 344
 
superciliary, 181
 
Archenteric cavity, 25
 
Archenteron, 27, 30
 
Arches, arterial, 1118
 
dental, 281
 
of foot, 672
 
visceral, 66, 278
 
 
 
metamorphosis of, 1376
 
Archoplasm, 9
 
 
 
Arcuate eminence, 189, 263, 1684
 
fibres of medulla, 1465
 
ligaments of knee-joint, 631
 
of diaphragm, 836
 
line, 727
 
 
 
Arcus parieto-occipitalis, 1501
 
tendineus, 947
 
Area, bucco-pharyngeal, 34
 
cochlear, 190
 
embryonic, 33
 
orbital, 1493
 
proto-cardiac, 34
 
tentorial, 1493
 
vestibular, 1491
 
Areas of Broca, 1446
 
of cortex, 1569
 
of Flechsig, 1467
 
 
 
vestibular, superior and inferior, 190
 
Areola of nipple, 414
 
Arm, landmarks of, 446
 
Arteria, centralis retinae, 1260
 
rectae, 906
 
 
 
thyroidea ima, 1038, 1204, 1221
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1716
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries—
 
 
 
acromio-thoracic, 426
 
alar thoracic, 427
 
anastomosis, cruciate, 538, 585 , 87
 
round, elbow-joint, 479
 
knee-joint, 548
 
scapular, 441
 
aorta, abdominal, 825
 
 
 
branches of, 825
 
development of, 1041, 1118
 
guides to bifurcation, 708
 
arch of, 1037
 
 
 
development of, 1041
 
ascending, 1033
 
 
 
branches of, 1036
 
development of, 1037
 
great sinus of, 1036
 
descending, 1089
 
 
 
development of, 1094
 
embryonic, 51, 68
 
primitive dorsal, 1118
 
ventral, 1118
 
thoracic, 1033
 
varieties of, 1040
 
aortic arches (emb.), 68, 91
 
appendicular, 797
 
arch, crico-thyroid, 1215
 
 
 
palmar, deep, 484, 497 , 499
 
superficial, 483, 487, 498
 
plantar, 614, 657
 
arcuate, 612
 
 
 
ascending pharyngeal, 1219
 
auditory, internal, 1448, 1576
 
of auricle, 1672
 
auricular, deep, 1305
 
 
 
posterior, 1161, 1219
 
axillary, 425
 
 
 
varieties of, 428
 
azygos, of vaginal, 980
 
basilar, 1447, 1575
 
brachial, 454
 
 
 
collateral circulation after ligature, 457
 
profunda, 455
 
varieties of, 456
 
bronchial, 1090, 1029
 
buccal, 1282, 1307
 
of bulb, female, 703
 
male, 688
 
 
 
bulbar, of vertebral, 1575
 
caecal, 797
 
 
 
calcaneal, lateral, of peroneal, 626
 
medial, of post-tibial, 627
 
calcarine, 1577
 
capsular, of liver, 885
 
carotid, common, 1207
 
 
 
left, in thorax, 1039
 
ligation of, 1210
 
surgical compression, 1210
 
internal, 1323
 
 
 
at base of brain, 1449
 
cavernous part of, 1169
 
cerebral part of, 1570
 
development of, 91, 1118,
 
1122, 1324
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
 
 
carotid, internal, petrous part of, 1399
 
carpal, anterior, of radial, 475
 
of ulnar, 479
 
 
 
arch, posterior, 478, 508, 511
 
posterior, of radial, 511
 
of ulnar, 478
 
 
 
rete, anterior, 478, 479, 498
 
centralis, retinae, 1260, 1658
 
cerebellar, anterior inferior, 1448, 1576
 
posterior inferior, 1575
 
superior, 1448, 1576
 
cerebral, anterior, 1449, 1572
 
middle, 1449, 1573
 
posterior, 1448, 1576
 
 
 
cerebral areas of, 1577
 
cervical, ascending, 1242
 
deep, 1148, 1244
 
transverse, 1193, 1243
 
 
 
deep branch of, 402, 1192,
 
1243
 
 
 
superficial branch of, 1142,
 
 
 
1243
 
 
 
of uterine, 980
 
 
 
choroidal, anterior, 1449, 1571
 
posterior, 1577
 
ciliary, anterior, 1260, 1651
 
long, 1260, 1651
 
posterior, 1260
 
short, 1260
 
 
 
circulus arteriosus, 1449, 1577
 
major, 1651
 
minor, 1651
 
 
 
circumflex, anterior humeral, 427
 
fibular, 609
 
iliac, deep, 732
 
 
 
superficial, 508, 712
 
lateral femoral, 585, 588
 
medial femoral, 585, 589
 
posterior humeral, 427, 428
 
scapular, 427
 
 
 
clitoris, dorsal artery of, 703
 
cochlear, 1694
 
coeliac, 811
 
colic, left, 801
 
middle, 797
 
right, 797
 
 
 
communicating, anterior, 1449, 1573
 
posterior, 1449, 1571
 
companion artery of sciatic nerve,
 
538
 
 
 
coronary, of heart, 1036
 
of uterine, 980
 
of corpus callosum, 1573
 
cremasteric, 731
 
crico-thyroid arch, 1215
 
 
 
branch of superior thyroid, 1214
 
dental, anterior superior, 1308
 
inferior, 1307
 
posterior superior, 1307
 
dorsalis, indicis, 511
 
linguae, 1216
 
pedis, 611
 
 
 
varieties of, 614
 
pollicis, 511
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1717
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
epigastric, inferior, 729
 
 
 
branches of, 731
 
guide to, 708
 
superficial, 584, 711
 
superior, 731, 1000
 
 
 
ethmoidal, anterior, 1261, 1281,
 
 
 
1362
 
 
 
posterior, 1261
 
facial, on face, 1278
 
in neck, 1217
 
transverse, 1158, 1281
 
femoral, 563, 581 » 587
 
 
 
profunda of, 584, 588
 
fibular, circumflex, 609
 
 
 
of frenulum linguae, 1216
 
ganglionic, 1449, 1573 , 1577
 
gastric, left, 812
 
right, 814
 
 
 
gastro-duodenal, 814
 
gastro-epiploic, left, 812
 
right, 814
 
 
 
genicular, of popliteal, 548
 
gluteal, inferior, 538, 926
 
superior, 536, 927
 
helicine, 953
 
hepatic, 813, 885
 
 
 
varieties of, 815
 
hyaloid, 1664
 
ileal, 796
 
ileo-colic, 787
 
iliac, circumflex deep, 732
 
superficial, 712
 
common, 849
 
 
 
branches of, 851
 
collateral circulation after
 
ligature of, 852
 
guide to, 708
 
varieties of, 852
 
external, 853
 
 
 
branches of, 854
 
collateral circulation after
 
ligature of, 854
 
guide to, 708
 
varieties of branches, 854
 
internal, 923
 
 
 
branches of, 924
 
foetal condition of, 923
 
varieties of, 923
 
ilio-lumbar, 926
 
indicis, dorsalis, 511
 
radialis, 487, 498
 
infra-hyoid, 1214
 
infra-orbital, 1282 , 1307
 
innominate, 1038
 
 
 
varieties of, 1039
 
intercostal, 997
 
 
 
anterior, 998, 1000
 
collateral, 1093
 
lower two, 732, 999
 
posterior, 998, 1091
 
superior, 997, 1093, 1243
 
interlobar, of kidney, 904
 
interlobular, of kidney, 905
 
of liver, 885
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
interosseous, anterior, 478
 
common, 478
 
posterior, 506, 507
 
recurrent, 508
 
of iris, 1651
 
jejunal, 796
 
of kidney, 904
 
labial, inferior, 1279
 
 
 
superior, 1280, 1362
 
of labyrinth, 1694
 
lacrimal, 1260
 
laryngeal, inferior, 1243
 
superior, 1214
 
of larynx, 1396
 
lenticular, 1573
 
lenticulo-striate, 1573
 
lenticulo-thalamic, 1573
 
of ligamentum teres of uterus, 731
 
lingual, 1215
 
lumbar, 847
 
 
 
abdominal branches of, 732
 
branches of, 847
 
malleolar, lateral anterior, 609
 
medial anterior, 609
 
of posterior tibial, 627
 
mammary, external branches of
 
lateral thoracic artery, 426
 
internal, cervical part of, 1242
 
thoracic part of, 999
 
branches of, 1000
 
masseteric, 1307
 
mastoid of occipital, 1146, 1219
 
maxillary, 1304
 
 
 
branches of, 1305
 
median, 478 , 498, 5 1 ^>
 
meningeal, accessory, 1306, 1600
 
anterior of ethmoidal, 1599
 
of ascending pharyngeal, 1220,
 
1601
 
 
 
of internal carotid, 1600
 
middle, 1306, 1600
 
of occipital, 1146, 1219, 1601
 
of vertebral, 1575, 1601
 
mental, of facial, 1279
 
 
 
of inferior dental, 1283, 1307
 
mesenteric inferior, 801
 
branches of, 801
 
superior, 796
 
 
 
branches of, 796
 
metacarpal, dorsal, 511
 
palmar, 498
 
metatarsal, dorsal, 613
 
first plantar, 657
 
musculo-phrenic, 1000
 
mylo-hyoid, of inferior dental, 1307
 
nasal, dorsal, 1261, 1281
 
lateral, of facial, 1280
 
nutrient arteries—
 
of femur, 587
 
of fibula, 626
 
of humerus, 455, 456
 
of radius, 478
 
of tibia, 626
 
of ulna, 478
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1718
 
 
 
Artery or arteries [continued )—
 
obturator, 589, 925, 927
 
abnormal, 566
 
occipital, first part, 1218
 
 
 
descending branch of, 1218
 
second and third parts, 1146
 
olecanon rete, 479
 
ophthalmic, 1170, 1259
 
ovarian, 830
 
 
 
in pelvis, 978
 
of palate, soft, 1354
 
palatine, ascending, of facial, 1217
 
of ascending pharyngeal, 1220
 
greater, 1308 , 1338, 1362
 
lesser, 1308
 
 
 
palmar arch, deep, 484, 497, 499
 
superficial, 483, 487, 498
 
palpebral, lateral, 1260, 1281
 
medial, 1261, 1281
 
pancreatica magna, 812
 
pancreatico-duodenal, inferior, 798
 
superior, 814
 
pedis, dorsalis, 611
 
varieties of, 614
 
perforating, foot, 613, 657
 
hand, 498
 
 
 
of profunda femoris, 586
 
pericardiaco-phrenic, 1000
 
perineal, superficial, of female, 703
 
of male, 687
 
transverse, 687
 
peroneal, 610, 626
 
branches of, 626
 
communicating branch of, 627
 
varieties, 626
 
 
 
pharyngeal, ascending, 1219
 
of maxillary, 1308
 
of pharynx, 1373
 
phrenic, 827
 
placental, 51
 
plantar arch, 655, 657
 
lateral, 655 , 657
 
medial, 654 , 657
 
pollicis, dorsalis, 511
 
princeps, 487, 497
 
pontine, 1448, 1575
 
popliteal, 541, 546
 
varieties of, 548
 
princeps pollicis, 487, 497
 
profunda, of brachial, 455
 
femoris, 584 , 588
 
linguae, 1216, 1346
 
of pterygoid canal, 1308, 1362
 
pterygoid, of maxillary, 1307
 
pubic, 731
 
 
 
of obturator, 589
 
pudendal, accessory, 689
 
deep external, 584
 
internal, 925
 
female, 703
 
in gluteal region, 539
 
male, 686
 
 
 
superficial external, 584, 710
 
pulmonary, 1028, 1042
 
development of, 1042
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries [continued )—
 
pulmonary, trunk, 1042
 
 
 
development of, 1042
 
radial, 473
 
 
 
first part, 474
 
 
 
recurrent branch of, 475
 
second part, 509
 
third part, 497
 
varieties of, 475, 498
 
radialis indicis, 487, 498
 
rectal, 906
 
 
 
inferior, 963
 
middle, 925, 963
 
superior, 802, 963
 
recurrent, anterior tibial, 609
 
ulnar, 477
 
 
 
posterior interosseous, 508
 
tibial, 609
 
ulnar, 477
 
radial, 475
 
renal, 827
 
 
 
aberrant, 828
 
accessory, 828
 
varieties, 828
 
rete, olecranon, 479
 
retinal, 1658
 
sacral, lateral, 926
 
median, 946
 
 
 
saphenous, of descending genicular,
 
 
 
587, 589
 
 
 
of scalp, 1153
 
scapular, circumflex, 427
 
of sclera, 1643
 
septal, of facial, 1280
 
 
 
of spheno-palatine, 1308, 1339,
 
1362
 
 
 
spheno-palatine, 1308, 1361
 
spinal, anterior, 1447, 1575
 
lateral, 1434
 
 
 
posterior, 1434, 1447, 1575
 
of posterior intercostals, 1093,
 
1411
 
splenic, 812
 
striate, 1573
 
stylo-mastoid, 1219
 
subclavian, 1237
 
 
 
development of, 1240
 
left, first part of, 1240
 
in thorax, 1040
 
right, first part of, 1237
 
second part of, 1240
 
third part of, 1191
 
 
 
guide to, 1192
 
subcostal, 732, 848, 1093
 
sublingual, 1216
 
submental, 1218
 
subscapular, 427
 
suprahyoid, 1216
 
supra-orbital, 1154, 1260
 
suprarenal, inferior, 828
 
middle, 827
 
 
 
superior, of phrenic, 827
 
suprascapular, 402, 438 , ii 93 ; 1243
 
suprasternal of suprascapular,
 
 
 
43 8 . 1243
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1719
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
supratrochlear (brachial), 456
 
of ophthalmic, 1154, 1261
 
sural cutaneous, 548
 
tarsal, 612
 
 
 
temporal, anterior deep, 1307
 
middle, 1158
 
posterior deep, 1307
 
superficial, 1158
 
testicular, 829
 
 
 
terminal part of, 738
 
varieties, 829
 
thoracic, alar, 427
 
lateral, 427
 
somatic, 1244
 
superior, 426
 
 
 
thyro-cervical trunk, 1242
 
thyroid, inferior, 1242
 
superior, 1213 , 1242
 
thyroidea ima, 1038, 1204, 1221
 
tibial, anterior, 607
 
 
 
guide to, 599
 
recurrent, 609
 
posterior, 624
 
guide to, 599
 
recurrent, 609
 
varieties, 627
 
of tongue, 1346
 
of tonsils, 1215, 1355
 
tonsillar, of facial, 1217
 
transverse facial, 1158
 
tympanic, anterior, 1306
 
inferior, 1220
 
 
 
of tympanic membrane, 1677
 
ulnar, 475
 
 
 
collateral, 456
 
first part, 476
 
 
 
recurrent branches of, 477
 
second part, 480
 
third part, 487
 
varieties, 479. 49$
 
umbilical, 51, 9 2 3> io8 3
 
urachal, of superior vesical, 924
 
ureteric, of superior vesical, 924
 
uterine, 979
 
vaginal, 980
 
 
 
azygos, 980
 
of liver, 885
 
of uterine, 980
 
 
 
vas aberrans, brachial, 456, 475
 
to vas deferens, 738, 925
 
vertebral, at base of brain, 1447
 
development of, 1121, 1242
 
first part, 1241
 
fourth part, 1574
 
second part, 1241
 
third part, 1151
 
varieties of, 1242
 
vesical, inferior, 925
 
superior, 924
 
vestibular, 1694
 
zygomatic, 115 8
 
Articular discs— . .
 
 
 
of acromio-clavicular joint, 444
 
of mandibular joint, 1318
 
 
 
 
 
| Articular discs ( continued )—
 
of radio-ulnar joint, 520
 
of sterno-clavicular joint, 444
 
Articularis genu muscle, 573
 
Articular nerves—
 
 
 
ankle-joint, 610, 615, 627, 663
 
calcaneo-cuboid, 654
 
carpal joints, 507, 525
 
carpo-metacarpal, 526
 
elbow-joint, 461, 480, 519
 
hip-joint, 545, 574, 580, 597
 
intermetacarpal, 526
 
interphalangeal, foot. 653, 654
 
shoulder-joint, 432, 464
 
talo-calcanean, 615
 
tarsal, 614, 652, 654
 
tarso-metatarsal, 614, 652, 654
 
tibio-fibular, inferior, 550, 610, 660
 
intermediate, 660
 
superior, 550, 659
 
wrist-joint, 489, 507, 523
 
Aryepiglottic fold, 1386
 
development of, 73
 
Arytenoid cartilages, 1382
 
development of, 1383
 
Arytenoideus muscle, 1393
 
Aspera, linea, 350
 
 
 
Association fibres of cerebrum, 1568
 
Aster, 9, 10
 
 
 
Asterion, 180, 239, 251, 268, 1630
 
Atavism, 6
 
 
 
Atlanto-axial joints, 1404 , 1408
 
Atlanto-occipital joints, 1406, 1409
 
Atlas, 128
 
 
 
development of, 170
 
ossification of, 142
 
Atresia ani, 955
 
Atria of heart, left, 1052
 
 
 
interior of, 1059
 
right, 1051
 
 
 
interior of, 1054
 
of lung, 1027
 
 
 
Atrio-ventricular bundle, 1071
 
node, 1071
 
 
 
Atrium of middle meatus, 1357
 
Attraction particles, 9
 
sphere, 9
 
 
 
Atypical, definition, 6
 
Auditory artery, internal, 1448, 1576
 
cells, 1689, 1692
 
epithelium, 1689
 
hairs, 1689
 
 
 
meatus, external, 193 , 1671
 
internal, 190, 264
 
nerve, 1165, 1404, 1447, 1620
 
process, external, 194
 
radiation, 1531, 1568
 
striae, 1471, 1489, 1620
 
teeth, 1691
 
Auricle, 1294
 
 
 
blood-supply of, 1297
 
lymphatics of, 1297
 
muscles of, extrinsic, 1160
 
intrinsic, 1296
 
nerve-supply of, 1297
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1720
 
 
 
Auricle, structure of, 1295
 
veins of, 1297
 
Auricles of heart, left, 1052
 
right, 1051
 
 
 
Auricular artery, deep, 1305
 
posterior, 1219
 
nerve, great, 1142 , 1278
 
posterior, 1160, 1272
 
point, 251, 268, 1629
 
surface of sacrum, 147
 
tubercle, 1295
 
tubercles (emb.), 68
 
vein, posterior, 1161
 
Auricularis anterior muscle, 1160
 
posterior, 1160
 
superior, 1160
 
 
 
Auriculo-temporal nerve, 1157, 1277
 
Auscultation triangle, 400
 
Autonomic nervous system, 1634
 
parasympathetic, 1639
 
cranial, 1639
 
sacral, 1640
 
sympathetic, 1635
 
 
 
course of efferent impulses, 1636
 
development of, 1640
 
ganglia, 1635
 
 
 
rami communicantes, 1635
 
Axial filament in spermatozoon, 13
 
skeleton, 23
 
Axillary artery, 425
 
 
 
varieties of, 428
 
fascia, 414
 
folds, 412
 
 
 
lymphatic glands, 416, 424, 434 , 514
 
sheath, 429
 
space, 412, 422
 
vein, 428 , 451
 
Axis, 131
 
 
 
odontoid process of, 131
 
ossification of, 143
 
Azygos arteries of vagina, 890
 
veins, 839
 
 
 
Back, landmarks of, 397
 
of scalp and neck, 1141
 
Baillarger, bands of, 1565
 
Balfour’s cell-chain theory, 55
 
Ball-and-socket joint, 393
 
Band, diagonal, 1515
 
ilio-trochanteric, 593
 
moderator, 1057
 
pudendal, 929
 
sciatic, 929
 
 
 
Basal cartilaginous plate in skull, 89
 
ganglia, 1526
 
Base of brain, 1443
 
Base-line of Reid, 1633
 
Basi-bregmatic axis, 260
 
Basi-cranial axis, 260
 
Basi-facial axis, 260
 
Basi-hyal, 236
 
Basilar artery, 1447, 1575
 
 
 
branches of, 1447, 1575
 
groove, 174
 
membrane, 1690
 
 
 
 
 
Basilar, part of occipital bone, 174
 
vein, 1521, 1579
 
Basilic vein, 450, 451
 
Basi-occipital, 275
 
Basion, 258, 268
 
Basket cells of cerebellum, 1487
 
Beak of ulna, 312
 
Bechterew, band of, 1565
 
Bellini, duct of, 903
 
Bergmann, fibres of, 1487
 
Biceps brachii, 452 , 463
 
third head, 454
 
femoris, 542
 
 
 
Bicipital aponeurosis, 453
 
groove, 300
 
synovial sheath, 465
 
Bifurcated ligament—•
 
 
 
calcaneo-cuboid part, 666
 
calcaneo-navicular part, 665
 
Bile canaliculi, 886
 
capillaries, 886
 
ducts, 779
 
 
 
accessory ducts, 779
 
interlobular ducts, 886
 
Birth of foetus, 107
 
Biventer cervicis muscle, 407
 
Bladder, urinary, blood-supply of, 952
 
development of, 955
 
female, 977
 
infantile, 952
 
 
 
ligaments of, false, 918, 952
 
true, 952
 
 
 
lumen of empty bladder, 951
 
male, 932
 
 
 
nerve-supply of, 953
 
orifices of, 951
 
peritoneal relations of, 934
 
structure of, 949
 
trigone, external, of, 934
 
internal, of, 951
 
 
 
Blastocele, 24
 
Blastocyst, 24
 
Blastoderm, 24
 
Blastodermic vesicle, 24
 
Blastomere, 21
 
Blastopore, 35
 
Blastula, 24
 
Blind spot, 1653
 
 
 
Blood circulation, development of, so, s
 
islands, 51
 
 
 
Bochdalek, ganglion of, 1320
 
Body, ano-coccygeal, 675
 
carotid, 1211
 
cavity, primitive, 23, 42
 
ciliary, 1647
 
geniculate, lateral, 1538
 
medial, 1538
 
Pacinian, 490, 653
 
perineal, female, 701
 
male, 681
 
pineal, 1540
 
ponto-bulbar, 1584
 
stalk, circulation in, 51, 52
 
morphology, 31 "
 
relation to umbilicus, 65
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1721
 
 
 
 
 
Body, ultimo-branchial, 76
 
vitreous, 1662
 
wall, development of, 59
 
split by pleurae, 78
 
Bone, canaliculi, 117
 
cell, 117
 
chemical, 115
 
lacunae, 117
 
marrow, 121
 
Bones, cancellated, 118
 
classification of, 118
 
compact, 116
 
of head, 172
 
ossification, 119
 
Borders, post- and pre-axial, 5
 
Bowman, capsule of, 901, 906
 
Brachia of corpora quadrigemina, 1538,
 
 
 
1548
 
 
 
Brachial artery, 454, 456
 
 
 
collateral circulation after ligature, 457
 
profunda, 455
 
varieties of, 456
 
plexus, 439
 
 
 
infraclavicular branches, 431
 
in neck, 1193
 
 
 
supraclavicular branches, 430,
 
1194
 
 
 
Brachialis muscle, 454
 
Brachio-radialis, 501
 
Brachycephalic skulls, 243, 267, 269
 
Brain, 1442
 
 
 
development of, 55, 15 81
 
superior surface of, 1433
 
weight of, 1570
 
 
 
Bregma, 180, 237, 238, 268, 1629
 
Bregmatic bone, 265
 
Broca, area of, 1446
 
Bronchioles, 1027
 
 
 
development of, 1030
 
Bronchus, eparterial, 1027, 1030
 
hyparterial, 1027
 
 
 
development of, 1030
 
left, 1086
 
right, 1086
 
 
 
Bruch, membrane of, 1646
 
Bryant’s triangle, 552
 
Buccal mucous glands, 1272
 
Buccinator muscle, 1269
 
Bucco-pharyngeal area, 34, 44
 
 
 
fascia, 1179, I 3 68
 
membrane, 44, 56. 69
 
Bulb, olfactory, 1165, 1510 , 157 °
 
of penis, 682
 
of posterior horn, i 5 2 4
 
Bulbar ridges, 1079
 
Bulbo-urethral glands, 685
 
Bulbs of vestibule, 696
 
Bulla ethmoidalis, 1357
 
Bundle, atrio-ventricular, I ° 7 I
 
 
 
medial longitudinal, 1464, 1555
 
of Munzer, 1588
 
Bursa of biceps brachii, 453
 
femoris, 542, 641
 
 
 
of coraco-clavicular ligament, 405
 
 
 
 
 
Bursa, under gastrocnemius, 544, 619, 640
 
gluteal muscles, 598
 
of infraspinatus, 465
 
under obturator internus, 535
 
olecranon, 447
 
of popliteal tendon, 641
 
prepatellar, 554, 640
 
under semimembranosus, 544, 64°
 
subacromial, 436, 464
 
subhyoid, 235
 
subpsoas, 598
 
subscapular, 464
 
suprapatellar, 574, 640
 
of teres major, 465
 
Bursae at elbow-joint, 519
 
at hip-joint, 598
 
at knee-joint, 640
 
at shoulder-joint, 464
 
 
 
Caecum, 762
 
 
 
development of, 63, 882
 
peritoneal relations of, 763
 
varieties of, 764
 
vascular fold of, 792
 
Cajal, horizontal cells of, 1562
 
moss fibres of, 1488
 
Calamus scriptorius, 1452
 
Calcaneal arteries—
 
 
 
lateral of peroneal, 626
 
medial of post-tibial, 627
 
Calcaneo-cuboid joint, 666
 
Calcaneo-navicular ligament, plantar, 665,
 
673
 
 
 
part of bifurcated ligament, 665
 
Calcaneum, 370
 
 
 
ossification of, 378
 
peroneal tubercle, 372, 388
 
structure of, 372
 
 
 
sustentaculum tali of, 371, 388, 390
 
tubercles on, 370, 386
 
tuberosity of, 370
 
varieties of, 372
 
Calcar avis, 1524
 
femorale, 354
 
 
 
Calcarine area of cortex, 1569
 
artery, 1577
 
Callosal radiation, 1568
 
Calvaria, 260
 
Canal or canals—
 
anal, 945, 97 8
 
carotid, 189, 191, 258, 263
 
central, of cord, 1422
 
condylar, 175, 258
 
cranio-pharyngeal, 197, 206
 
dental, 212, 213
 
facial, 190
 
femoral, 566
 
Haversian, 116
 
hepatic, 886
 
hyaloid, 1664
 
incisive, 248
 
infra-orbital, 245
 
inguinal, 708, 735
 
innominate, 201
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1722
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
Canal or canals—( continued )
 
intestinal, 761
 
lacrimal, 245
 
mandibular, 231
 
naso-lacrimal, 248
 
neural, 40
 
 
 
of Nuck, 743, 744, 969
 
obturator, 993
 
 
 
palatine, greater and lesser, 255
 
palato-vaginal, 199, 255
 
palmar, 332
 
 
 
pharyngo-tympanic, 257
 
portal, 885
 
 
 
pterygoid, 204, 255, 263
 
pterygo-palatine, 227
 
pudendal, 688
 
pyloric, 760
 
of sacrum, 148
 
semicircular, 1684
 
spiral, of cochlea, 1685
 
subsartorial, 580
 
vertebral, 154
 
Volkmann's, 117
 
zygomatico-facial, 219
 
zygomatico-temporal, 219
 
Canaliculus for chorda tympani, anterior,
 
187, 1673
 
 
 
posterior, 190, 1675
 
lacrimal, 1287
 
mastoid, 191, 258
 
tympanic, 258
 
Cancellated bone, 118
 
Canine fossa, 212
 
ridge, 211
 
teeth, 280
 
Capitate bone, 320
 
 
 
ossification of, 322
 
Capitellum, definition, 114
 
Capitulum of humerus, 304
 
Capsular decidua, 104, 106
 
Capsule, external, of brain, 1531
 
internal, of brain, 1528
 
Caput cornu, 1421
 
 
 
gyri hippocampi, 1507
 
medusae, 712
 
 
 
Cardiac nerves of sympathetic cervical,
 
1334 . 1335
 
 
 
of vagus, cervical, 1330
 
thoracic, 1045
 
plexus, 1046
 
deep, 1046
 
superficial, 1046
 
 
 
Cardinal veins, 51, 1127, 1132, 1136
 
Carotico-clinoid foramen, 200
 
Carotid artery, common, 1207
 
 
 
left, in thorax, 1039
 
external, 1212
 
 
 
development of, 1119, 1213
 
internal, 1169, 1323, 1324, 1399'
 
1449
 
 
 
development of, 91, 1118,
 
1122, 1324
 
 
 
body, 1211
 
 
 
canal, 189, 191, 258, 263
 
groove of sphenoid, 200
 
 
 
 
 
Carotid notch of sphenoid, 200
 
plexus, 1333
 
sheath, 1207
 
triangle, 1196
 
tubercle, 134, 1172
 
Carpal arch, posterior, 478, 508, 511
 
arteries—
 
 
 
anterior, of radial, 475
 
posterior, of radial, 511
 
of ulnar, 479
 
joints, 524
 
 
 
rete, anterior, 478, 479, 498
 
Carpo-metacarpal joints, 525
 
Carpus, 315
 
 
 
morphology, 323
 
ossification of, 322
 
varieties of, 322
 
as a whole, 321
 
Cartilage or cartilages—
 
arytenoid, 1382
 
corniculate, 1383
 
costal, 160
 
cuneiform, 1383
 
of larynx, 1379
 
 
 
of mandibular arch, 74, 75, 232
 
nasal, 1298
 
of second arch, 75
 
semilunar, 632
 
thyroid, 1380
 
 
 
Cartilaginous base of skull, 89, 270, 275
 
Cartilago triticea, 1384
 
Caruncula lacrimalis, 1289, 1292
 
Carunculae hymenales, 696
 
Cauda equina, 1417
 
Caudal, definition, 122
 
Caudate nucleus, 1526
 
Cave of Retzius, 339
 
Cavernous sinus, 1169, 1606
 
Cavity, glenoid, 294 , 461
 
of larynx, 1386
 
nasal, 1356
 
 
 
of septum lucidum, 1520
 
thoracic, 1002
 
Cavum trigeminale, 1167
 
Cell, animal, 8
 
 
 
of Cajal, 1562
 
division, 9
 
germ, 12
 
of Golgi, 1564
 
membrane, 8
 
pyramidal, 1562
 
Cement, 285
 
 
 
Centra, vertebral development, 59
 
Central artery of retina, 1260, 1658
 
canal of cord, 1422
 
lobule of cerebullum, 1478
 
tendon of diaphragm, 835
 
Centrale, os, 322
 
 
 
Centro-acinar cells of Langerhans, 891
 
Centrosome, 9, 10, 21
 
in spermatozoa, 13
 
Centrum of vertebrae, 125
 
Cephalic, definition, 122
 
vein, 450, 451
 
Cerg,to-hyal, 76, 23$
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
I 7 2 3
 
 
 
 
 
Cerebellar fossae, 264
 
 
 
Cerebelli, tentorium, 1163, 1602, 1633
 
 
 
Cerebellum, 1475
 
 
 
arbor vitae of, 1485
 
association and commissural fibres
 
of, 1485
 
 
 
basal surface, 1443
 
development of, 1488, 1586
 
lobes and lobules of under surface
 
of, 1480
 
 
 
of upper surface, 1478
 
medullary vela, 1485
 
morphology of, 1481
 
nuclei of, i486
 
peduncles, inferior, 1484
 
middle, 1484
 
superior, 1483 , 1553
 
structure of, i486
 
under surface of, 1479
 
upper surface of, 1476
 
Cerebral commissure, anterior, 1518, 1568
 
hippocampal, 1518, 1568
 
posterior, 1542
 
cortex, 1561
 
 
 
development, 1510, 1591
 
fissures of, 1495
 
 
 
calcarine, 1503
 
choroidal, 1525
 
collateral, 1497
 
dentate, 1508
 
ecto-rhinal, 1508
 
lateral, 1495
 
parieto-occipital, 1496
 
postcalcarine, 1503
 
precalcarine, 1503
 
ganglia, basal, of, 1526
 
gyri of, 1493. See under Gyri
 
hemispheres, 1493
 
lobes of—
 
 
 
frontal, 1497
 
insula, 1505
 
limbic, 1506
 
occipital, 1502
 
olfactory, 1510
 
parietal, 1499
 
pyriform, 1508
 
 
 
temporal, 1504
 
lobules of—
 
 
 
cuneus, 1504
 
paracentral, 1499
 
parietal, 1501
 
postcentral, 1506
 
prsecuneus, 1502
 
precentral, 1506
 
quadrate, 1502
 
pole, frontal, of, 1451
 
 
 
occipital, of, 1451, i 5°3
 
temporal, of, 1444
 
veins, 1578
 
vesicles, primary, 58
 
Cerebri, crura, 1445. 1551
 
Cerebro-spinal axis, 1410
 
Cerebrum, the, 1493
 
Ceruminous glands, 1672
 
Cervical canal in pregnancy, 104
 
 
 
 
 
Cervical fascia, deep, 1178
 
 
 
compartments of, 1180
 
 
 
fistula, 1377
 
 
 
lymphatic glands, deep, 1189, H 99
 
superficial, 1178
 
plexus, 1185
 
 
 
branches, deep, 1188
 
 
 
superficial, 1141, 1187
 
spinal nerves, origins of, 1418
 
vertebrae, 126
 
Cervix cornu of cord, 1421
 
of uterus, 973
 
 
 
Check ligaments of eyeball, 1253
 
Cheeks, 1337
 
Chiasma, optic, 1545
 
Chondrocranium, 89, 270, 275
 
Chorda tympani nerve, 1347, 1402
 
Chordae tendineae, 1057
 
Chorio-decidual vessels, 109
 
Chorion, 29, 106
 
Chorionic ectoderm 29
 
mesoderm, 29
 
villus, 29
 
 
 
Choroid coat of eyeball, 1645
 
nerves of, 1651
 
structure of, 1646
 
plexus of fourth ventricle, 1492
 
of lateral ventricle, 1521
 
 
 
of inferior horn of, 1525
 
of third ventricle, 1521
 
Choroidal fissure, 1525
 
Chromatin, 9
 
 
 
discharged from nucleus, 18
 
Chromosomes, 10, 17, 18
 
Chyli, cisterna, 838, 1100
 
Ciliary body of eye, 1647
 
ganglion, 1257
 
margin, 1649
 
nerves, long, 1256
 
short, 1258
 
processes, 1647
 
vessels, 1260, 1651
 
Cinereum, tuber, 1445* 1544
 
Cingulate sulcus, 1496
 
Circular folds of small intestine, 864
 
sinus, 1606
 
sulcus, 1497
 
 
 
Circulation, course of, 1050
 
embryonic, 51
 
 
 
Circulus arteriosus, 1449, 1 577
 
major, 1651
 
minor, 1651
 
Circumduction, 395
 
 
 
Circumflex artery, anterior humeral, 427
 
fibular, 609
 
 
 
lateral femoral, 585, 588
 
medial femoral, 585, 589
 
posterior humeral, 427, 428
 
scapular, 427
 
iliac artery, deep, 732
 
 
 
superficial, 584, 712
 
nerve, 432 , 436
 
Cisterna basalis, 1609
 
 
 
cerebello-medullaris, 1609
 
chyli, 838, 1100
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1724
 
 
 
 
 
Cisterna pontis, 1609
 
venae magnae, 1609
 
Classification of joints, 394
 
of movements, 395
 
Claustrum, 1531
 
 
 
Clava of medulla oblongata, 1455
 
Clavicle, 289
 
 
 
in female, 291
 
ossification of, 292
 
structure of, 291
 
varieties of, 291
 
Clavi-pectoral fascia, 420
 
Cleavage nucleus, 21
 
Cleft, intratonsillar, 1354
 
palate, varieties of, 218
 
uro-genital, 693
 
 
 
Clinoid process, anterior, 200 , 261
 
middle, 200 , 261
 
posterior, 198 , 261
 
Clitoris, 694
 
 
 
arteries of, 703
 
development of, 698
 
frenulum, 694
 
glans, 695
 
lymphatics of, 695
 
prepuce, 695
 
Clivus monticuli, 1478
 
of sphenoid, 197, 264
 
Cloaca, 45, 99, 954
 
division of, 98
 
Cloacalfossa, 956
 
 
 
membrane, 45, 955, 956
 
septum, 99, 954
 
Closing membrane, 66
 
Coats of eyeball, 1641
 
Coccygeal plexus, 531
 
Coccygeus muscle, 948
 
Coccyx, 149
 
 
 
cornua of, 150
 
ossification of, 151
 
varieties, 151
 
Cochlea, 1685, 1689
 
 
 
aqueduct of, 193, 1165, 1686
 
Coeliac artery, 811
 
ganglia, 809
 
plexus, 807, 809
 
Coelom, 23, 29, 65
 
 
 
extra-embryonic, obliterated,
 
106
 
 
 
Coils of intestine, formation, 63
 
Collateral fissure, 1497
 
Colliculus facialis, 1491
 
Colon, ascending, 766
 
descending, 767
 
 
 
iliac part of, 767
 
left flexure of, 767
 
pelvic, 943
 
right flexure of, 766
 
taeniae of, 768, 870
 
transverse, 766
 
Column, vertebral, 124
 
as a whole, 151
 
Columnae rugarum, 986
 
Columns, anal, 961
 
renal, 900
 
 
 
 
 
Commissures of brain—
 
 
 
anterior, 1518, 1568
 
corpus callosum, 1513 * 1568
 
Gudden, of, 1545, 1547
 
habenular, 1541
 
hippocampal, 1518, 1568
 
posterior, 1542
 
of female perinaeum, 692
 
of spinal cord, 1418, 1420, 1426
 
Communicating artery, anterior, 1449,
 
1573
 
 
 
posterior, 1449, 1571
 
Companion artery of sciatic nerve, 538
 
Comparative anatomy, 1
 
embryology, 23
 
 
 
Compressor venae dorsalis penis, 680
 
Conchae, nasal, inferior, 223
 
middle, 209
 
superior, 209
 
sphenoidal, 204
 
Condylar canals, 176, 258, 264
 
fossa, 176, 258
 
tubercle, 234
 
Condyles of femur, 352
 
occipital, 175, 258
 
of tibia, 357
 
 
 
Condyloid process of mandible, 232
 
Cone-bipolar cells of retina, 1655
 
Cone of light, 1677
 
Cones of retina, 1656
 
 
 
Confluence of the sinuses, 174, 1603, 1631
 
Congenital cystic kidney, 95
 
Conjoint tendon, 725
 
Conjugation of pronuclei, 20
 
Conjunctiva, 1291, 1292
 
Conoid impression, 297
 
ligament, 444
 
tubercle, 289
 
 
 
Constrictor muscles of pharynx, 1368,
 
1369
 
 
 
Contrahentes, 515
 
 
 
Conus medullaris of spinal cord, 1416
 
Convoluted tubules of kidney, 901,903
 
Convolutions of brain. See Gyri
 
Coraco-acromial arch, 445
 
ligament, 445
 
 
 
Coraco-brachialis muscle, 452
 
Coraco-clavicular ligament, 444
 
Coracoid process and bone, 296 , 298
 
Cord, spermatic, 736
 
Cornea of eyeball, 1643
 
Corneal corpuscles, 1644
 
spaces, 1644
 
 
 
Corniculate cartilages, 1383
 
Corona glandis, 715
 
 
 
radiata, 1515, 1531
 
of ovum, 14, 19
 
Coronal, definition, 5
 
suture, 238, 1630
 
Coronary arteries of heart, 1036
 
of uterine, 980
 
ligaments of knee, 623
 
plexuses, 1048
 
sinus, 1065
 
Coronoid fossa, 304
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
I7 2 5
 
 
 
 
 
Coronoid process of mandible, 232
 
of ulna, 312
 
Corpora bigemina, 58
 
geniculata, 1538
 
mamillaria, 1543
 
 
 
peduncles of, 1544
 
quadrigemina, 1547
 
 
 
development of, 58
 
Corpus albicans of ovary, 982
 
callosum, 1513
 
 
 
development of, 1531, 1596
 
forceps major, 1516
 
minor, 1515
 
genu,1514
 
peduncles of, 1514
 
radiatio corporis callosi,
 
 
 
1515
 
 
 
fimbriatum, 972
 
luteum, 982
 
striatum, 1526
 
 
 
development of, 58, 1591
 
trapezoides of cerebellum, 1484
 
of pons, 1470
 
Corrugator cutis ani, 675
 
supercilii muscle, 1266
 
Cortex, cerebral, 1561
 
Corti, rods of, 1691
 
tunnel of, 1692
 
 
 
Cortical branches of cerebral arteries,
 
1572, 1574, 1577
 
 
 
Cortico-medullary, arterial arches of
 
kidney, 904
 
venous arches, 907
 
Cortico-pontine fibres, 1552
 
Cortico-thalamic tract, 1566
 
Costal cartilages, 160
 
 
 
extensions from sclerotomes, 59
 
groove, 156
 
zone, 755
 
 
 
Costo-capitular facets, 134, 153
 
Costo-clavicular ligament, 443
 
Costo-coracoid ligament, 420
 
Costo-transverse lamella, 128
 
Costo-tubercular facets, 136
 
Cotyledons, no
 
Cranial capacity, 268
 
fossae, 260, 261, 263
 
index, 269
 
Cranial nerves, 1610
 
 
 
at base of brain, 1446
 
of skull, 1165
 
superficial origin of, 1446
 
abducent, at base of skull, 1166
 
distribution, 1166, 1447, 1616
 
nucleus of, 1473, 1616
 
in orbit, 1254
 
superficial origin, 1447
 
accessory, at base of skull, 1166
 
bulbar part, 1628
 
course, 1331, 1447, 1628
 
cranial root, 1331
 
distribution of, 1331, 1628
 
origin of, deep, 1628
 
superficial, 1447
 
spinal part, 1628
 
 
 
 
 
Cranial nerves {continued )—
 
 
 
auditory, at base of skull, 1166
 
 
 
cochlear nerve, 1404, 1620, 1693
 
in internal ear, 1693
 
meatus, 1404
 
nuclei of, 1620
 
spiral ganglion, 1620, 1694
 
superficial origin, 1447
 
vestibular ganglion, 1404, 1620,
 
1693
 
 
 
nerve, 1404, 1622, 1693
 
facial, at base of skull, 1166
 
 
 
distribution, 1157, 1272, 1401,
 
1447, 1682
 
 
 
after emerging from facial canal,
 
1272
 
 
 
in facial canal, 1400
 
ganglion of, 1403 , 1618
 
meatal portion of, 1400
 
nuclei of, motor, 1472, 1617
 
sensory, 1619
 
origin of, deep, 1617
 
superficial, 1447
 
petrous portion, 1400
 
sensory root, 1403
 
glosso-pharyngeal, at base of skull,
 
1166
 
 
 
distribution of, 1325, 1626
 
extracranial portion of, 1324,
 
1447, 1625
 
ganglia of, 1325
 
origin of, deep, 1619, 1624
 
superficial, 1447
 
 
 
hypoglossal, at base of skull, 1167
 
distribution of, 1322, 1629
 
extracranial portion of, 1332,
 
1447
 
 
 
origin of, deep, 1458, 1629
 
superficial, 1447
 
 
 
oculo-motor, at base of skull, 1165
 
nucleus of, 1561, 1611
 
in orbit, 1253
 
superficial origin, 1446
 
olfactory, 1165, 1360 , 1611
 
optic, at base of skull, 1165
 
development of, 1668
 
in orbit, 1253
 
origin, deep, 1611
 
superficial, 1446
 
 
 
trigeminal, at base of skull, 1165
 
distribution of, 1446
 
ganglion, 1167
 
 
 
mandibular nerve, 1168, 1309,
 
1616
 
 
 
maxillary nerve, 1168, 1616
 
mesencephalic root, nucleus of,
 
1561
 
 
 
motor root, nuclei of, 1474, 1615
 
ophthalmic nerve, 1168, 1254
 
 
 
1616
 
 
 
origin, deep, 1614
 
superficial, 1446
 
sensory root of, 1472
 
 
 
nuclei of, 1472, 1474,
 
1615
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1726
 
 
 
Cranial nerves ( continued )—
 
vagus, in abdomen, 861
 
 
 
auricular branch of, 1161, 1328,
 
1672, 1677
 
 
 
at base of skull, 1166
 
cardiac branches of, 1330
 
cervical cardiac branches of, 1330
 
portion of, 1327, 1330, 1447
 
distribution of, 1626
 
ganglia of, inferior, 1328 , 1626
 
superior, 1328 , 1626
 
nuclei of, motor, 1626
 
sensory, 1626
 
origin, deep, 1625
 
superficial, 1447
 
pharyngeal branch of, 1329
 
pulmonary plexuses of, 1029,
 
1043, 1045
 
 
 
thoracic portion of left, 1044
 
of right, 1043
 
 
 
Cranio-cerebral lobes of cerebrum, 1634
 
topography, 1629
 
Cranio-facial angle, 260
 
Cranio-metrical terms, 268
 
Cranio-pharyngeal canal, 197, 206
 
Cranium, 172
 
 
 
development of, 91, 270
 
interior of, 259
 
Cremaster muscle, 723
 
Cremasteric fascia, 716, 723
 
reflex, 724
 
 
 
Crest, conchal, of maxilla, 213
 
ethmoidal, of palatine, 225
 
external occipital, 259
 
of ilium, 334
 
incisive, of maxilla, 216
 
incisor, of maxilla, 216
 
infratemporal, 202
 
internal occipital, 264
 
lacrimal, 222
 
nasal, of maxilla, 216
 
of palatine, 225
 
obturator, 340
 
pubic, 399
 
 
 
relations of structures at, 728
 
sphenoidal, 199
 
supramastoid, 185
 
of tibia, 1359
 
 
 
transverse, of internal auditory
 
meatus, 190
 
of trapezium, 319, 333
 
urethral, female, 988
 
male, 939
 
vestibular, 1683
 
Cretinism, 270
 
Cribriform fascia, 561 , 568
 
plate of ethmoid, 207
 
Crico-arytenoideus posterior, 1392
 
lateralis, 1392
 
Crico-arytenoid joint, 1385
 
Cricoid cartilage, 1382
 
 
 
development of, 73, 1382
 
Crico-thyroideus, 1390
 
Crico-thyroid joint, 1385
 
Crico-vocal membrane, 1384
 
 
 
 
 
Crista ampullaris, 1688
 
galli, 207, 261
 
 
 
Cruciate anastomosis, 538, 585 , 587
 
ligaments of knee, 634
 
occipito-axial, 1405
 
 
 
transverse part, 1405,1408
 
vertical part, 1407
 
Crura cerebri, 1445, 1551
 
 
 
development of, 1589
 
Crus commune, 1688
 
of helix, 1295
 
Crusta-petrosa, 285, 287
 
Cryptorchismus, 743
 
Cryptozygous skull, 243
 
Crystalline lens, 1661
 
 
 
development of, 1667
 
Cubital fossa, 458
 
Cuboid bone, 377
 
 
 
ossification of, 378
 
 
 
peroneal groove of, 378 , 388, 390
 
 
 
varieties, 378
 
 
 
Cuboideo-metatarsal joint, 669
 
Culmen monticuli, 1478
 
Cuneate tubercle, 1455
 
Cuneatus, fasciculus, 1429
 
funiculus, 1455
 
nucleus, 1460
 
 
 
Cuneiform bones of tarsus, 373
 
intermediate, 375
 
lateral, 375
 
medial, 374
 
ossification of, 378
 
cartilages, 1383
 
Cuneo-cuboid joint, 669
 
Cuneo-navicular joint, 668
 
Cuneus of brain, 1504
 
Cupola of cochlea, 1695
 
Curved form of embryo, 48
 
Curves of vertebral column, 151
 
Cutaneous nerves. See also under Nerves,
 
cutaneous
 
of arm, 447
 
of back, 397
 
of forearm, back of, 449
 
front of, 465
 
of gluteal region, 529
 
of hand, 449, 465
 
of leg, outer side of, 614
 
of pectoral region, 412
 
of perinaeum, male, 675
 
of scapular region, 436
 
of sole of foot, 644
 
of trunk, 710
 
 
 
Cuvier, ducts of, 51, 92, 1127
 
Cystic duct, 778
 
 
 
development of, 891
 
structure of, 890
 
notch, 756, 777
 
Cytomicrosomes, 9
 
Cytoplasm, 8
 
Cytotrophoblast, 27, 29
 
 
 
Dachryon, 244, 268
 
Dartos muscle, 709, 713, 716
 
Daughter cells, 12
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1727
 
 
 
 
 
Daughter chromosomes, 10
 
nuclei, 12
 
 
 
Decidua basalis, 104
 
capsularis, 104, 106
 
parietalis, 104
 
Decidual cells, 107
 
 
 
change in pregnancy, 107
 
Decussation, fountain, 1433, 1551
 
of lemnisci, 1465
 
of pyramids, 1453
 
Deferens, vas, 737
 
 
 
development of, 738 , 753
 
in pelvis, 935
 
structure of, 737
 
Deiters, cells of, 1692
 
Deltoid, 436
 
 
 
tuberosity, 300
 
Dental arches, 281
 
canaliculi, 284
 
 
 
canals, anterior and middle, 213
 
posterior, 212, 253
 
groove, 218
 
lamina, true, 286
 
papilla, 285, 287
 
pulp, 283, 287
 
sac, 285, 287
 
Dentate fissure, 1508
 
nucleus, 1485
 
Dentatum, os, 133
 
Dentine, 284
 
 
 
Depressor alae nasi muscle, 1268
 
anguli oris muscle, 1270
 
labii inferioris muscle, 1270
 
Descent of testis, 739
 
 
 
abnormal conditions of, 743
 
positions of, 743
 
gubernaculum testis, 740
 
mesorchium, 740
 
plica gubernatrix, 740
 
uro-genital mesentery, 740
 
Descriptive terms, 1
 
Deutoplasm, 9, 15
 
Development—
 
 
 
of anal canal, 965
 
of anus, 965
 
 
 
of appendix, vermiform, 63, 872, 883
 
of aqueduct of mid-brain, 58, 1561
 
of arteries, principal, 1118
 
 
 
aorta, arch of, 1018, 1041
 
ascending, 1037
 
descending, 1094
 
carotid, common, ni 9 > I2I 3
 
external, 1119. I2I 3
 
internal, 91, 1118,1122, 1324
 
central, of retina, 1667, 1668
 
femoral, 1123
 
hyaloid, 1667, 1669
 
innominate, 1119
 
of limbs, 1123
 
upper, 516
 
pulmonary, 91, 1042
 
subclavian, 1119. 1121
 
tibial, 1123
 
umbilical, 151
 
vertebral, 1121
 
 
 
 
 
Development ( continued )—
 
of ary epiglottic folds, 73
 
of arytenoid cartilages, 1383
 
of atlas vertebra, 170
 
of atria of heart, 1075
 
of atrial septa, 1075
 
of atrio-ventricular valves, 1081
 
of auditory meatus, external, 68,
 
1696  
 
 
 
of ossicles, 1679
 
of auricle of ear, 1697
 
of basal ganglia, 1594
 
of bile-duct, 868
 
of bladder, urinary, 955
 
of blood, 51
 
 
 
of body cavities, 47, 48
 
wall, 59
 
 
 
of brain, 55, 1581
 
of bronchi, 1030
 
of bronchioles, 1030
 
of bulbo-urethral glands, 686
 
of bulbs of vestibule, 699
 
of caecum, 882
 
of calyces, 95
 
 
 
of cartilages of larynx, 1397
 
of caruncula lacrimalis, 1292
 
of cement of teeth, 287
 
of cephalic ganglia, 1598
 
of cerebellum, 58, 1488, 1586
 
of cerebral hemispheres, 1510, 1591
 
peduncles, 1588, 1589
 
vesicles, 58, 1591
 
of choroid plexuses, 1596
 
of circulatory system, 51, 5 2