Talk:2012 Group Project 6

From Embryology

From the Course Coordinator

2012 Projects: Vision | Somatosensory | Taste | Olfaction | Abnormal Vision | Hearing

--Mark Hill 09:58, 18 September 2012 (EST) This is a recent review on vision. JCB content allows reuse.

--Mark Hill 08:17, 16 August 2012 (EST) This small section at the top of your discussion page allows me to easily distribute information to all students looking at the group discussion page.

Please do not delete, edit or move the template {{Template:2012GroupDiscussion}} from the top of this page.

1. Search:

2. History

  • Embryology History Explore the rich history of sensory research. In particular look through the available images that may complement the text. Any of this material can be used, you should cite the original paper or textbook. Gray | 1921 Bailey and Miller

This is a recent review on hearing. JCB content allows reuse.

Student evaluations

Please use this space to post your Group 6 student evaluation

Group 6 - Hearing Group Assessment Criteria:

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group was allocated are clearly described. The introduction clearly outlines the key points of the project and the content is well described in the text.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. The choice of content and headings shows a good depth of research and understanding of the topic area. The ‘Summary of the inner ear’ table was a good idea and ties in all the information nicely.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced. There are large paragraphs of texts that have no references. The images provided display the copyright notices and explanations.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student’s own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. The introduction is well written and catches the readers interest and attention. Most of the normal development section is easy to understand, however the abnormalities section is difficult to understand due to the scientific jargon. Some hand-drawn images and tables would be beneficial in order to reduce the large paragraphs of text.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. The amount of information provided is evidence of the significant research that went into this project, and the sections such as ‘Technologies to overcome the problems’ shows research that goes ‘beyond the formal teaching activities’.
  6. Relates the topics and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. The topics and content are well related to the learning aims of embryology
  7. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning. All the content is relevant to the key areas of the development of the eye and demonstrates an extensive amount of research into the topic.

Additional points:

  • The amount of text is overwhelming. You should make better use of tables, figures and diagrams to breakup/replace the text.
  • Adult anatomy and histology: no reference to histology. Would be beneficial to have a brief explanation of the functions of each structure.
  • Overall impression: Very well researched topic and I'm sure the use of tables, pictures and diagrams will make it more appealing to read!


Normal and Abnormal

Discussion Topics


Not what hearing is but what we are going to talk about

Image for hearing <pubmed>20624897</pubmed>


Research Contribution

Bartolomeo Eustachi 1514–1574

Proposed that the tympanic membrane was connected to the nasopharynx was in the book De Auditus Organis in 1563. This was focusing on the the middle ear. His knowledge had allowed him to rediscover the tube found many years before and describe it correctly. This tube, the eustachian tube was named after him, by Antonio Maria Valsava and was shown in his book De aure humana tractatus. [1] De aure humana tractatus.

Antonio Maria Valsava 1666-1723

The pioneer in the anatomy of the ear, published his first book De aure humana tractatus in 1704 this was the first to show and clearly describe the ear. He had been able to describe the anatomy and physiology of the ear by dissecting over thousands of corpses. He was able to separate the ear into its divisional compartments of inner, middle and outer ear.

Adult Anatomy and Histology

<pubmed> 15495168 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 16015653 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 9433684 </pubmed>


<pubmed> 6650859 </pubmed>

Outer Ear

Historic paper

<pubmed> 17104502 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 22296782 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 12874121 </pubmed>

Middle Ear

<pubmed> 18803631 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 21196256 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 14973294 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 11237469 </pubmed>

<pubmed> 16600992 </pubmed>

Inner Ear

(can include balance organs as well) cochlea and semi circular canals and the physiological function - how hearing works

Some papers to start with:





Abnormal Hearing

Just putting my articles in here so I can refer to them at a later date - will change the referencing when I have structured my points better


Genetic defects:

1. GJB2 Gene (accounting for 50% of non syndromic hearing loss)


1. Drugs: Hearing, Speech, Language, and Vestibular Disorders in the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Literature Review. Michael W. Church and James A. Kaltenbach, Alcoholism: Clinical and experimental review. Vol. 21, No. 3, May 1997 PMID: 9161611

2. Infections: Congenital Rubella Deafness: A preventable disease. C. S Peckham, J. M Martin, W. C Marshall, J. A Dudgeon, The Lancet, February 3, 1979 PMID: 84910

|Deafness and Hereditary Hearing Loss Overview

Etiological diagnosis in the hearing impaired newborn: Proposal of a flow chart. De Leenheer, E.M.R. ; Janssens, S. ; Padalko, E. ; Loose, D. ; Leroy, B.P. ; Dhooge, I.J. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 2011, Vol.75(1), pp.27-32

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a cause of permanent bilateral hearing loss: A quantitative assessment. Journal of clinical virology [1386-6532] Grosse, Scott yr:2008 vol:41 iss:2 pg:57 -62

Congenital Infections. JF Bale. Neurol Clin. 2002 Nov;20(4):1039-60, vii. PMID: 12616680

Related to both middle and inner ear (so we can link the technologies to this)

Technologies to detect

Any technologies (like pre-testing) that identify any problems with hearing development

Technologies to overcome the problems

(hearing aids, cochlear transplants, etc)

Current Research



Allocated subheadings

J: adult anatomy, outer and middle ear development

M: Inner ear

P: History and Technologies

B: Abnormal Hearing

Our Thoughts - put new comment at the top please

Hey! To everyone who is working on the history, please add this to the table! I'm about to change it now so that there is simply one table with significant dates and explanations. And it would be good if we can quickly meet up after one of the lectures tomorrow :) anyone who can't make it, please let the others know. M --Z3333865 14:31, 17 September 2012 (EST)

Hi P, How are you going with your research? We really need to have it complete by this weeks lab so that we can spend the next couple of weeks adjusting the information. Thanks, B --Z3292017 12:08, 17 September 2012 (EST)

Hey M,

Yeah summary sounds like a good idea and maybe wiht some bolded words etc? Ive created 2 tables where I will briefly summarise the remaining diseases such as structural and genetic syndromes as my section will be too long and more boring than what it already is if I keep going. Yes, I think by our next lab would be a good idea. B. --Z3292017 19:22, 15 September 2012 (EST)

Hey B and others,

My section is almost finished. I mainly have to focus on the images. I was also thinking of putting a summary box in my section, because there is just so much text! About the due date.. I think it will be good for us all to have most of the research and text done by lab 8 (19/09/12). We can then focus on the layout and images and tables, etc. What do you think? M. --Z3333865 17:57, 15 September 2012 (EST)

Hey guys, I have been updating all of my abnormalities and along with the references, it will all be completed by Sunday night, exempt all the photos as that will be my final research. Thought I would update you all so we can get a finish timeframe in mind! B. --Z3292017 15:08, 15 September 2012 (EST)

Hi P, In regards the technologies, you should take a look at my section, because the technologies should really be perhaps how abornal hearing can be detected in the womb (such as amniocentesis for Rubella) and also the different insstruments used for hearing and why they do and don't work on certain patients. and perhaps with the history go a bit more indept/ greater explanation. such as if the first hearing aid was developed, find a picture and say what they originiall used to create noise for the patient etc. Use bulletpoints if you don't want it to seem too full on Do you guys agree? B. --Z3292017 15:02, 15 September 2012 (EST)

Hey P. The history section should contain major discoveries and the person(s) of interest. I started writing things down in a table. If anyone find info they should put that in and the original document/article should be referenced if possible (not a review). Hope this helps cause we really have to put all our info together soon. M. --Z3333865 12:40, 14 September 2012 (EST)

Hey guys, for the history, im not 100% what I supposed to write about, i know its late and i'm an idiot for asking now, but am i supposed to write like the old research papers like what they used to think? like how they thought the ear formed like from the 1800's or whatever? and how technologies also helped proved it wrong or proved that they are right? P. --Z3333431 13:13, 12 September 2012 (EST)

DW, I had a look at the editing basics and the references are working now! :) M. --Z3333865 10:20, 3 September 2012 (EST)

Hey ppl!

I can't seem to link my references. '9' and '10' in my inner ear section step 2 should be the same number, but I can't seem to get it to work... can anyone help?

Thanks, M. --Z3333865 09:46, 3 September 2012 (EST)

To all, I find it very difficult to find images which have the correct copyright statement and are not already used on this embryology website. So if anyone finds an image which we are allowed to use, please post it up and let the others know :)

And to B. That sounds good :) Speak to you tomorrow! M. --Z3333865 13:22, 27 August 2012 (EST)


In regards to my abnormalities (we can all discuss further this week), I will be focussing mainly on the gene GJB2 (which accounts for 50% of non syndromic hearing) and then for acquired hearing (organisms), I will focus mainly on what is known as "TORCH" organisms (i.e., toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalic virus, and herpes) and go into details in them and then as M said before, just list the other in a table.

Thanks, B. --Z3292017 17:45, 26 August 2012 (EST)


In regards to the hearing abnormalities, yes I would do the most common ones. It will be way too much otherwise! Just name the other abnormalities for now - depending on how long your section is we will include them or leave out. At the end of your section we can also put a table down with a summary of the common ones you explained in detail before :)

M. --Z3333865 13:07, 26 August 2012 (EST)

Hey guys,

Sorry I haven't been communicating via the discussion page, I've been sick in bed with a virus for the past week and half! Anyway, as I am focussing on the hearing abnormalities, I just wanted to clarify some things with you all. Firstly, there are A LOT of genetic disorder which contribute to hearing loss so I was thinking I would group them and would write in depth into the most common ones and then a brief description or just name the others. I'm currently compiling some research papers, so I will most likely get to writing some points on this page tomorrow.

Let me know if you have any suggestiosn etc and if I find any other articles in my research I will send them through! --Z3292017 18:44, 25 August 2012 (EST)

Hey all!

For this week, please find some good papers relating to your section - both primary and secondary - and start reading them. It will take some time to get all the info together and to also make it look good with pictures etc. So the sooner we start the easier it will be in the long-run!!

--Z3333865 21:00, 18 August 2012 (EST)

Hey everyone!

I guess if we end up doing the sensory topic and focus on the ear we can come up with some headings that we might want to use in our project.

This is the link to our lecture on the ear

I guess one way of doing this would be to divide it into inner, middle and outer ear and talk about the development of each. I guess we could include the progressive development over the weeks including cellular, molecular and morphological changes. We can also describe the developed ear, any genetic mutations or incorrect signal pathway that cause any defects. Then one part of it can be current research and any past research or noble prizes.


--Z3333794 11:31, 9 August 2012 (EST)

Hey all!

So we have to decide between normal development or abnormal development. Normal development can have headings as mentioned above, apart from the genetic mutations and defects. When focussing on abnormal development of the ear we can look at those mutations and defects. We can also look at technology such as hearing aids and the cochlear implant.

Please put down your preference! I really dont care.. but I think that if we have to discuss development it will be easiest to look at normal development.

--Z3333865 13:06, 14 August 2012 (EST)

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named /PMC1142106