Talk:Birth - Stillbirth and Perinatal Death
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 26) Embryology Birth - Stillbirth and Perinatal Death. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Birth_-_Stillbirth_and_Perinatal_Death
Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities
PLoS Med. 2011 Aug;8(8):e1001080. Epub 2011 Aug 30.
Oestergaard MZ, Inoue M, Yoshida S, Mahanani WR, Gore FM, Cousens S, Lawn JE, Mathers CD; on behalf of the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation and the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. Source World Health Organization, Department of Health Statistics and Informatics, Geneva, Switzerland. Abstract BACKGROUND: Historically, the main focus of studies of childhood mortality has been the infant and under-five mortality rates. Neonatal mortality (deaths <28 days of age) has received limited attention, although such deaths account for about 41% of all child deaths. To better assess progress, we developed annual estimates for neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) and neonatal deaths for 193 countries for the period 1990-2009 with forecasts into the future.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled a database of mortality in neonates and children (<5 years) comprising 3,551 country-years of information. Reliable civil registration data from 1990 to 2009 were available for 38 countries. A statistical model was developed to estimate NMRs for the remaining 155 countries, 17 of which had no national data. Country consultation was undertaken to identify data inputs and review estimates. In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%). Between 1990 and 2009, the global NMR declined by 28% from 33.2 deaths per 1,000 livebirths to 23.9. The proportion of child deaths that are in the neonatal period increased in all regions of the world, and globally is now 41%. While NMRs were halved in some regions of the world, Africa's NMR only dropped 17.6% (43.6 to 35.9).
CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality has declined in all world regions. Progress has been slowest in the regions with high NMRs. Global health programs need to address neonatal deaths more effectively if Millennium Development Goal 4 (two-thirds reduction in child mortality) is to be achieved. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy
Neonatal morbidity and mortality secondary to premature rupture of membranes
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1992 Jun;19(2):265-80.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Abstract PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal mortality and morbidity. The occurrence of PROM is either directly or indirectly responsible for a large number of premature births and the concomitant mortality and morbidity associated with preterm delivery. PROM turns a pregnancy into a high-risk situation and increases the need for neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. The incidence of neonatal sepsis increases with PROM, but the overall outcome of the neonate, even with surfactant therapy, is still primarily dependent on the gestational age at the time of delivery. This is most relevant between 24 and 27 weeks' gestation. During this 3-week interval, survival improves by almost 2% for each additional day of in utero maturation (i.e., from 35 to 75%). Thus the benefit to the fetus of prolonging the pregnancy in cases of PROM is immensely worthwhile and should be aggressively pursued as long as there is no significant increase in maternal morbidity.
PMID: 1630737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]