Talk:BGDB Gastrointestinal - Abnormalities

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BGD Internal Links 2009 GIT- Abnormalities

Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 80 An Overview of the Gastrointestinal System

Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Baron S, editor. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Gastrointestinal Tract Flora

Hirschsprung Disease Overview

Parisi MA. In: Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-. 2002 Jul 12 [updated 2006 Dec 26].


Disease characteristics. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), or congenital intestinal aganglionosis, is a birth defect characterized by complete absence of neuronal ganglion cells from a portion of the intestinal tract. The aganglionic segment includes the distal rectum and a variable length of contiguous proximal intestine. In 80% of individuals, aganglionosis is restricted to the rectosigmoid colon (short-segment disease); in 15%-20%, aganglionosis extends proximal to the sigmoid colon (long-segment disease); in about 5%, aganglionosis affects the entire large intestine (total colonic aganglionosis). Rarely, the aganglionosis extends into the small bowel or even more proximally to encompass the entire bowel (total intestinal aganglionosis). HSCR is considered a neurocristopathy, a disorder of cells and tissues derived from the neural crest, and may occur as an isolated finding or as part of a multisystem disorder. Affected infants frequently present in the first two months of life with symptoms of impaired intestinal motility such as failure to pass meconium within the first 48 hours of life, constipation, emesis, abdominal pain or distention, and occasionally diarrhea. However, because the initial diagnosis of HSCR may be delayed until late childhood or adulthood, HSCR should be considered in anyone with lifelong severe constipation. Individuals with HSCR are at risk for enterocolitis and/or potentially lethal intestinal perforation.

Diagnosis/testing. The diagnosis of HSCR requires histopathologic demonstration of absence of enteric ganglion cells in the distal rectum. Suction biopsies of rectal mucosa and submucosa are the preferred diagnostic test in most centers because they can be performed safely without general anesthesia. Syndromes associated with HSCR are diagnosed by clinical findings, cytogenetic analysis, or in some cases, by specific molecular or biochemical tests. Isolated HSCR is a multigene disorder that has been associated with mutations in at least six different genes.

Genetic counseling. Recurrence risk depends on the underlying cause.

Management. Resection of the aganglionic segment and anastomosis of proximal bowel to the anus ("pull-through") is the standard treatment for HSCR. Individuals with extensive intestinal aganglionosis who develop irreversible intestinal failure may be candidates for intestinal transplantation.

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Meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation without peritoneal calcification: a case report

J Med Case Reports. 2010 Aug 31;4:292.

Valladares E, Rodríguez D, Vela A, Cabré S, Lailla JM.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, 08950, Barcelona, Spain. Abstract ABSTRACT:

INTRODUCTION: A case of giant meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation is presented. Conventional radiographic features of meconium peritonitis with secondary meconium pseudocyst formation are well described. Our case is unusual in comparison to other cases reported in the literature and needs to be reported because the meconium pseudocyst presented without the typical ultrasound features (calcifications, polyhydramnios and ascites) and was initially identified as an abdominal mass.

CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian woman in her third trimester of pregnancy, in which an abdominal mass was detected in the fetus. The newborn was diagnosed in the early neonatal period with meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation.

CONCLUSIONS: The prenatal appearance of a meconium pseudocyst can be complemented by other signs of bowel obstruction (if present) such as polyhydramnios and fetal bowel dilatation. This is an original case report of interest to all clinicians in the perinatology and fetal ultrasound field. We consider that the utility of this case is the recognition that a meconium pseudocyst might appear without the typical ultrasound features and should be considered as a differential diagnosis when an echogenic intra-abdominal cyst is seen.

PMID: 20807399