Talk:2018 Group Project 5

From Embryology
Projects 2018: 1 Adrenal Medulla | 3 Melanocytes | 4 Cardiac | 5 Dorsal Root Ganglion

About this Discussion Page

The project discussion page is where your group members can post discussion on the project topic. This will be demonstrated in the practical tutorial in week 3.

Please follow these 3 simple rules:

  1. Never identify yourself or any other students by name, use only your student number.
  2. Only edit your own student page or your own group project page.
  3. Only add content that is both correctly cited and you have permission to reuse.
Group Assessment Criteria  
Mark Hill.jpg Science Student Projects
  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.
More Information on Assessment Criteria | Science Student Projects
Uploading Images 
Mark Hill.jpg First Read the help page Images

The following describes how to upload an image with all the information that must be associated with it.

The image must first be uploaded to the site.

  1. Open the left hand menu item “Toolbox” and click “Upload file” and a new window will open.
  2. Click the button ”Choose file” and navigate to where the image is located on your computer and double click the file.
  3. The window will now show the file name in the “Source filename” window.
  4. You can then rename the uploaded file in the “Destination filename” window.
    1. Make sure the new name accurately describes the image.
  5. Add a description of the image to the “Summary” window. Note the description must include:
    1. An image name as a section heading.
    2. Any further description of what the image shows.
    3. A subsection labeled “Reference” and under this the original image source, appropriate reference and all copyright information.
    4. Finally a template indicating that this is a student image. {{Template:Student Image}}

Images not including the above information will be deleted by the course coordinator and be considered in the student assessment process.

Students cannot delete uploaded images. Contact the course coordinator with the file address.

Mark Hill.jpg First Read the help page Referencing

All references used in making your project page should be cited where they appear in the text or images.

In page edit mode where XXXX is the PubMed ID number use the following code.


For references not listed on PubMed, and text can be inserted between <ref></ref> tags.

Where the reference list will appear make a new section and on a new line the following code. <references/>

Mark Hill.jpg First Read the help page Copyright Tutorial

Currently all students originally assigned to each group are listed as equal authors/contributors to their project. If you have not contributed the content you had originally agreed to, nor participated in the group work process, then you should contact the course coordinator immediately and either discuss your contribution or request removal from the group author list. Remember that all student online contributions are recorded by date, time and the actual contributed content. A similar email reminder of this information was sent to all current students.

Please note the Universities Policy regarding Plagiarism

"Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)

Academic Misconduct carries penalties. If a student is found guilty of academic misconduct, the penalties include warnings, remedial educative action, being failed in an assignment or excluded from the University for two years.

Please also read Copyright Tutorial with regard to content that can be used in your project.

Z5229399 (talk) 11:33, 14 August 2018 (AEST) Z5229597 (talk) 11:34, 14 August 2018 (AEST) Z5229431 (talk) 11:35, 14 August 2018 (AEST) Z5229549 (talk) 11:36, 14 August 2018 (AEST) Z5229438 (talk) 11:36, 21 August 2018 (AEST)

Peer Reviews (Lab 10)

Z5091101 (talk) 20:14, 3 October 2018 (AEST)z5091101Z5091101 (talk) 20:14, 3 October 2018 (AEST) There has been an extensive use of references which is great especially since this topic seems to be really complex. Maybe a few more images for the beginning part of the article will make it look more user-friendly. Definitely have a look over for any grammar/spelling issues.

Z5164785Embryonic origins has been well-written. Proof-read for typing errors. Neural crest migration section shows good research and use of terminology. Neuronal and glial development has nice concise information though it might be wise to add some more content. Also if the heading will be Glial dev, then neuron dev should be changed to Neuronal dev- for consistency. Adult function of ? However, this section is well-written! Concise and relevant- great work guys! Tissue Structure is starting to look good however needs more content. Really good student drawn image!! Though it might be good to be the image higher up on the page.

Molecular mechanisms/factors/genes has overall been well written. Perhaps a brief statement about what transcription factors are? Interesting image in abnormalities. I would personally appreciate an explanation of what I am seeing in the image. More discussion of a wider variety of abnormalities might be beneficial. Excellent coverage of animals models so far!! May be one more? Also, great use of images! Current research seems to be coming along well! Some formatting edits so that the video appears on the page would be good!

Overall, great work guys! Keep it up and move along with the project consistently!


History - empty, try and look for history of spinal nerve embryological discoveries as a potential starting point!

Embryonic Origins - good information, nice to read, but try and clean up the syntax just a little bit.

Developmental Process - Very clean and finished section with a thorough understanding of chemical mediators, overarching anatomy and embryological concepts.

Axonal Targeting - Try cleaning up the second sentence on Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, very good section otherwise.

Neuron Development - Good description of chemical mediators and their involvement in embryological processes

Glial Development - Also very good, as above. Consider adding a diagram or table, to simplify the knowledge into something your classmates can easily comprehend.

Adult Function - Could be mixed in with Tissue structure as one topic, otherwise both are good and set the stage of adult role & neurophysiology well.

Molecular Mechanisms - Fantastic all-round, not very much to fault, just try and preen up sentences here and there and proof-read, consider adding a little more information in a few sections, but only what would be necessary for the specific embryology.

Abnormalities, Animal Models and Current Research - All very well done, try simplifying some of the sentences occasionally.

References - Very good as well.


  • A good article for the overview of trunk neural crest cells

Vega-Lopez GA, Cerrizuela S & Aybar MJ. (2017). Trunk neural crest cells: formation, migration and beyond. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 61, 5-15. PMID: 28287247 DOI.

Z5229431 (talk) 12:25, 24 August 2018 (AEST)

  • Image about entire overview of neural crest migration


  • find a image for the overview of DRG development
  • if cannot find, use animal species to draw out the timeline
  • work on chicken to identify origins of different components of DRG, neural crest
  • timeline of discovery of DRG (use date of publication to put the timeline, around 1970s, original discovery is around 1930s)
  • if cannot find about DRG, find about trunk neural crest

Embryonic Origins

  • which particular part of the neural crest contribute to the DRG
  • do they differentiate during migration or do they differentiate only when reaching the location
  • which particular mechanism influence the differentiation process into DRG

Developmental Process

  • extension of DRG to different end points (epithelium, joints, muscle fibres)
  • good to include a timeline (schwann cells -> differentiation and myelination)
  • understanding schwann cell differentiation and myelination
  • neuronal cell death (apoptosis if they do not reach the cell type)

Adult Function

  • Differentiation process
  • When they start to function

Tissue / Organ structure

Molecular Mechanisms / Factors / Genes

  • Tim

"Blocking of CXCR4 by morpholino or shRNA in premigratory chick trunk neural crest cells leads to significantly fewer cells that reach the dorsal aorta and instead populate the dorsal root ganglia"

Kasemeier-Kulesa JC, McLennan R, Romine MH, Kulesa PM & Lefcort F. (2010). CXCR4 controls ventral migration of sympathetic precursor cells. J. Neurosci. , 30, 13078-88. PMID: 20881125 DOI.

Z5229431 (talk) 12:18, 24 August 2018 (AEST)

  • summary of signalling pathway and their interactions with each other
  • identifying if molecular factors are growth or transcription factors

Abnormalities / Abnormal development

Dorsal Root Ganglionopathy is responsible for sensory impairment in CANVAS

Dorsal Root Ganglion disorder.jpg

"Sensory ganglionitis, variably called ganglionopathy, is a disease of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Major forms of these diseases are associated with neoplasm, Sjögren syndrome, and paraproteinemia or polyclonal gammopathy with or without known autoantibodies. Most cases follow subacute courses, but there are forms that develop chronically and acutely as well. Clinical signs seen include sensory ataxia exhibited by gait unsteadiness, a positive Romberg sign, reduced deep tendon reflexes, poor coordination, and pseudo-athetoid movements in the hands. Axonal degeneration warrants the treatment as early as possible. Early cases of immunologic origin that are immune-mediated may respond to plasmapheresis and immunosuppression. Differential diagnoses include environmental and industrial intoxication and adverse effects of antineoplastic and antibiotic drugs. The term “sensory neuronopathy” or “ganglionitis” refers to disorders of small neurons, larger neurons, and/or neurons of both sizes in the sensory ganglia."

Animal Models

"In zebrafish, trunk NCCs start migrating along a medial pathway in-between the somites and the NT. These NCCs align to and are affected by slow muscle cells in the middle part of the somite"

Honjo Y & Eisen JS. (2005). Slow muscle regulates the pattern of trunk neural crest migration in zebrafish. Development , 132, 4461-70. PMID: 16162652 DOI.

Z5229431 (talk) 12:16, 24 August 2018 (AEST)

"Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction is directly required in zebrafish DRG precursors for proper development of DRG neurons. Zebrafish mutations in the Hh signaling pathway result in the absence of DRG neurons and the loss of expression of neurogenin1 (ngn1), a gene required for determination of DRG precursors. Cell transplantation experiments demonstrate that Hh acts directly on DRG neuron precursors. Blocking Hh pathway activation at later stages of embryogenesis with the steroidal alkaloid, cyclopamine, further reveals that the requirement for a Hh signal response in DRG precursors correlates with the onset of ngn1 expression. These results suggest that Hh signaling may normally promote DRG development by regulating expression of ngn1 in DRG precursors."

Hedgehog signaling is directly required for the development of zebrafish dorsal root ganglia neurons. Josette M. Ungos, Rolf O. Karlstrom, David W. Raible. Development 2003 130: 5351-5362; doi: 10.1242/dev.00722

Z5229431 (talk) 00:25, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

Neural crest cell migration in erbb3b mutants.jpg

"Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) arise from trunk neural crest cells that emerge from the dorsal neuroepithelium and coalesce into segmental streams that migrate ventrally along the developing somites. Proper formation of DRGs involves not only normal trunk neural crest migration, but also the ability of DRG progenitors to pause at a particular target location where they can receive DRG-promoting signals. In mammalian embryos, a receptor tyrosine kinase proto-oncogene, ErbB3, is required for proper trunk neural crest migration. Here, we show that in zebrafish mutants lacking ErbB3 function, neural crest cells do not pause at the location where DRGs normally form and DRG neurons are not generated. We also show that these mutants lack trunk neural crest-derived sympathetic neurons, but that cranial neural crest-derived enteric neurons appear normal. We isolated three genes encoding neuregulins, ErbB3 ligands, and show that two neuregulins function together in zebrafish trunk neural crest cell migration and in DRG formation. Together, our results suggest that ErbB3 signaling is required for normal migration of trunk, but not cranial, neural crest cells."

Honjo Y, Kniss J & Eisen JS. (2008). Neuregulin-mediated ErbB3 signaling is required for formation of zebrafish dorsal root ganglion neurons. Development , 135, 2615-25. PMID: 18599505 DOI.

Z5229431 (talk) 00:37, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

"cdon is expressed in developing premigratory NCCs but is downregulated once the cells become migratory. Knockdown of cdon results in aberrant migration of trunk NCCs: crestin positive cells can emigrate out of the neural tube but stall shortly after the initiation of migration. Live cell imaging analysis demonstrates reduced directedness of migration, increased velocity and mispositioned cell protrusions. In addition, transplantation analysis suggests that cdon is required cell-autonomously for directed NCC migration in the trunk."

Powell DR, Williams JS, Hernandez-Lagunas L, Salcedo E, O'Brien JH & Artinger KB. (2015). Cdon promotes neural crest migration by regulating N-cadherin localization. Dev. Biol. , 407, 289-99. PMID: 26256768 DOI.

Z5229431 (talk) 00:45, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

Current research (Labs)

--Z5229438 (talk) 19:27, 27 August 2018 (AEST)


  • Brief, clear and concise