Projects 2018: 1 Adrenal Medulla | 3 Melanocytes | 4 Cardiac | 5 Dorsal Root Ganglion


Neural Crest and Cardiovascular Development

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  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
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  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.
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  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.
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Z5229189 (talk) 12:28, 14 August 2018 (AEST)

Neural Crest and Cardiac Development

Introduction/history/structure of the cardiovascular network/histology/anatomy/physiology

"During early development, neural folds are formed along the anteroposterior-axis in the ectoderm. Upon fusion, the folds give rise to the neural tube. During the process of neural tube formation, cells detach at the border of the neural and epidermal ectoderm, i.e. at the dorsal aspect of the forming neural tube. These cells are referred to as neural crest cells. Neural crest cells migrate along defined pathways throughout the body. Upon arrival at their destination, they differentiate into various cell types, among which melanocytes, peripheral neurons and their supporting cells, and skeletal elements. The neural crest cells are formed along the entire cranio-caudal axis of the body and can be divided into two major populations the cranial and truncal neural crest cells. The cranial neural crest extends from the diencephalon up to somite pair 5, and the truncal neural crest from somite pair 6 to the caudal end of the neural tube. The truncal neural crest is involved in sympathetic innervation of the heart, whereas the cranial neural crest is associated with parasympathetic innervation of the heart."

van den Hoff MJ & Moorman AF. (2000). Cardiac neural crest: the holy grail of cardiac abnormalities?. Cardiovasc. Res. , 47, 212-6. PMID: 10946058

Z5229185 (talk) 11:51, 21 August 2018 (AEST) Sounds good for a brief introduction of the neural crest roles to the heart development


"The subpopulation of neural crest cells responsible for aorticopulmonary septation has been termed the cardiac neural crest. CNCCs are required for the normal development of the thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, cardiac conduction system, semilunar valves, parasympathetic innervation of the heart, and outflow septum, as well as proper remodeling of the pharyngeal arch arteries and alignment of the outflow with the ventricles. "

Keyte AL, Alonzo-Johnsen M & Hutson MR. (2014). Evolutionary and developmental origins of the cardiac neural crest: building a divided outflow tract. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today , 102, 309-23. PMID: 25227322 DOI.

Z5229185 (talk) 07:40, 23 August 2018 (AEST)

This page will give a brief understanding of the cardiac anatomy and how the organ develops. To give the reader a basis of how the neural crest forms the heart n and all of its valves and what happens when mechanisms of the neural crest cause malfunctions and generate malfunctions in the growing embryo.

Embryonic origins/embyronic contributions

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/bdrc.21081 This article is great for the origins/process of the neural create, basic information in terms readable by most and will be a basis fro understanding the neural crest.

Early development

"Cardiac neural crest cells originate from the neural tube extending from the axial level of the mid otic placode to the third somite in chick. The cells then migrate from the neural tube into the caudal pharyngeal arches (3, 4 and 6). Some neural crest cells remain in the pharynx to support aortic arch artery development, while a subpopulation continues on to migrate into the outflow tract of the heart"

Keyte A & Hutson MR. (2012). The neural crest in cardiac congenital anomalies. Differentiation , 84, 25-40. PMID: 22595346 DOI.


Z5229185 (talk) 09:22, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

Progressive development of the Embryonic Heart.jpeg Z5229185 (talk) 11:13, 24 August 2018 (AEST)


Cardiacdevelopment1.jpg

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375817/ Z5229177 (talk) 09:07, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

Later development

Developmental time course/carnegie stages/overview

Cell signalling involved/molecular mechanisms/factors/genes

https://discovery.lifemapsc.com/library/images/neural-crest-development photo I want to use for the project

Disorders/abnormalities

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3389200/ Article explains congenital defects of the heart from the neural crest and how the defects happen at the molecular level


"Cardiac neural crest ablation experiments demonstrated that upon removal of the pre-migratory cardiac neural crest cardiovascular abnormalities are induced. The pre-migratory neural crest is ablated by removal of the dorsal aspects of the neural folds using vibrating needles, tungsten needles, or laser. Entire removal of the cardiac neural crest showed in almost all cases a persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA). However, the chicken neural crest ablation phenotype also includes abnormal patterning of the great arteries that are derived from the aortic arches, absence or hypoplastic thymus, thyroid and parathyroids. As expected, removal of only the cardiac neural crest does not effect the innervation of the heart and does not lead to craniofacial abnormalities. Interestingly, partial ablation of the cardiac neural crest results in a milder cardiac phenotype, like double outlet right ventricle, dextraposed aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, and/or ventricle septum defect, whereas the other phenotypic alterations are hardly different from complete cardiac neural crest ablation [17,26–29]. Based on these ablation studies it was concluded that PTA only occurred when the numbers of neural crest cells were reduced below a critical level that is no longer compatible with proper formation of the aortico-pulmonary septum [5,30]. Thus, the ablation experiments are in agreement with the conclusion of Conway and coworkers [1] suggesting that the quantity rather than the quality of neural crest cells is important in OFT septation."


van den Hoff MJ & Moorman AF. (2000). Cardiac neural crest: the holy grail of cardiac abnormalities?. Cardiovasc. Res. , 47, 212-6. PMID: 10946058


Z5229185 (talk) 11:58, 21 August 2018 (AEST)

Brief overview of Heart Development

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC408374/ Explains heart development, great for basic understanding and good for continuing research about the heart.

Current research/main animal models/future questions

Reference

PMID: 10359559 Waldo K, Zdanowicz M, Burch J, Kumiski DH, Stadt HA, Godt RE, Creazzo TL & Kirby ML. (1999). A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development. J. Clin. Invest. , 103, 1499-507. PMID: 10359559 DOI.

<pubmed limit=5>Neural Crest Embryology</pubmed>


A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development

PMID: 10359559 Waldo K, Zdanowicz M, Burch J, Kumiski DH, Stadt HA, Godt RE, Creazzo TL & Kirby ML. (1999). A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development. J. Clin. Invest. , 103, 1499-507. PMID: 10359559 DOI.

Google doc

Discussed between all group members on google docs.

Neural crest and cardiovascular development/cardiac neural crest OUTFLOW TRACT VALVE

Group project 2017 on heart development: https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/2017_Group_Project_3

The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Content is correctly cited and referenced. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

What should be on the page: Table of contents Introduction History Embryonic origins/embryonic contributions Carnegie stages Early development Later development Structure of the cardiovascular network Developmental time course Developmental/adult function Tissue/organ structure / histology Cell signalling involved/Molecular mechanisms/factors/genes Anatomy of the cardiov Functions of the cardiov Abnormalities associated with the development of the cardiov Models and Research (past/current/future) Disorders: DiGeorge syndrome Main animal model system Current research (labs) Future questions Glossary (for all the acronyms) Reference list

SO: introduction/history/structure of the cardiovascular network/histology/anatomy/physiology Embryonic origins/embyronic contributions Early development Later development Developmental time course/carnegie stages/overview Cell signalling involved/molecular mechanisms/factors/genes Disorders/abnormalities: Current research/main animal models/future questions

how to write a good project: content its brevity and balance between text and images: dont make it pages & pages on text ,it is a webpage!! balance the content. Keep your editing tight. Don’t make your whole project bulletpoints. Like to see some drawings done by ourselves

Good articles on neural crest & cardiovascular development:

https://search.proquest.com/docview/222534802?pq-origsite=gscholar

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25662261 (REVIEW article)

https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Lecture_-_Neural_Crest_Development → Neural crest lecture

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301468112000667?via%3Dihub (Review article by AnnaKeyte, Mary Redmond) -> The neural crest in cardiac congenital anomalies/ a little on history

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10065/ Article gives a good synopsis of nerual crest cardiac development.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC408374/ Article has a lot of information about heart development from the nerual crest, great article to start out with for beginning infromation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3389200/ Congential defects of the heart during development and abnormalities, article with substantial information about what happens to the heart when the nerual crest is defected.

https://www.heartrhythmjournal.com/article/S1547-5271(06)02148-5/fulltext Great review article that has a lot of references to other scholarly papers we can use for a better understanding and more in depth information about cardiac valves.

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.res.0000259041.37059.8c Essential protein needed for cardiac development.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227568 This article gives a great description of the neural crest and the history of the neural crest and good information that is basic and informative. Will allow us to get the introduction of our webpage started and will be a branching point to move forward.



1: Introduction/history/structure of the cardiovascular network/histology/anatomy/physiology → Also explain what neural crest cells are?

History: (In a chick study of parasympathetic innervation of the heart, Margaret Kirby and colleagues ablated neural crest and serendi pitously discovered that the embryos lacked aorticopulmonary septation (Kirby et al., 1983). The subregion of cranial neural crest ablated by Dr. Kirby has been called the “cardiac neural crest”, not because the cells of this region migrate solely to the heart, but for the importance of crest-derived ectomesenchyme in cardiovascular development.) -> Article by Anna Keyte


2: Embryonic origins/embryonic contributions



Neural crest at the level of the body have two general migration pathways, defined by the position of the somite: medial pathway: between the neural tube and the somite Lateral pathway: between the somite and the body wall (cardiac NCC)

Outflow tract Valves

Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract. They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that will later form the ears) to the third somites (clusters of mesoderm that will become skeletal muscle, vertebrae and dermis). The cardiac neural crest cells have a number of functions including creation of the muscle and connective tissue walls of large arteries, parts of the cardiac septum, parts of the thyroid, parathyroid and thymus glands. They differentiate into melanocytes and neurons and the cartilage and connective tissue of the pharyngeal arches. They may also contribute to the creation of the carotid body, the organ which monitors oxygen in the lood and regulates breathing.


--- BEFORE THE CARDIAC NEURAL CREST CELL --


3: Early development

In higher vertebrates: Cells in the cranial neural crest migrate in clusters or “streams” and later form cranial nerve ganglia at even-numbered rhombomeres proximally. Specifically, the cranial crest migrates in three streams referred to as first or cranial, second or middle and third or caudal. The caudal stream comprises most of the cardiac crest. The majority of the crest emanate from the even numbered rhombomeres.

4: Later development


5: Developmental time course/carnegie stages/overview


6: Cell signalling involved/molecular mechanisms/factors/genes

Neural Crest Cells (NCCs) is essential in earlier stages of arterial valve development such as positioning the cushions and patterning valve leaflets (patterning)


7: Disorders/abnormalities

Abnormalities of arterial valves (Bicuspid aortic valve BAV) DiGeorge syndrome



-Failure of outflow septation is a hallmark of cardiac neural crest ablation and is called persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) (6–8). The common outflow vessel usually arises from the right ventricle and is always accompanied by abnormal patterning of the great arteries (9, 10).The most severe alteration in ventricular function is decreased ejection fraction. In addition to changes in ventricular function, abnormal morphology of the heart loop in early neural crest–ablated embryos has been reported (7, 13–16). All of these data indicate that cardiac neural crest ablation affects early heart development.

8: Current research/main animal models/future questions

Focus on overview of how the heart develops don't go too much in depth or else the project becomes a cardiac development page and that is not what the project is about. Go in depth to how the neural crest leads to abnormalities of the heart and what the neural crest does. Be brief about the heart development to give the reader a basic understanding about the heart then in depth discussion and development about the neural crest.\


Z5229281 (talk) 12:47, 14 August 2018 (AEST)

Z5229185 (talk) 12:48, 14 August 2018 (AEST)

Z5229177 (talk) 12:49, 14 August 2018 (AEST)

Z5229189 (talk) 12:51, 14 August 2018 (AEST) Z5229281 (talk) 12:05, 21 August 2018 (AEST)z5229281Z5229281 (talk) 12:05, 21 August 2018 (AEST)