Difference between revisions of "Talk:2012 Group Project 3"

From Embryology
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3) Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds
3) Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds
This was a GREAT article. Basically spoke about how using double knockout (DKO) mice for taste receptors P2X2 and P2X3 were knocked out and how it didn't release the neurotransmitter ATP when a tastant was administered, whereas the WT (wild type) mice did release ATP.
This was a GREAT article. Basically spoke about how using double knockout (DKO) mice for taste receptors P2X2 and P2X3 were knocked out and how it didn't release the neurotransmitter ATP when a tastant was administered, whereas the WT (wild type) mice did release ATP.

Revision as of 16:41, 16 September 2012

From the Course Coordinator

2012 Projects: Vision | Somatosensory | Taste | Olfaction | Abnormal Vision | Hearing

--Mark Hill 09:58, 18 September 2012 (EST) This is a recent review on vision. http://jcb.rupress.org/content/190/6/953.full JCB content allows reuse.


--Mark Hill 08:17, 16 August 2012 (EST) This small section at the top of your discussion page allows me to easily distribute information to all students looking at the group discussion page.

Please do not delete, edit or move the template {{Template:2012GroupDiscussion}} from the top of this page.

1. Search:

2. History

  • Embryology History Explore the rich history of sensory research. In particular look through the available images that may complement the text. Any of this material can be used, you should cite the original paper or textbook. Gray | 1921 Bailey and Miller

Discussion of Contributions via Email

Jared: hi guys,

just confirming our meeting tome tomorrow after the first lecture [after mid sem break]

Thanks :-0.

Nat: Yup, meet outside the lecture room?

--Z3332337 11:07, 11 September 2012 (EST)


Hey Guys,

Jared : becuase we are on holidays as of now, make sure we are communicating about any contributions and copy and past any email discusions onto this page.


Hey guys, So here's our plan for the next few weeks. If you want you can start writing up a particular section before next week!

  • Wed 5/09: Have heading finalized; divide work.
  • Wed 12/09: Sections finished. Discuss in class of any areas of improvement.
  • Wed 19/09: Peer Assessment!

Have a good break :)

--Z3289738 11:58, 29 August 2012 (EST)


Hey guys, I thought of a few headings, please let me know if you have anything to add or change!

  • Intro
  • History of discoveries
  • Gustatory system - this is really important!!
  • Tongue and taste buds - structure and function
  • Taste map
  • Weekly development
  • Abnormalities
  • Current Research
  • Future research

Not including the intro we can each choose 2 areas. I'll get started on History of discoveries and Weekly development.

If you're having problems with your section, or feel that it is irrelevant, or find something else along the way just email the group and we can make changes!

Have a great week :)


--Z3289738 10:58, 5 September 2012 (EST)


That sounds good, maybe we should try and meet before next wednesday to make final changes?


Sure, how about somewhere between the two Embryology lectures (12-3pm) on Tuesday?

Which sections do you want to do? I just put them up on our wiki page.

Nat --Z3289738 11:35, 5 September 2012 (EST)


well i have been already doing current research and structure + development, but im happy to do more work :) and yes perhaps straight after our fist lecture 11-12pm?


Jordan --Z3330986 11:50, 5 September 2012 (EST)

Hi everyone i'll be happy to "Gustatory system" and "taste map." I think it would make it a bit easier as i have covered the neural pathways of taste in some detail in Neuroanatomy.


Okay awesome guys

So the division of work so far is:

  • Introduction to the Gustatory System - Jordan
  • Timeline of Developmental Processes of the Gustatory System - Nat
  • History of Discoveries - Nat
  • Adult Tongue and Taste Buds – Structure and Function - Jared
  • Taste Map - Jordan
  • Abnormalities - Liz?
  • Current Research - Jared
  • Future Research - Liz?

Liz are you happy with those sections?

And Jared be careful with the 'Taste Maps' section, I just read that it may be a misconception! If thats the case then maybe just how the brain interprets the 5 different types of taste.

Nat --Z3289738 11:56, 5 September 2012 (EST)

Hi guys, Yes I'm happy with these sections and am on it.

Liz --Z3332337 13:46, 6 September 2012 (EST)

-- Hi,

Can someone help me with image uploading?

The website say okay to use for commercial etc...

this is the link, is that enough information to get around copyright ???? http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=File:Structure_of_Tongue.gif

Thank you, Jared

hi guys,

just confirming our meeting tome tomorrow after the first lecture.

Thanks :-0.

Useful articles

Hi there,

I'm going to links to the articles I find here so you guys can see them and I don't lose them.

Future Research

1) A Test for Measuring Gustatory Function [1]

This is pretty good for future methods of detecting defects in taste, but requires communication about reception of the tastant. Could be used when the children grow up. Great for adults.

2) The gustatory cortex and multisensory integration [2]



1) Gustatory Imagery Reveals Functional Connectivity from the Prefrontal to Insular Cortices Traced with Magnetoencephalography [4]

This article essentially highlights that taste imagery is a learned response in the Insular Cortices (IC), imaged by fMRI and PET scans, and that disruption in this learning process changes the way we perceive taste. Again, I don't know how relevant this would be in the developing embryo unless there would be damage in the pre-frontal IC.

Any ideas guys??

2) Defects in the Peripheral Taste Structure and Function in the MRL/lpr Mouse Model of Autoimmune Disease [5]

3) Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds [6] <pubmed>3188419</pubmed>

This was a GREAT article. Basically spoke about how using double knockout (DKO) mice for taste receptors P2X2 and P2X3 were knocked out and how it didn't release the neurotransmitter ATP when a tastant was administered, whereas the WT (wild type) mice did release ATP.


4) Taste Function in Mice with a Targeted Mutation of the Pkd1l3 Gene [7]


5) FGF Signaling Regulates the Number of Posterior Taste Papillae by Controlling Progenitor Field Size [8]


6) Taste receptor cells arise from local epithelium, not neurogenic ectoderm. [9]


7) Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis [10]

--Z3332337 15:30, 16 September 2012 (EST)


1) Olfactory and Gustatory Sensory Changes to Tobacco Smoke in Pregnant Smokers [11]

This article is unrequired for this specific project (I realised this AFTER i read most of it) because it talks about how pregnancy affects the 'want' to smoke. So it's more behavioral rather than research into developmental problems that smoking may cause.


Liz --Z3332337 14:09, 6 September 2012 (EST)

Hi guys, just putting a subheading of interesting articles found:

1. <pubmed>21978088</pubmed>

2. UNSW Embryology Development of Taste

This website provides a really great overview of taste developmental timing & overview, tastebuds, receptors, pathways, genes and provides great references for further research - and its a UNSW site!

3. Researchers Discover Initial Steps In Development Of Taste

A Science News story that looks at the role of Wnt pathway in the development of taste. "In the present study, the researchers found that in mice in which the actions of Wnt proteins were blocked, taste papilla buds completely failed to develop. Conversely, in mice in which Wnt signaling was over activated, their tongues were covered with many and large papillae and taste buds." It also briefly discusses neural pathways of taste and abnormalities.

4. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al., editors. Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Taste Receptors and the Transduction of Taste Signals. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11148/

This book chapter covers a variety of transduction mechanisms for taste cells. It is quite detailed, however has some great diagrams to explain the content. The concluding paragraph provides a good summary: "The overall picture that emerges from these admittedly complicated details is that taste cells have a variety of transduction mechanisms. In general, individual taste cells respond to several types of chemical stimuli. Nevertheless, taste cells also exhibit gustatory selectivity. Like olfactory cells, the lower the threshold concentration for detecting a single tastant, the greater the selectivity of the relevant taste cell. Finally, taste receptor mechanisms also adapt to the ongoing presence of a stimulus, although the mechanisms are not understood. If a chemical is left on the tongue for a sufficient time, it ceases to be perceived (consider saliva, for example). Thus, to obtain the full taste of foods, one must either frequently change the types of foods placed in the mouth or wait a sufficient time between helpings, facts that have long been appreciated by restauranteurs and gourmets."

5. <pubmed>17108952</pubmed> This article describes the receptors and cells involved in the different types of taste (sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami).

6. <pubmed>17287575</pubmed> This review focuses on the development of fungiform papillae in rodents.

7. <pubmed>15581865</pubmed> This article focuses on the role of Sonic hedgehog on tongue and taste papilla development.

8 Liu HX, Komatsu Y, Mishina Y, Mistretta CM. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659543 This is an article about neural crest contributions to taste development

--Z3289738 10:44, 22 August 2012 (EST)

Remember: textbooks are a good foundation, but articles are best to gain info from.

--Z3332337 11:32, 29 August 2012 (EST)


  • Introduction
  • History of Major Discoveries (early researchers)
  • Time line of Developmental processes

- this is the major focus of the project (ie: developmental processes)

- week by week

    • Tongue
    • Taste
  • Final Structure and Function of the Tongue
  • Abnormal structure and function

^ these 2 can be minor sections.

  • Technologies to detect abnormalities during pregnancy?
  • Current research (recent findings)
  • Glossary and Abbreviations
  • References

--Z3332337 11:30, 29 August 2012 (EST)

Notes from Mark Hill:

  • Origins of sensory
  • Central pathway for taste
  • Neural crest contributions
  • Overview diagram of sensory diagram (can be hand drawn)
  • Journal of Cell biology - Taste JCB
  • Links between taste and smell
  • Tongue has muscular and sensory functions - segregate the two

Division of Work

Natalie - Normal function & abnormal function

Liz - tongue & taste development

Jordan - time line of discoveries

Jared - structure & function; recent findings

Topic Choice

Hey guys, Unfortunately a lot of other groups seem to want to do hearing & vision as well, so I thought maybe we should choose to do taste. Let me know what you think!

I also brainstormed a few topic headings... feel free to add to it or change the order around


  • Introduction (what is the project about?)
  • Time line of major discoveries / History (early researchers)
  • Structure & Function
  • Tongue development (brief)
  • Taste development - time line and detailed
  • Normal function
  • Abnormal function
  • Current research (recent findings)
  • Glossary and Abbreviations
  • References

--Z3289738 11:42, 15 August 2012 (EST)

Lets do: Sensory - Hearing

From a bit of research this afternoon, I couldn't find much on skin development in terms of "sense organ"/"sense development". I suggest if we do Sensory we do hearing as there was alot of information (inner, middle, outer). And also there are specific screening procedures involved during pregancy.

Couple of link below with basic surface information that we could use as a starting point.



Hi guys

Organ = liver

Sensory = vision / skin / hearing

--Z3289738 12:02, 8 August 2012 (EST)

really usefull website including information on phisiology etc [15]

Stucture & Function

Structure/ Parts general including tissue type muslces + mucosa etc

- anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 (sculus terminulis)- we are manily concerned with 2/3 of tounge as it responsible for papillae + soft palate and epiglottis containing - papillae, contain chemo-recpetors

Function - direct vs indriect - parts of tounge detecting differnt tastes/ flavours

Pathway chmeorecpetors (translation/ transduction) process of chemical to elecectrical