Difference between revisions of "Talk:2018 Group Project 4"

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Revision as of 12:03, 18 October 2018

Projects 2018: 1 Adrenal Medulla | 3 Melanocytes | 4 Cardiac | 5 Dorsal Root Ganglion

Neural Crest and Cardiovascular Development

About this Discussion Page

The project discussion page is where your group members can post discussion on the project topic. This will be demonstrated in the practical tutorial in week 3.

Please follow these 3 simple rules:

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Group Assessment Criteria  
Mark Hill.jpg Science Student Projects
  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.
More Information on Assessment Criteria | Science Student Projects
Uploading Images 
Mark Hill.jpg First Read the help page Images

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Mark Hill.jpg First Read the help page Referencing

All references used in making your project page should be cited where they appear in the text or images.

In page edit mode where XXXX is the PubMed ID number use the following code.


For references not listed on PubMed, and text can be inserted between <ref></ref> tags.

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Mark Hill.jpg First Read the help page Copyright Tutorial

Currently all students originally assigned to each group are listed as equal authors/contributors to their project. If you have not contributed the content you had originally agreed to, nor participated in the group work process, then you should contact the course coordinator immediately and either discuss your contribution or request removal from the group author list. Remember that all student online contributions are recorded by date, time and the actual contributed content. A similar email reminder of this information was sent to all current students.

Please note the Universities Policy regarding Plagiarism

"Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)

Academic Misconduct carries penalties. If a student is found guilty of academic misconduct, the penalties include warnings, remedial educative action, being failed in an assignment or excluded from the University for two years.

Please also read Copyright Tutorial with regard to content that can be used in your project.

Project Assessment

Page History


Peer Reviews (Lab 10)

Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST)z5091101Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST) This project is coming along very well. Perhaps consider using a few more references as your list seems short. Also, I did like the use of a video but ideally it should be very short. I don't feel that many people will actually watch a 9 minute video. Perhaps a stop motion clip or a flow chart summary could replace this to make it easy to understand? Overall this is great work and seems to be a rather complex topic. Keep it up group 4.

    • Some editing required for the formatting (introduction, development of the cardiovascular system etc)

Good use of the video- excellent aid for later understanding of what you guys discuss!

Great research exhibited in the cardiac neural crest cells section; an image to go beside it would be great. References need to be formatted correctly so that they are’t displayed in the written information.

I like how early development has been broken down. However, how come they’re numbered here but not in later development? Clear and concise information presented in induction. In the neural crest to circumpharangeal ridge section, perhaps bold/underline the signalling factors so it’s clear. The formation of pharyngeal arches … section also has good information! An image for this section especially would be beneficial.

As a whole, the later development section is also good. Mostly clear and concise information. 
Some proof-reading would be good.

Some more information about the signaling molecules would be good- perhaps tie to back to what was mentioned in the circumpharangeal section?

The time course is also good! I like the selection of heart diseases and how they’ve been discussed. Perhaps some additional information about symptoms, epidemiology etc would be good but that’s just a suggestion.

Overall, great work guys! Keep it up and move along with the project consistently! Perhaps include some student-drawn images. I like the planning- if you keep at it you’ll have an awesome project! **

Z5229189 (talk) 12:28, 14 August 2018 (AEST)

Points to take note: - Need to describe in content how neural crest links to development of heart, rather than just talking about development of heart - Acronyms used to be listed at end of page - Correct Referencing


Introduction - Short but does nicely explain some of the important aspects of cardiogenesis, the sentences could be ordered more cleanly and could allude to more than just animal models and their connection to neural crest and DiGeorge Syndrome in humans. History of knowledge of cardiogenesis maybe?

Development of the Cardiovascular System - Could possibly be retitled? (There is no mention of peripheral vasculature that is a part of the cardiovascular system, you have simply referred to cardiogenesis: the formation of the heart). The developmental timecourse is good at explaining the important events in cardiogenesis and what weeks they correspond to. The embedded video is also good, but is quite long at 9 minutes.

Cardiac Neural Crest Cells - This is a good introduction to the specific neural crest population that contribute to cardiogenesis. However, there are a few issues with sentence formatting, grammar and referencing that could be cleaned up. The mention of neural crest's pluropotentiality is perfect in understanding how the different tissue types of the valvular structures arise, so that is definitely a strong point of the section.

Early Development - Very good, key chemical mediators are mentioned, could more be explained about what they are and how they relate to neural crest specifically? An explanation on the circumpharyngeal ridge would also be welcomed.

Later Development - Very nice partitioning diagram, Valvulogenesis section could be longer, it is very important. The same can be said for Atrial and Ventricular Separation.

Signalling Molecules - Good overview, more links to literature would be appreciated than just Meis-2, more could be added if necessary to discussion.

Developmental Time Course appears incomplete, this needs to be more specific.

Abnormalities - Seem quite well discussed, formatting needs some work as well as general cleaning with references, diagrams of a histology section or relevant macroscopic specimen would be welcome here to understand the pathology and how it relates to the embryology.

Research - Same as above, but there seems to be less information as well: there needs to be more content, directed referencing, images if necessary, and specific examples of mutant, knock-out or other genetically-engineered models to observe these embryological findings. There is good mention of the different animal models that are used to observe cardiogenesis (mouse, fish and chicken) but otherwise, it needs some work.

Glossary and References - Very few current references at the bottom, I assume this is because the bulk of them have not been formatted correctly, most appear to be from research literature and medical science journals, no current glossary might be an issue if there are many acronyms.

Z5160977 (talk) 12:06, 5 October 2018 (AEST) An introduction would be helpful to outline the project and bring in an understanding of development and neural crest contribution. The overview of the heart is very clear and detailed. Referencing needs a bit of work to ensure that the information is valid. There is a lot of in depth information which gives a detailed understanding of neural crest contribution to cardiac development. I would suggest reconsidering the structure, for example putting the developmental timeline earlier in the project.

Z5112688 (talk) Overall the page is logically structured, great use of images and other forms of media to get point across. Introduction is too brief, should give an overview of everything that is to be covered in the page. The use of a timeline is a really good choice and easy to understand. The cardiac neural crest cells section has a clear description and dot points make it easy to read and understand. The early parts of the page look very good. Have something that explains what the purpose of the heart embryology video. There are areas in the latter half of project that still need to be covered, however the information that is present is clear and easily understandable. I do believe that the information should link the neural crest development and cardiovascular development should be present. Right now the cardiac development has been covered in enough detail. The references should be properly formatted to make the project look better structured.

Z5229549 (talk) 17:52, 6 October 2018 (AEST) A quick glance of the entire page revealed a relative lack of visual aids, discounting the embed video and a diagram showing a step-by-step development of the heart in a fetus. Use of tables and point form sentences in each section do help break up chunks of words, allowing a more bearable read. It is good if the format, heading and structure-wise could be standardised throughout in a show of better professionalism.

The introduction is short but concise. It would be viable to include some context history of the study's beginning and development. More explanation in early development without an overuse of technical jargon is advisable. Noticed that Models and Research is not yet fully written. The inclusion of recent discoveries of cardiac diseases would make it more interesting.

Overall, the content seem to be more or less there, withholding certain sections where it is too brief. Format and structure needs a little work, and inclusion of more visual aids is viable.

Group 4 Review:

You need to make both your “Introduction” and Development of the Cardiovascular System” headings proper headings using the “==“ signs either side. This development section otherwise is very well laid out and comprehensible. I like your use of video and the way you have done a week-by-week breakdown.

The rest of your website is very well written and descriptive - I’m especially impressed by the detail in the development sections, and how you manage to convey the information clearly. It might be helpful to see a few images or figures showing the breakdown of this development to break up the text a little, but your subheadings are very helpful.

The CHARGE Syndrome section has a couple of issues with phrasing in the paragraph below the link, which you might wish to address.

The end of your website appears unfinished, for example in “human congenital heart diseases associated with Neural crest cells”; “research” and “animal models”, more detail and editing is required. You also have one referencing error which needs addressing. Overall, I am very impressed by your page.

This is a good project because it has a lot of information about cardiac development and looks well researched. There is an appropriate number of subheadings that looks like they will cover all the aspects. The introduction is short and complete which is good to give an overview. The development section at the beginning is well summarised in the table and has a good video explaining the process. The entire development section including early and later development is well articulated with a lot of information the reader is looking for and it easy to follow and interpret. The section is divided into understandable sub-sections. A good image is used to show the process with enough detail to understand. The abnormalities section has a lot of examples with enough information and relevant details.

The headings at the beginning are not consistent with the rest of the website. The ratio between text and images is very large, with too much text and not enough images. The referencing of the articles is not consistent throughout, with some texts being referenced at the bottom of each section. There needs to be more information on animal models and current research in the field. The glossary also doesn’t include any words yet, with the links not going anywhere. There is an alright number of references, but there could be more. And one or two references at the top aren’t referenced correctly.

For improvements, I think that more images could be uploaded, including some student drawn ones. Also, maybe include a list of what all the abbreviations stand for. The reference list needs to be revised as well.

Overall, this project shows a lot of hard work with all the information presented, as well as a deep understanding of the topic, that is extremely useful for a science student trying to learn about cardiac development.

Z5229597 (talk) 22:31, 7 October 2018 (AEST)

In general, this project includes a significant amount of appropriate and well written information, but I believe that this information could be delivered more clearly with some formatting and organizational changes.

For the introduction, I thought that the inclusion of the sentence about Wilhelm His was somewhat out of place. If you want to discuss the history of neural crest and cardiac neural crest, I believe that it would be more impactful and flow better in its own section with more information included, for example, when and how cardiac neural crest cells specifically were first discovered and documented in research. I thought your timeline and video in this section were both appropriate and smart choices for conveying information, but the headings in these sections were inconsistent with the rest of the project. It was the only section where you separated information by unbolded italics. Also, it might be helpful for readers to have a little description under the video to let them know who made it, what the video will be demonstrating, and why its relevant to the project, since currently the only information we get about the video is the title "Heart embryology video". Overall though, I really like the concept of how you introduced your topic.

For the Cardiac Neural Crest cells section, there are a few minor errors that I will point out, since this section is very informative and well organized for the most part and I think the information is strong. As for minor formatting errors, you need to stay consistent with capitalization, since you state "Cardiac neural crest cells" in one part of the paragraph and "Cardiac neural Cells" before you list what they can develop into. Furthermore, in that list, you include "provide signals required for..." which doesn't really fit the description of that list, which includes mostly structures.

I really like how you separated Early Development and Later Development. It made understanding the developmental process much more straightforward and clear. Even in each of these separate sections, you further specified each specific event that occurs in that timeframe, which was a great organizational choice. My one suggestion for the Early Development section is that you have a list dedicated to signaling factors, but then later on in the page you include a "Signaling Molecules" section. I think it would work well to have a consistent method of organizing how you define and describe each factor/molecule if you aren't going to do it specifically within the paragraph itself. Specifically within the Later Development section, your information is well formatted, but there still are some links present on the page directly to a website rather than in the correct citation format in the reference section. Furthermore, in the "Formation of the Cardiac Ganglia" section, there is one giant quote that forms almost all of the information in that section, which should be broken up.

In the Human Congenital Heart Disease section, there seems to be a lot of editing that still needs to be done and links that need to be removed. Also, I feel like the CHARGE Syndrome section has a much different informational makeup and style than the other disease sections that are discussed. For instance, it includes statistics while other sections don't, and the link between NCC and this syndrome is not made as clear as in the other sections.

A significant amount of information, subheadings, and pictures still needs to be added to Animal Models and Research section.

Z5229431 (talk) 17:43, 8 October 2018 (AEDT) The amount of information in the project page is amazing and well developed. The structure of the page is well defined, though there is some transitional complications between some sections. It would also be good to supplement the content with more illustrations to sustain the attention of the readers and for them to better digest the content written.

The introduction is concise and brief, describing the overview of the cardiovascular system and touching on the studies done on animal models as well as cardiac developmental abnormalities. However, I feel that the entire section of "Neural Crest and Cardiac Development" can be merged together under a common subheading of "Embryonic Developmental origins" with the later parts of "Early Development" and "Later Development" as it feels like they are essentially talking about the same topic. Instead, the introduction can include the content under the "Cardiac Neural Crest Cells" section and further supplemented with a brief history about the discovery of cardiac neural crest cells, if any. From there, the transition to the later parts of the page would be much more pleasant for readers to understand the topic better.

Subsequent parts on "Early Development" and "Later Development" are well furnished with detailed information outlying the pathways and signalling factors involved in development. This can be further supplemented with illustrations on the key points under each subheadings if possible, or a simple hand drawn diagram would suffice too. This would be beneficial for readers to visualise the process of development into cardiac neural crest cells.

The key signalling molecules are listed clearly with description of each of their involvement in cardiac neural crest cells. I love how the table in the "Development Time Course" section gives an overview of the development process of the cardiac system.

There appears to be incomplete editing under "Models and Research", as well as the "Human Congenital Heart Diseases associated with Neural Crest Cells". However, the content seems to be available, just that some polishing of the information and reference editing are necessary. More details should be furnished under the "Research" section as it seems to be inadequate information in that area.

Some referencing errors, in terms of formatting and missing PMID, are detected under the "References" section, but should be easily corrected once the final polishing and edits are made before the project is finalised. As long as the missing information are supplemented accordingly, the final content in the project should be able to effectively provide insights in the development of the cardiac system.


The introduction is of to a great start as it includes information on both the heart but also the neural crest derivative . I absolutely love the way you outlined the developmental time course and the video is a great feature , however there seems to be two different sections for the developmental time course not sure if this was on purpose .

Overall most sections provide a great amount of information the detail is good enough for students to understand and not too overwhelming for the readers.There are a few editing errors throughout such as formatting that I am sure will be corrected at the end.

There is some confusions with the title of things , it would be helpful to explain the title names before explaining more information above it as well.lastly the animal models and research section seem to be unfinished . but overall great job so far!

Neural Crest and Cardiac Development


History of cardiac neural crest cells



Structure of the Heart

The heart is a muscular organ which plays a critical role in the circulatory system by mechinically pumping blood to various organs around the body for the exchange of nutrients and gases. It is located..... The heart has four different chambers which are compartmentalized by semilunar and atrioventricular valves into the left and right atria and ventricles Z5229185 (talk) 11:43, 4 September 2018 (AEST)

"During early development, neural folds are formed along the anteroposterior-axis in the ectoderm. Upon fusion, the folds give rise to the neural tube. During the process of neural tube formation, cells detach at the border of the neural and epidermal ectoderm, i.e. at the dorsal aspect of the forming neural tube. These cells are referred to as neural crest cells. Neural crest cells migrate along defined pathways throughout the body. Upon arrival at their destination, they differentiate into various cell types, among which melanocytes, peripheral neurons and their supporting cells, and skeletal elements. The neural crest cells are formed along the entire cranio-caudal axis of the body and can be divided into two major populations the cranial and truncal neural crest cells. The cranial neural crest extends from the diencephalon up to somite pair 5, and the truncal neural crest from somite pair 6 to the caudal end of the neural tube. The truncal neural crest is involved in sympathetic innervation of the heart, whereas the cranial neural crest is associated with parasympathetic innervation of the heart."

van den Hoff MJ & Moorman AF. (2000). Cardiac neural crest: the holy grail of cardiac abnormalities?. Cardiovasc. Res. , 47, 212-6. PMID: 10946058

Z5229185 (talk) 11:51, 21 August 2018 (AEST) Sounds good for a brief introduction of the neural crest roles to the heart development

"The subpopulation of neural crest cells responsible for aorticopulmonary septation has been termed the cardiac neural crest. CNCCs are required for the normal development of the thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, cardiac conduction system, semilunar valves, parasympathetic innervation of the heart, and outflow septum, as well as proper remodeling of the pharyngeal arch arteries and alignment of the outflow with the ventricles. "

Keyte AL, Alonzo-Johnsen M & Hutson MR. (2014). Evolutionary and developmental origins of the cardiac neural crest: building a divided outflow tract. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today , 102, 309-23. PMID: 25227322 DOI.

Z5229185 (talk) 07:40, 23 August 2018 (AEST)

This page will give a brief understanding of the cardiac anatomy and how the organ develops. To give the reader a basis of how the neural crest forms the heart n and all of its valves and what happens when mechanisms (abnormal migration patterns) of the neural crest cause malfunctions and generate deformities in the growing embryo.

Embryonic origins/embyronic contributions

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/bdrc.21081 This article is great for the origins/process of the neural create, basic information in terms readable by most and will be a basis fro understanding the neural crest.

The neural crest is the name given to the strip of cells at the junction between neural and epidermal ectoderm in neurula‐stage vertebrate embryos, which is later brought to the dorsal neural tube as the neural folds elevate. The neural crest is a heterogeneous and multipotent progenitor cell population whose cells undergo EMT then extensively and accurately migrate throughout the embryo. Neural crest cells contribute to nearly every organ system in the body, with derivatives of neuronal, glial, neuroendocrine, pigment, and also mesodermal lineages. This breadth of developmental capacity has led to the neural crest being termed the fourth germ layer.


numerous authors collaborated on the information above.

Early development

"Cardiac neural crest cells originate from the neural tube extending from the axial level of the mid otic placode to the third somite in chick. The cells then migrate from the neural tube into the caudal pharyngeal arches (3, 4 and 6). Some neural crest cells remain in the pharynx to support aortic arch artery development, while a subpopulation continues on to migrate into the outflow tract of the heart"

Keyte A & Hutson MR. (2012). The neural crest in cardiac congenital anomalies. Differentiation , 84, 25-40. PMID: 22595346 DOI.

Z5229185 (talk) 09:22, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

Progressive development of the Embryonic Heart.jpeg Z5229185 (talk) 11:13, 24 August 2018 (AEST)


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375817/ Z5229177 (talk) 09:07, 28 August 2018 (AEST)

Later development

Developmental time course/carnegie stages/overview

Cell signalling involved/molecular mechanisms/factors/genes

https://discovery.lifemapsc.com/library/images/neural-crest-development photo I want to use for the project

Migrating Neural Crest cells.png


Article talking about hormones regulating the migration of neural crest cells to different destinations of the body.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3389200/ Article explains congenital defects of the heart from the neural crest and how the defects happen at the molecular level

"Cardiac neural crest ablation experiments demonstrated that upon removal of the pre-migratory cardiac neural crest cardiovascular abnormalities are induced. The pre-migratory neural crest is ablated by removal of the dorsal aspects of the neural folds using vibrating needles, tungsten needles, or laser. Entire removal of the cardiac neural crest showed in almost all cases a persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA). However, the chicken neural crest ablation phenotype also includes abnormal patterning of the great arteries that are derived from the aortic arches, absence or hypoplastic thymus, thyroid and parathyroids. As expected, removal of only the cardiac neural crest does not effect the innervation of the heart and does not lead to craniofacial abnormalities. Interestingly, partial ablation of the cardiac neural crest results in a milder cardiac phenotype, like double outlet right ventricle, dextraposed aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, and/or ventricle septum defect, whereas the other phenotypic alterations are hardly different from complete cardiac neural crest ablation [17,26–29]. Based on these ablation studies it was concluded that PTA only occurred when the numbers of neural crest cells were reduced below a critical level that is no longer compatible with proper formation of the aortico-pulmonary septum [5,30]. Thus, the ablation experiments are in agreement with the conclusion of Conway and coworkers [1] suggesting that the quantity rather than the quality of neural crest cells is important in OFT septation."

van den Hoff MJ & Moorman AF. (2000). Cardiac neural crest: the holy grail of cardiac abnormalities?. Cardiovasc. Res. , 47, 212-6. PMID: 10946058

Z5229185 (talk) 11:58, 21 August 2018 (AEST)

Brief overview of Heart Development

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC408374/ Explains heart development, great for basic understanding and good for continuing research about the heart.

Current research/main animal models/future questions


PMID: 10359559 Waldo K, Zdanowicz M, Burch J, Kumiski DH, Stadt HA, Godt RE, Creazzo TL & Kirby ML. (1999). A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development. J. Clin. Invest. , 103, 1499-507. PMID: 10359559 DOI.

<pubmed limit=5>Neural Crest Embryology</pubmed>

A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development

PMID: 10359559 Waldo K, Zdanowicz M, Burch J, Kumiski DH, Stadt HA, Godt RE, Creazzo TL & Kirby ML. (1999). A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development. J. Clin. Invest. , 103, 1499-507. PMID: 10359559 DOI.

Google doc

Discussed between all group members on google docs.

Neural crest and cardiovascular development/cardiac neural crest OUTFLOW TRACT VALVE

Group project 2017 on heart development: https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/2017_Group_Project_3

The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Content is correctly cited and referenced. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

What should be on the page: Table of contents Introduction History Embryonic origins/embryonic contributions Carnegie stages Early development Later development Structure of the cardiovascular network Developmental time course Developmental/adult function Tissue/organ structure / histology Cell signalling involved/Molecular mechanisms/factors/genes Anatomy of the cardiov Functions of the cardiov Abnormalities associated with the development of the cardiov Models and Research (past/current/future) Disorders: DiGeorge syndrome Main animal model system Current research (labs) Future questions Glossary (for all the acronyms) Reference list

SO: introduction/history/structure of the cardiovascular network/histology/anatomy/physiology Embryonic origins/embyronic contributions Early development Later development Developmental time course/carnegie stages/overview Cell signalling involved/molecular mechanisms/factors/genes Disorders/abnormalities: Current research/main animal models/future questions

how to write a good project: content its brevity and balance between text and images: dont make it pages & pages on text ,it is a webpage!! balance the content. Keep your editing tight. Don’t make your whole project bulletpoints. Like to see some drawings done by ourselves

Good articles on neural crest & cardiovascular development:


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25662261 (REVIEW article)

https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Lecture_-_Neural_Crest_Development → Neural crest lecture

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301468112000667?via%3Dihub (Review article by AnnaKeyte, Mary Redmond) -> The neural crest in cardiac congenital anomalies/ a little on history

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10065/ Article gives a good synopsis of nerual crest cardiac development.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC408374/ Article has a lot of information about heart development from the nerual crest, great article to start out with for beginning infromation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3389200/ Congential defects of the heart during development and abnormalities, article with substantial information about what happens to the heart when the nerual crest is defected.

https://www.heartrhythmjournal.com/article/S1547-5271(06)02148-5/fulltext Great review article that has a lot of references to other scholarly papers we can use for a better understanding and more in depth information about cardiac valves.

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.res.0000259041.37059.8c Essential protein needed for cardiac development.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227568 This article gives a great description of the neural crest and the history of the neural crest and good information that is basic and informative. Will allow us to get the introduction of our webpage started and will be a branching point to move forward.

1: Introduction/history/structure of the cardiovascular network/histology/anatomy/physiology → Also explain what neural crest cells are?

History: (In a chick study of parasympathetic innervation of the heart, Margaret Kirby and colleagues ablated neural crest and serendi pitously discovered that the embryos lacked aorticopulmonary septation (Kirby et al., 1983). The subregion of cranial neural crest ablated by Dr. Kirby has been called the “cardiac neural crest”, not because the cells of this region migrate solely to the heart, but for the importance of crest-derived ectomesenchyme in cardiovascular development.) -> Article by Anna Keyte

2: Embryonic origins/embryonic contributions

Neural crest at the level of the body have two general migration pathways, defined by the position of the somite: medial pathway: between the neural tube and the somite Lateral pathway: between the somite and the body wall (cardiac NCC)

Outflow tract Valves

Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract. They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that will later form the ears) to the third somites (clusters of mesoderm that will become skeletal muscle, vertebrae and dermis). The cardiac neural crest cells have a number of functions including creation of the muscle and connective tissue walls of large arteries, parts of the cardiac septum, parts of the thyroid, parathyroid and thymus glands. They differentiate into melanocytes and neurons and the cartilage and connective tissue of the pharyngeal arches. They may also contribute to the creation of the carotid body, the organ which monitors oxygen in the lood and regulates breathing.


3: Early development

In higher vertebrates: Cells in the cranial neural crest migrate in clusters or “streams” and later form cranial nerve ganglia at even-numbered rhombomeres proximally. Specifically, the cranial crest migrates in three streams referred to as first or cranial, second or middle and third or caudal. The caudal stream comprises most of the cardiac crest. The majority of the crest emanate from the even numbered rhombomeres.

4: Later development

5: Developmental time course/carnegie stages/overview

6: Cell signalling involved/molecular mechanisms/factors/genes

Neural Crest Cells (NCCs) is essential in earlier stages of arterial valve development such as positioning the cushions and patterning valve leaflets (patterning)

7: Disorders/abnormalities

Abnormalities of arterial valves (Bicuspid aortic valve BAV) DiGeorge syndrome

-Failure of outflow septation is a hallmark of cardiac neural crest ablation and is called persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) (6–8). The common outflow vessel usually arises from the right ventricle and is always accompanied by abnormal patterning of the great arteries (9, 10).The most severe alteration in ventricular function is decreased ejection fraction. In addition to changes in ventricular function, abnormal morphology of the heart loop in early neural crest–ablated embryos has been reported (7, 13–16). All of these data indicate that cardiac neural crest ablation affects early heart development.

8: Current research/main animal models/future questions

Focus on overview of how the heart develops don't go too much in depth or else the project becomes a cardiac development page and that is not what the project is about. Go in depth to how the neural crest leads to abnormalities of the heart and what the neural crest does. Be brief about the heart development to give the reader a basic understanding about the heart then in depth discussion and development about the neural crest.\

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