Difference between revisions of "Talk:2012 Group Project 3"

From Embryology
Line 284: Line 284:
== Discussion of Contributions via Email ==
== Discussion of Contributions via Email ==
I agree with that perhaps we have not included as much actual 'embryological' information as we should. Since neurons/the brain are important in how we perceive taste, i was thinking i would talk about the development of neurons. Let me know what you think, am i going off track?
Hey guys,
Hey guys,
I know its getting late but I'm quite worried that we missed the central theme of 'embryonic development' and focused too much on adult structure and function of taste...
I know its getting late but I'm quite worried that we missed the central theme of 'embryonic development' and focused too much on adult structure and function of taste...

Revision as of 15:47, 2 October 2012

From the Course Coordinator

2012 Projects: Vision | Somatosensory | Taste | Olfaction | Abnormal Vision | Hearing

--Mark Hill 09:58, 18 September 2012 (EST) This is a recent review on vision. http://jcb.rupress.org/content/190/6/953.full JCB content allows reuse.


--Mark Hill 08:17, 16 August 2012 (EST) This small section at the top of your discussion page allows me to easily distribute information to all students looking at the group discussion page.

Please do not delete, edit or move the template {{Template:2012GroupDiscussion}} from the top of this page.

1. Search:

2. History

  • Embryology History Explore the rich history of sensory research. In particular look through the available images that may complement the text. Any of this material can be used, you should cite the original paper or textbook. Gray | 1921 Bailey and Miller

--Mark Hill 09:54, 18 September 2012 (EST) This is a recent review on taste. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2922655 http://jcb.rupress.org/content/190/3/285 JCB content allows reuse.

Group evaluation

The introduction section is very informative and I like the picture included discussing the 5 basic tastes which is interesting to read. I really enjoy your descriptions of bitter and sweet and find it interesting to read. I like the research you included in this section but I believe this needs to be referenced. Currently in the introduction you have only 1 references, so I would suggest that you find more to further validate your information (note that there are no references in the first paragraph). I like in your picture that you included a description. The cell biology section I would probably put in its own section with = = to break up the contend displayed. In this section it is clear that this has been researched however there have been no references listed at all here.

The taste map section has clearly been well researched yet poorly referenced. It would be interesting to look at if possible a progression of the understanding of the taste map. In the picture of the tongue, I would suggest that it has a better description on the enlarged image. However, some of this text is rather hard to read, such as the descriptions of the first and second order neurons. As you have included terms in there which would be foreign to most people, I would try to include either a picture to show exactly where these parts are such as the NTS which can give the reader a better understanding of what you’re saying. Note that you say things like “copious scientific conjecture surrounds…” however there is no references here! This section is well researched which is great, but I would really consider putting it into slightly easier terms to better comprehension.

In the cortical areas section, a similar approach applies: when describing locations of things such as the I/fO, you should really include a clear diagram as to where all of these are. I can see you included the section of the brain however don’t see it as too informative so a better description there would be appropriate. I would also note that you are repeating your references again, and it would be advisable that you find alternative information to include as well.

The timeline section is very informative and really stands out. I’m assuming you will be including the photos later this week. This is well written and gives a truly informative description of the embryological changes that occur. It will look much better and be better to understand once the photos have been included. Note that you have used the same references pretty well the whole time in this section. Although that paper may have a lot of information about what you are needing to talk about, I would also encourage you to research more papers in order to compliment the information you have listed.

The history of discoveries section is well set out and clear and concise. In some areas I would suggest a brief descripton of what you have written such as “PKD2L”, and also make sure you include the appropriate references as all I can see currently it numbers.

In the adult tongue and taste bud section, is this also what the tongue looks like from week 15? If not what changes occurs for it to form into what you have described as the adult tongue and what enhances these changes? This section is informative however it is really lacking references. The taste bud picture you have is quite good, but is that also what the taste bud looks like at 15 weeks?

The abnormalities section is really interesting and is rather enjoyable to read. Are they the only abnormalities that can happen to the tongue? How about environmental? Does alcohol, smoking or drugs affects its development of either the tongue or the taste buds? Additonally, your current research is very thorough and interesting. In regards to the photos you have there, I would make sure that they are set out appropriately, with the information that this is a student project.

Finally, the glossary needs to be highlighted to make it stand out and more words need to be included. Note that in your references, reference 5 can not be accessible, so make sure you fix that up. Overall, it was interesting to read and I enjoyed the display of photos that were also included!

The overall set up of the page I think is very good. In the introduction there is a balance between pictures and text which makes it a bit easier to read. Also its easy to follow, the text itself isn’t confusing and is understandable.

There is a good overview of the different types of receptors and their function, also there is a brief section on the adult tongue which is good, however there needs to be more focus on the embryological development rather than just a simple table on that. There also needs to be some images added to that component as well to make it more understandable.

The sections on abnormalities and current research need to be organised a bit better because they are a little hard to follow, especially with the placing of the images. The glossary is simple and understandable, however there needs to be more work done on the reference list.

The layout and balance between text and figures, tables, and diagrams is extremely well accomplished. All the information of the page is really intriguing and easy to follow on the majority. I would suggest placing the history of discoveries immediately after the introduction so that readers may appreciate all the research that would have had to take place in order to put all the information on this page. As well, this would help in having a separation between the two tables used.

When it comes to images, make sure that everything in the image is relevant to the accompanying text and important to the reader. One image where you might fall short of this criteria, is the very first image on the page about the five basic tastes, the names of the protein structures is more distracting and confusing than enlightening and overall would not aid in informing the reader.

I believe the introduction is very important in assisting the reader in gaining an overall understanding of the page and it’s aims. Hence I believe it is important to include a more succinct introduction with such aims. In this case, the introduction to the gustatory system begins defining structures and functions which are better off used elsewhere. Instead try giving an overview of the system and maybe give the reader a reason to read on.

The images used in the abnormality section are scattered and make it hard for the reader to determine which image corresponds to which idea, I would suggest ensuring that each image is detrimental to aiding the reader’s thoughts. This was an extremely interesting section.

Current research is clear, concise and easy to follow with a pleasant arrangement of ideas, text, and images. It was interesting to read. Additionally, the references and glossary are extensive and well done. I would suggest having a link to the glossary from within the text.

Well done on your project so far, and good luck with the rest.

The introduction seemed to go into a lot of detail. for example, the information on Type II receptors should be placed in the same section as neural pathways, not the introduction. Can you also include in your introduction, an overview of what you are going to talk about in your project? That would give your project more structure.

With the neural pathway section, can you draw or find a diagram for that section? I find it hard to understand without one. The taste map section goes into a lot of detail which I think is unnecessary because this is a development project.

Current research section is very interesting. I don't think you need to add any more content on that section - that section to me looks complete, besides a few formatting and referencing issues with the images.

Overall, I felt there wasn't enough written on the development of taste, either the receptors (taste buds) or the neural pathways. Your project seem to focus on the anatomy and physiology or function of the taste system. This is alright to keep but the focus should be on development. You do have a Time-line of taste development that summarizes the development of the Gustatory system which is great to see. I think use that as a starting point and expand on each stage in text form, below the table. In week 12 development in this time-line, you mention 'epithelial types I and II', what are they? Are they similar to skin cells?

Overall, the balance between images and text is great. The colourful images work wonders in breaking up the text. Having said that, Many of your images did not have the correct PMID referencing. These images include:

  • images of taste being revoked by visualizing ATP release
  • CVP of WT and DKO mouse with H & E and SEM
  • histology - can you give a more relevant title for this image? We know it's histology; we can see that. What is this image about?
  • Abnormal of Tongue - it should say abnormality of tongue

The history section is excellent because it spans over such a long time - 350BC to 2010. The layout of a coloured table for history is beautiful, clear and concise.

--Z3332863 16:35, 23 September 2012 (EST)

- The introduction of taste is very descriptive and encapsulates the anatomy, physiology and cell biology. Although it is very detailed it doesn’t indicate that the project is about development.

- There is a lot of detail about the taste neural pathway and cortical areas which I’m not sure is relevant to olfactory development unless you mention how they develop as well.

- Figure 2 and 3 do not have any copyright information associated so remember to add those.

- The development section is very nicely put together and hopefully you will add images further down the line. I’ve noticed that in week 8 of development you have the same ref after each line…I’m sure you can just put it at the end of the paragraph as it is same for each line. Same goes for week 14 and 15. Also since you have 2 references for the entire section --- you might want to look at other articles as well.

- Some things that I missed in the section were patterning molecules and genes. Also any signalling mechanisms that control differentiation.

- The history section is exceptionally done with the use of tables, description and references.

- I thoroughly enjoyed your abnormality section. The images are nicely done as well. Although you have described many genes and molecules which are not specified in the normal development portion so the reader don’t understand their roles. Maybe address this in your normal development section.

- The current development section is also very nicely put together but again things like Shh and WNT should be in development section.

Overall very nicely put together and great balance of pictures and text. Although this is a development topic so the major emphasis should be on development of the organ --- Normal development is good but there is too much content in that section that can be left out.

--Z3333794 10:52, 23 September 2012 (EST)

Abundant information, including a nice coloured in table, which is a cool idea. Unfinished though, the images to go with it would make it great. The page seems to be segmented into sections with a large amount of text, and sections with many pictures. Try for a more even distribution, if possible. Pictures seem to be relevant, with good explanations, referencing and certificates. Helpful and interesting abnormalities and current research sections

Your introduction is quite good and gives us a brief overview of the different tastes. I also like it that you touch on the fact that it is important we recognise (via taste) food which would be dangerous to our health. In my opinion, after you mention the research (ending the sentence with …’may exist.’) you should tell the reader what you will be discussing on your page. The few lines on fatty acids does not seem to fit in, and should be part of your history section and possibly current/future research. Some specific information seems to have been researched, such as what umami codes for; however, references have not been provided. Also make sure that the image has the correct information – title, description, references, copyright, student template.

It would be more logical to put the history section next. Following this by the timeline and then go back to the cell biology, receptors and taste map etc.

The history section is good with many significant dates and clear descriptions incorporated in a table. I do see lots of numbers, which I think relate to references. I cannot find these references anywhere, so please edit this and make sure it is included in your list of references. There are also a few references listed in full in the table, so please put these down as proper references. Also, there is no good description for the year 2007 (it is mainly a reference).

The developmental timeline is expansive and very interesting! It really relates to the different developmental stages and tells us what happens over time. I hope you can include images with appropriate labels and information to this table, as it will greatly complement your text. Please do check your spelling, eg. ‘epithelium’ in week 6. Also references in this section are appropriate and are not doubled-up in the reference list. Do check reference 5 as it comes up with a cite error.

The section on cell biology and type 2 receptors is clear and easy to read. I cannot see any references though! Please be careful cause this might indicate plagiarism. The taste map is interesting and I am glad you mentioned research has indicated that the different receptors are in fact located all over the tongue – not just in particular sections. If possible, look for the original paper(s) that made this discovery.

The section on neural pathways is a little more difficult to read and I did not understand some of it. Particular terms are used in sentences which suggest little effort has been put in to explain everything in your own words. This is further indicated by the lack of references in the ‘first order neuron’ section and the majority of the ‘second order neuron’ section. I might be wrong, but then do add all your jargon to the glossary. If possible, also try to find other papers which present the same information to strengthen your points mentioned. Images for both the taste map and the cortex need referencing, copyright info, etc.

Adult tongue and taste buds. It is good you include some anatomy and physiology into your section. Do keep in mind the majority of your project should focus on embryonic development. You included the appropriate names, eg. sulcus terminalis, and I am glad to see that has also been put in the glossary. Some more terms do need to be added, eg. circumvallate. The text is good, clear and easy to read. Images are appropriate and relate to the text but need proper descriptions, citations, etc. A major let down of this section is the lack of references – please include this.

Personally, I found the abnormalities section very interesting! However, you are suddenly talking about all these genes and factors which you have not mentioned anywhere else. It might be good to provide a brief description of these in the development section or incorporate them into your developmental timeline. Images all have copyright information, but other information is missing, such as the student template and/or reference. Please check and add this.

Current research includes a lot of information. All different sections have their references which are displayed in the reference list. If you can, provide links to the website of the research groups working on current projects. Be careful not to just put your reference at the end, as you may also have to reference within the paragraph. Both pictures used will need the student template. The double tongue image will need a reference in its description too.

As mentioned before, add and edit the glossary and reference list. You should also add to the useful links (make this external links) and the image gallery, or delete these subheadings, as there is nothing there now.

Hope this helps!

"In regards to the information presented (outcomes 1 and 9), the timeline for the development is good and written with clarity. However, I noticed the section on structure only referred to the adult state rather than focusing on the embryonic origin of each structure (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm). I would suggest that you elaborate on the developmental stages introduced in the timeline in order to build on the information you have already provided. This is important in regards to outcome 6 so that you can relate your research to embryology – the development of taste should be your focus. The history timeline was great to read as it was very concise and clear.

The page shows a good level of peer teaching with clear language and a good balance between images and text (outcome 4) with technical terms explained in the glossary. An improvement could be to make a link between any technical language and the glossary to avoid scrolling up and down to the page. Your Current Research section (outcome 5) was very interesting to read and showed you went beyond the scope of basic research on taste – good work!

In terms of layout (outcome 2), whilst the images are interesting and relevant to the text, some are not appropriately referenced nor described; make sure to reference appropriately and at least write one or two sentences to make the images relevant to the reader. Additionally, the introduction should not be under another subheading (Gustatory system) as it creates some confusion; I would suggest making the introduction its own heading in order to make the page flow. Similarly, the history timeline would best be placed towards the beginning of the page, under the introduction.

I noticed some areas (such as the section on Structure) were not appropriately or consistently referenced. Make sure to include a citation anytime you introduce a researched idea or information to avoid being accused of plagiarism. I noticed the history timeline had good consistent referencing; however the numbers just need to be formatted so they come under the reference list. If you click on the Tutorial: References page linked from the student page, it tells you how to do this. Hope the feedback helps and all the best for your project!"

The introduction is very detailed but did not mention anything about the development of the taste. But I thought the mechanisms behind sweet and salty tastes are very interesting. Maybe do the same for the other 3 tastes? The image of the basic 5 tastes is a bit small, maybe upload a bigger version of the image. Also, the image is lacking some reference, copyright information and a student image template.

The type II receptor section is pretty good and descriptive but it does not really relate to the development of the taste. The taste map is a very eye-catchy image and it would be really useful if it had all the needed information such as the copyright notice. The timeline of the gustatory system is very well-presented and easy to read. I understand the project is not completed yet, therefore more images are still to be put in. Only 2 references have been used in the timeline section, maybe try to research more and use different resources. There are some citing error but it should be quite easy to fix.

Histories of discoveries section is very detailed and easy to read but the referencing needs to be fixed. The adult tongue and taste bud section is very clear and precise and contain a lot of useful information but it does not really relate to the research topic, should beware of going off-track. The hand-drawn diagram of the taste bud is impressive and easy to understand but again lacking in some referencing information such as who drew it. The abnormalities section is good and well-researched and it is interesting to know about which gene or receptors will effect the development of taste and sensation. Maybe the abnormalities section can be included into the current research section because abnormalities are repeated in the current research section below. There are detailed definitions of terms in the glossary which is good because it really helps the reader to understand more about the research topic.

Overall, the page is looking good. The main thing that needs to be fixed will be the images that are already on the page, they need the correct and essential information with them when uploaded on the page or else, they will get deleted and there will be no images on the page and the nice balance of images and text now will be gone. There seem to be a lot of anatomy and biology of the taste system but not a lot of information about their development. Although there is a timeline of development but i think more information is needed. Referencing is pretty good with only one or two minor citing error but it should be easy to fix. Structure of the page is clear and simple with headings and sub-headings being consistent, making the page easy to read and follow. Hope this helps :)

The introduction is good, explaining the function and mechanisms behind.

The taste map text and picture are useful however lack referencing information.

The cortical areas section is very interesting and well referenced.

The table timeline is a very good way to summarise the development of taste. It is succinct and well referenced, even though one paper was referred to for most of the information.

The history table is similarly good, very succinct and straightforward, however lacks some references, and the references that were included could be improved by using the wiki referencing system.

The structure and function section is useful but doesn't add much to the text in terms of embryological development. Also make sure the images are properly referenced with the "student template" included.

The abnormalities section is very good and well researched, although maybe try and avoid referring to the articles that have been researched in the text and rather just refer to them using the wiki referencing system. The images are good as well but don't forget the "student template" here also.

The current research section is interesting and well researched, the use of succinct subheadings to summarise the paper's findings was good.

The useful links and image sections need to be added to, and the glossary section can be improved by putting the key terms in bold, but that is otherwise good.

Initially the page seems to have a good balance between text and diagrams/photographs. However the figures included are not properly labelled once you click on the file and some of them don't appear to have any copyright information included. Some of the pictures could do with being a bit smaller as they take up a large proportion of the page. The student drawn image of the tongue is particularly impressive but does still need to have the student template included. The references seem limited in comparison to other groups perhaps suggesting a lack of depth or variety of research. There also appears to be a coding problem relating to reference number 5. The general layout and use of subheadings is great. It may be useful to link the words in the glossary to their occurrence in the text.

The introductory paragraphs are very well written. They are easy to understand and interesting and give a good overview of how taste functions. Similarly the section on taste map is well written clearly explaining the neurological factors associated with taste. However the presence of the picture in isolation is confusing as it is representing an the old method of taste association. Perhaps this would be resolved if a diagram of the newer taste map was also included. Also you say that the old taste map has been disproved by recent research but that research is not referenced. In fact it appears that very little of that section is referenced. The section on cortical areas is well done.

The timeline of developmental processes is good, the table an easy visual format and the information concise and effective. The only point of contention would be the direct quote in Wk8-9 which seems out of place in comparison to the remainder of the entries which are nicely paraphrased. The history section is similarly well done being extensive and comprehensive. That is excepting some Pub Med references which are just placed in the text rather than in the reference list at the bottom. While interesting and well written the part detailing the Adult Tongue and Taste Buds seems out of place in a embryology course.

The sections on the effect of gene expression on the formation of taste abnormalities and current research are good. However it may be useful to put the information regarding each picture as a caption rather than plain text.

It will be interesting to see what is put in the section "Image Gallery"

The information provided is both informative and well organised. The use of tables and figures make the text easy to follow and the diagrams make the information easier to understand. When it comes to images however, they seem to be somewhat irrelevant next to some of the information in some cases. Try to move them around and make sure they accompany relevant text.

The introduction does not give the reader the overview of the topic, but rather explores structures and function which makes it difficult to order. Simplifying the introduction, and moving some of the more detailed information such as the information about the type 2 receptors to the relevant section would improve the page.

Other information that is difficult to understand is the text which involves certain genes and molecules without explaining their function or role. Explaining these aspects of the genes and molecules would make the information flow better. The section on current research is very informative and seems to be complete. However, I did note some errors with the citation of the image used, working on the references is very important for the other images as well as not all have the copyright information.

I also noticed that many of the references are repeated numerous times. Week 8 of development for example have the same reference after a number of sentences. A variety of sources will improve the accuracy of the information rather than derive all the information from a single source.

There is a great focus on the anatomy and physiology of taste, however, it is important to remember that the focus of this project is about development, and therefore including a timeline or a table which covers this information is very important. The page seems to be very organised and the inclusion of tables and diagrams along with the extensive glossary make this page stand out. Well done.

The page that you have created is very extensive and was well formatted in relation to the ratio of images to text on the page. Found that the colours and use of table for the breakdown of information in relation to ‘Timeline of developmental process’ and ‘history of discoveries’ condensed the material and made it easily understandable. This made me want to keep reading.

With majority of the images that are uploaded onto the page there needs to be the correct information and referencing provided for the summary box. From where the image was sourced (ideally of reliable and scientific literature in origin), identifying that it has been uploaded for a student assignment and copyright information-permission to use uploaded image and any other information that is pertaining to the topic and why the image was used/relevant. Further, those of you within your group that have drawn an uploaded image, have to ensure that you have stated in the summary box that it was student drawn prior to final assessment/evaluation.

The glossary is able to be expanded upon and potentially ensuring that the words that are being explained/elaborated are bolded. As a reader, I would find it easier to read and distinguish if they were bolded. The reference list that has been developed appears to demonstrate that as a group you have are well read and researched, however, the citation errors will have to be addressed and resolved prior to final marking of the project. I really appreciated the layout (headings, summary and images) of the page.

The introduction is well written and very informative. You should add the history timeline directly below the introduction, because where it currently is feels like it is floating. With it after the introduction it will create a flow to your page and separate the two tables. In your development table I noted a column called images, the adding of images to show the development stage you are describing will give this section some more flair. If you are not adding images don’t forget to delete the column.

Your section on adult taste and tongue is very interesting but maybe if there is a difference, i.e. newborns tongues are more sensitive to a taste than adults, a comparison would be interesting here.

In abnormalities you mention p2x receptors, maybe you could add this to the glossary and give a brief explanation about what they are and do. This would be a good idea for any other receptor or genes/proteins mention above that you don’t want to explain in detail in the main section. --Z3220343 21:31, 25 September 2012 (EST)


Your introductory paragraph is sufficiently detailed. However, there is only one reference. You need to show more research by adding more references to support your text. It is good that you have added an image to support the text, but you need to write that it is a student uploaded image. Cell biology and type 2 receptors sections don’t have any references cited at all. You need to add appropriate references.

There was an image of the tongue showing the tastes in different sections of the tongue. The image didn’t have the source referenced.

The taste map section needs more referencing and citations.

Cortical area is sufficiently detailed and has appropriate numbers of references, along with a supportive image. However, you should add more description of what the image is about. “Timeline of Developmental Processes of the Gustatory System” looks nice so far, with appropriate citations. But you may need to add some more information, and it needs to add images to support the text.

History of discoveries section looks nice, but needs a bit more texts explaining each of the discoveries. It also needs some more references, and perhaps adding some images to support the text would make it easier to visualise the discoveries.

“Adult Tongue and Taste Buds – Structure and Function” is overall lacking in text and needs more research and references. You need to explain more of the structures and functions of the tongue. The image of the ‘drawing of the tongue’ needs a bit more description in the caption. Perhaps explain what each of the labels mean. The papillae image should say that it is a student uploaded image.

Current research section is done reasonably well so far. The reference needs appropriate formatting. Perhaps reduce the size of the image showing the double tongue; it is rather graphic and somewhat disturbing.

You do not have any useful links listed. You need to add links.

Glossary section is good so far. Perhaps add some more words, and make the text bold to make it easier to spot the different words.

Image gallery does not have images under the heading.

References section: number 5 needs to be fixed.

There are not external links listed under the heading, you need to add external links with appropriate formatting.

Group 3- Taste

Overall this is an excellent project. Well written, great informative photos, good use of tables, and comprehensive information that's well explained.

A few of the photos don't have the appropriate copyright information and some sections of text haven't been referenced, but in general this ticks all of the boxes


The introduction is very detailed, with descriptions of the varies components of taste. Although informative, there needs to be more about the development of the different aspects of taste. I feel that the type 2 receptor part doesn't belong here as this section is here to introduce the topic (maybe put it in a separate heading or in the neural pathway section?). There also needs to be a diagram if you are to include this as if is hard to follow. The balance between text and images is good, though some of the images are not labelled or properly referenced. Histories of discoveries section is very detailed and the table was very easy to read. The section the development of the taste is very informative and shows a of effort is placed into the of research of the topic (as it is often hard when the topic is not well understood). The section on the Structure and Function of the adult tongue gives the anatomy of the tongue, and should come before the part on neural pathways. The current research provided descriptions of the research and their goal and is done well.

Questions for group

--Z3330986 14:29, 18 September 2012 (EST)--Z3330986 14:29, 18 September 2012 (EST) Hey guys,

Did I see someone write about or have articles about Sprouty (spry) genes?

I can't find it, but I'm sure I saw it. Let me know :)

--Z3332337 11:10, 18 September 2012 (EST)


Also, I've just been going over the main page and I wonder if a picture of the overall tongue, not only sections or histological drawings (which were really good btw) would be good to point out the anatomical features?? Like the sulcus terminalis which was pointed out. I'd be happy to draw it. This would be for the Basic structure section.

Let me know ASAP so I can do it tonight :)

--Z3332337 11:30, 18 September 2012 (EST)


Yep, i think that would be a good idea. Go for it :)

--Z3330986 14:29, 18 September 2012 (EST)

Roger that (y). I'll have it done by around 10'ish tonight to be realistic.

--Z3332337 17:10, 18 September 2012 (EST)


Guys!!! I'm following image upload instructions to the letter and it keeps giving me database error. :( I need to upload figures 1 and 6 from this article. Let me know, k?

--Z3332337 17:58, 18 September 2012 (EST)

-- I had the same problem during the Lab assignments so i used a different image instead. I'm not sure if its related to the image itself? Maybe just email mark?

Maybe everyone could add some words from their relevant sections and hopefully we can come up with a pretty comprehensive glossary --Z3330986 20:40, 18 September 2012 (EST)

Discussion of Contributions via Email

I agree with that perhaps we have not included as much actual 'embryological' information as we should. Since neurons/the brain are important in how we perceive taste, i was thinking i would talk about the development of neurons. Let me know what you think, am i going off track?

Hey guys, I know its getting late but I'm quite worried that we missed the central theme of 'embryonic development' and focused too much on adult structure and function of taste...

Please look at this article and see if there is anything relevant to your section that you can add - | Factors that regulate embryonic gustatory development

--Z3289738 22:22, 1 October 2012 (EST)


Hey, It would be nice to have pictures but they're all SEM and TEM images so they're difficult to recreate by hand. What I did instead was indicated to the reader which figure to refer to. Have a look at my section, if you think you can draw a few then that would be great!

--Z3289738 20:17, 1 October 2012 (EST)


Hey guys, I changed the order of the content on our page coz I thought it would make more sense for this topic to have the embryology stuff first and then move on to details of the adult features. Let me know what you think!

Also if you can each send me a brief sentence outlining each of your sections I'll put together an intro.

Thanks, --Z3289738 09:14, 1 October 2012 (EST)


Jared: hi guys,

just confirming our meeting tome tomorrow after the first lecture [after mid sem break]

Thanks :-0.

Nat: Yup, meet outside the lecture room?

--Z3332337 11:07, 11 September 2012 (EST)


Hey Guys,

Jared : becuase we are on holidays as of now, make sure we are communicating about any contributions and copy and past any email discusions onto this page.


Hey guys, So here's our plan for the next few weeks. If you want you can start writing up a particular section before next week!

  • Wed 5/09: Have heading finalized; divide work.
  • Wed 12/09: Sections finished. Discuss in class of any areas of improvement.
  • Wed 19/09: Peer Assessment!

Have a good break :)

--Z3289738 11:58, 29 August 2012 (EST)


Hey guys, I thought of a few headings, please let me know if you have anything to add or change!

  • Intro
  • History of discoveries
  • Gustatory system - this is really important!!
  • Tongue and taste buds - structure and function
  • Taste map
  • Weekly development
  • Abnormalities
  • Current Research
  • Future research

Not including the intro we can each choose 2 areas. I'll get started on History of discoveries and Weekly development.

If you're having problems with your section, or feel that it is irrelevant, or find something else along the way just email the group and we can make changes!

Have a great week :)


--Z3289738 10:58, 5 September 2012 (EST)


That sounds good, maybe we should try and meet before next wednesday to make final changes?


Sure, how about somewhere between the two Embryology lectures (12-3pm) on Tuesday?

Which sections do you want to do? I just put them up on our wiki page.

Nat --Z3289738 11:35, 5 September 2012 (EST)


well i have been already doing current research and structure + development, but im happy to do more work :) and yes perhaps straight after our fist lecture 11-12pm?


Jordan --Z3330986 11:50, 5 September 2012 (EST)

Hi everyone i'll be happy to "Gustatory system" and "taste map." I think it would make it a bit easier as i have covered the neural pathways of taste in some detail in Neuroanatomy.


Okay awesome guys

So the division of work so far is:

  • Introduction to the Gustatory System - Jordan
  • Timeline of Developmental Processes of the Gustatory System - Nat
  • History of Discoveries - Nat
  • Adult Tongue and Taste Buds – Structure and Function - Jared
  • Taste Map - Jordan
  • Abnormalities - Liz?
  • Current Research - Jared
  • Future Research - Liz?

Liz are you happy with those sections?

And Jared be careful with the 'Taste Maps' section, I just read that it may be a misconception! If thats the case then maybe just how the brain interprets the 5 different types of taste.

Nat --Z3289738 11:56, 5 September 2012 (EST)

Hi guys, Yes I'm happy with these sections and am on it.

Liz --Z3332337 13:46, 6 September 2012 (EST)

-- Hi,

Can someone help me with image uploading?

The website say okay to use for commercial etc...

this is the link, is that enough information to get around copyright ???? http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=File:Structure_of_Tongue.gif

Thank you, Jared

hi guys,

just confirming our meeting tome tomorrow after the first lecture.

Thanks :-0.

Useful articles

Hi there,

I'm going to links to the articles I find here so you guys can see them and I don't lose them.

Future Research

1) A Test for Measuring Gustatory Function [1]

This is pretty good for future methods of detecting defects in taste, but requires communication about reception of the tastant. Could be used when the children grow up. Great for adults.

2) The gustatory cortex and multisensory integration [2]



1) Gustatory Imagery Reveals Functional Connectivity from the Prefrontal to Insular Cortices Traced with Magnetoencephalography [4]

This article essentially highlights that taste imagery is a learned response in the Insular Cortices (IC), imaged by fMRI and PET scans, and that disruption in this learning process changes the way we perceive taste. Again, I don't know how relevant this would be in the developing embryo unless there would be damage in the pre-frontal IC.

Any ideas guys??

2) Defects in the Peripheral Taste Structure and Function in the MRL/lpr Mouse Model of Autoimmune Disease [5]

3) Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds [6] <pubmed>21940456</pubmed>

This was a GREAT article. Basically spoke about how using double knockout (DKO) mice for taste receptors P2X2 and P2X3 were knocked out and how it didn't release the neurotransmitter ATP when a tastant was administered, whereas the WT (wild type) mice did release ATP.


4) Taste Function in Mice with a Targeted Mutation of the Pkd1l3 Gene [7]


5) FGF Signaling Regulates the Number of Posterior Taste Papillae by Controlling Progenitor Field Size [8]


6) Taste receptor cells arise from local epithelium, not neurogenic ectoderm. [9]


7) Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis [10]

--Z3332337 15:30, 16 September 2012 (EST)


1) Olfactory and Gustatory Sensory Changes to Tobacco Smoke in Pregnant Smokers [11]

This article is unrequired for this specific project (I realised this AFTER i read most of it) because it talks about how pregnancy affects the 'want' to smoke. So it's more behavioral rather than research into developmental problems that smoking may cause.


Liz --Z3332337 14:09, 6 September 2012 (EST)

Hi guys, just putting a subheading of interesting articles found:

1. <pubmed>21978088</pubmed>

2. UNSW Embryology Development of Taste

This website provides a really great overview of taste developmental timing & overview, tastebuds, receptors, pathways, genes and provides great references for further research - and its a UNSW site!

3. Researchers Discover Initial Steps In Development Of Taste

A Science News story that looks at the role of Wnt pathway in the development of taste. "In the present study, the researchers found that in mice in which the actions of Wnt proteins were blocked, taste papilla buds completely failed to develop. Conversely, in mice in which Wnt signaling was over activated, their tongues were covered with many and large papillae and taste buds." It also briefly discusses neural pathways of taste and abnormalities.

4. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al., editors. Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Taste Receptors and the Transduction of Taste Signals. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11148/

This book chapter covers a variety of transduction mechanisms for taste cells. It is quite detailed, however has some great diagrams to explain the content. The concluding paragraph provides a good summary: "The overall picture that emerges from these admittedly complicated details is that taste cells have a variety of transduction mechanisms. In general, individual taste cells respond to several types of chemical stimuli. Nevertheless, taste cells also exhibit gustatory selectivity. Like olfactory cells, the lower the threshold concentration for detecting a single tastant, the greater the selectivity of the relevant taste cell. Finally, taste receptor mechanisms also adapt to the ongoing presence of a stimulus, although the mechanisms are not understood. If a chemical is left on the tongue for a sufficient time, it ceases to be perceived (consider saliva, for example). Thus, to obtain the full taste of foods, one must either frequently change the types of foods placed in the mouth or wait a sufficient time between helpings, facts that have long been appreciated by restauranteurs and gourmets."

5. <pubmed>17108952</pubmed> This article describes the receptors and cells involved in the different types of taste (sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami).

6. <pubmed>17287575</pubmed> This review focuses on the development of fungiform papillae in rodents.

7. <pubmed>15581865</pubmed> This article focuses on the role of Sonic hedgehog on tongue and taste papilla development.

8 Liu HX, Komatsu Y, Mishina Y, Mistretta CM. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659543 This is an article about neural crest contributions to taste development

--Z3289738 10:44, 22 August 2012 (EST)

Remember: textbooks are a good foundation, but articles are best to gain info from.

--Z3332337 11:32, 29 August 2012 (EST)

Hey, Just need somewhere to put this:

--Z3289738 11:24, 19 September 2012 (EST)


  • Introduction
  • History of Major Discoveries (early researchers)
  • Time line of Developmental processes

- this is the major focus of the project (ie: developmental processes)

- week by week

    • Tongue
    • Taste
  • Final Structure and Function of the Tongue
  • Abnormal structure and function

^ these 2 can be minor sections.

  • Technologies to detect abnormalities during pregnancy?
  • Current research (recent findings)
  • Glossary and Abbreviations
  • References

--Z3332337 11:30, 29 August 2012 (EST)

Notes from Mark Hill:

  • Origins of sensory
  • Central pathway for taste
  • Neural crest contributions
  • Overview diagram of sensory diagram (can be hand drawn)
  • Journal of Cell biology - Taste JCB
  • Links between taste and smell
  • Tongue has muscular and sensory functions - segregate the two

Division of Work

Natalie - Normal function & abnormal function

Liz - tongue & taste development

Jordan - time line of discoveries

Jared - structure & function; recent findings

Topic Choice

Hey guys, Unfortunately a lot of other groups seem to want to do hearing & vision as well, so I thought maybe we should choose to do taste. Let me know what you think!

I also brainstormed a few topic headings... feel free to add to it or change the order around


  • Introduction (what is the project about?)
  • Time line of major discoveries / History (early researchers)
  • Structure & Function
  • Tongue development (brief)
  • Taste development - time line and detailed
  • Normal function
  • Abnormal function
  • Current research (recent findings)
  • Glossary and Abbreviations
  • References

--Z3289738 11:42, 15 August 2012 (EST)

Lets do: Sensory - Hearing

From a bit of research this afternoon, I couldn't find much on skin development in terms of "sense organ"/"sense development". I suggest if we do Sensory we do hearing as there was alot of information (inner, middle, outer). And also there are specific screening procedures involved during pregancy.

Couple of link below with basic surface information that we could use as a starting point.



Hi guys

Organ = liver

Sensory = vision / skin / hearing

--Z3289738 12:02, 8 August 2012 (EST)

really usefull website including information on phisiology etc [15]

Stucture & Function

Structure/ Parts general including tissue type muslces + mucosa etc

- anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 (sculus terminulis)- we are manily concerned with 2/3 of tounge as it responsible for papillae + soft palate and epiglottis containing - papillae, contain chemo-recpetors

Function - direct vs indriect - parts of tounge detecting differnt tastes/ flavours

Pathway chmeorecpetors (translation/ transduction) process of chemical to elecectrical

  1. <pubmed>8955790</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>9455607</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>9541477</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>8241557</pubmed>