Talk:Abnormal Development - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Health initiatives by Indigenous people in Australia
Lancet. 2011 Jun 18;377(9783):2066-7.
Clark S. Source The Lancet, London NW1 7BY, UK. PMID: 21684368 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684368 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(11)60884-2/fulltext
Fetal alcohol syndrome: dashed hopes, damaged lives
Bull World Health Organ. 2011 Jun 1;89(6):398-9. [No authors listed] Abstract Since the term was coined about 40 years ago, fetal alcohol syndrome has slowly become recognized as a public health issue. Alicestine October reports from South Africa's Western Cape province, which has the highest reported rate in the world.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview
Neuropsychol Rev. 2011 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Riley EP, Infante MA, Warren KR. Source Department of Psychology, Center for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State University, 6330 Alvarado Court, Suite 100, San Diego, CA, 92120, USA, email@example.com.
When fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was initially described, diagnosis was based upon physical parameters including facial anomalies and growth retardation, with evidence of developmental delay or mental deficiency. Forty years of research has shown that FAS lies towards the extreme end of what are now termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are on the developing brain and the cognitive and behavioral effects that ensue. Alcohol exposure affects brain development via numerous pathways at all stages from neurogenesis to myelination. For example, the same processes that give rise to the facial characteristics of FAS also cause abnormal brain development. Behaviors as diverse as executive functioning to motor control are affected. This special issue of Neuropsychology Review addresses these changes in brain and behavior highlighting the relationship between the two. A diagnostic goal is to recognize FAS as a disorder of brain rather than one of physical characteristics.
The effects of alcohol on fetal development
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2011 Mar;93(1):3-11. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.20200.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology/Teratology, University of California, San Diego, California. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prenatal exposure to alcohol has profound effects on many aspects of fetal development. Although alterations of somatic growth and specific minor malformations of facial structure are most characteristic, the effects of alcohol on brain development are most significant in that they lead to substantial problems with neurobehavioral development. Since the initial recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a number of important observations have been made from studies involving both humans and animals. Of particular importance, a number of maternal risk factors have been identified, which may well be of relevance relative to the development of strategies for prevention of the FAS as well as intervention for those who have been affected. These include maternal age >30 years, ethnic group, lower socioeconomic status, having had a previously affected child, maternal under-nutrition, and genetic background. The purpose of this review is to discuss these issues as well as to set forth a number of questions that have not adequately been addressed relative to alcohol's effect on fetal development. Of particular importance is the critical need to identify the full spectrum of structural defects associated with the prenatal effects of alcohol as well as to establish a neurobehavioral phenotype. Appreciation of both of these issues is necessary to understand the full impact of alcohol on fetal development. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 93:3-11, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes of peri-conceptional alcohol exposure - retrospective cohort study in an urban obstetric population in Ireland
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011 Apr 11;11(1):27. [Epub ahead of print]
Mullally A, Cleary BJ, Barry J, Fahey TP, Murphy DJ. Abstract ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based advice on alcohol consumption is required for pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes associated with peri-conceptional alcohol consumption.
METHODS: A cohort study of 61,241 women who booked for antenatal care and delivered in a large urban maternity hospital between 2000 and 2007. Self-reported alcohol consumption at the booking visit was categorised as low (0-5 units per week), moderate (6-20 units per week) and high (> 20 units per week).
RESULTS: Of the 81% of women who reported alcohol consumption during the peri-conceptional period, 71% reported low intake, 9.9% moderate intake and 0.2% high intake. Factors associated with moderate alcohol consumption included being in employment OR 4.47 (95% CI 4.17 to 4.80), Irish nationality OR 16.5 (95% CI 14.9 to 18.3), private health care OR 5.83 (95% CI 5.38 to 6.31) and smoking OR 1.86 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.01). Factors associated with high consumption included maternal age less than 25 years OR 2.70 (95% CI 1.86 to 3.91) and illicit drug use OR 6.46 (95% CI 3.32 to 12.60). High consumption was associated with very preterm birth (< 32 weeks gestation) even after controlling for socio-demographic factors adjusted OR 3.15 (95% CI 1.26-7.88). Only three cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome were recorded (0.05 per 1000 total births), one each in the low, moderate and high consumption groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Public Health campaigns need to emphasise the importance of peri-conceptional health and pre-pregnancy planning. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is likely to be under-reported despite the high prevalence of alcohol consumption in this population.
Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2006–07
Around 143,000 alcohol and other drug treatment episodes were provided in Australia in 2008-09'
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2008. Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2006–07: report on the National Minimum Data Set. Drug treatment series no. 8. Cat. no. HSE 59. Canberra: AIHW.
"More episodes of this treatment were for alcohol than any other drug type, and this proportion has now risen four years in a row. ...As seen in previous years, most treatment episodes (66%) were provided to male clients."
Prenatal alcohol exposure triggers ceramide-induced apoptosis in neural crest-derived tissues concurrent with defective cranial development
Cell Death Dis. 2010 May 27;1(5):e46.
Wang G, Bieberich E. Source Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, School of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The reason why specific embryonic tissues are sensitive toward ethanol is not understood. We found that in neural crest-derived cell (NCC) cultures from the first branchial arch of E10 mouse embryos, incubation with ethanol increases the number of apoptotic cells by fivefold. Apoptotic cells stain intensely for ceramide, suggesting that ceramide-induced apoptosis mediates ethanol damage to NCCs. Apoptosis is reduced by incubation with CDP-choline (citicoline), a precursor for the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin. Consistent with NCC cultures, ethanol intubation of pregnant mice results in ceramide elevation and increased apoptosis of NCCs in vivo. Ethanol also increases the protein level of prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a sensitizer to ceramide-induced apoptosis. Prenatal ethanol exposure is concurrent with malformation of parietal bones in 20% of embryos at day E18. Meninges, a tissue complex derived from NCCs, is disrupted and generates reduced levels of TGF-β1, a growth factor critical for bone and brain development. Ethanol-induced apoptosis of NCCs leading to defects in the meninges may explain the simultaneous presence of cranial bone malformation and cognitive retardation in FAS. In addition, our data suggest that treatment with CDP-choline may alleviate the tissue damage caused by alcohol.
Magnetic resonance microscopy defines ethanol-induced brain abnormalities in prenatal mice: effects of acute insult on gestational day 8
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Jun;33(6):1001-11. Epub 2009 Mar 19.
Parnell SE, O'Leary-Moore SK, Godin EA, Dehart DB, Johnson BW, Allan Johnson G, Styner MA, Sulik KK.
The Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7178, USA. email@example.com