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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
Mark Hill.jpg
I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

♀ Female gender symbol of Venus. The equivalent genogram symbol is a circle. This gender symbol also represents the metal copper.

♂ Male gender symbol of of Mars. The equivalent genogram symbol is a square. This gender symbol also represents the metal iron.

▢ The square genogram symbol represents male gender.


○ The circle genogram symbol represents female gender.

Greek Letters

The table also provides the equivalent Phoenician letter from which each Greek letter is derived.

Letter Corresponding
Name Transliteration Numeric
English Ancient
Α α Aleph Alpha a 1
Β β Beth Beta b v 2
Γ γ Gimel Gamma g gh, g, y 3
Δ δ Daleth Delta d d, dh 4
Ε ε He Epsilon e 5
Ζ ζ Zayin Zeta z 7
Η η Heth Eta e, ē i 8
Θ θ Teth Theta th 9
Ι ι Yodh Iota i 10
Κ κ Kaph Kappa k 20
Λ λ Lamedh Lambda l 30
Μ μ Mem Mu m 40
Ν ν Nun Nu n 50
Ξ ξ Samekh Xi x x, ks 60
Ο ο Ayin Omicron o 70
Π π Pe Pi p 80
Ρ ρ Resh Rho r, rh r 100
Σ σ ς Sin Sigma s 200
Τ τ Taw Tau t 300
Υ υ Waw Upsilon u, y y, v, f 400
Φ φ origin disputed
Phi ph f 500
Χ χ Chi ch ch, kh 600
Ψ ψ Psi ps 700
Ω ω Ayin Omega o, ō o 800

Glossary Comments

Use this page to access brief definitions of specific embryology terms. Additional information can be accessed from links listed at the end of each definition. Glossary from the UNSW Embryology program compiled and written by Dr Mark Hill. Reference material used in preparing this glossary list includes: texts listed on page 1 "Reading" of each notes section, Department of Anatomy Publications, WWW resources from NCBI, NIH, OMIM, NHMRC (Australia), AMA (USA), Office of Rare Diseases (USA), PubMed Medline Dictionaries, MSDS, Merck Manual home edn. and WHO ART terminology (2009).

These notes are for Educational Purposes Only Please email Dr Mark Hill if you wish to make a comment about this current project.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, July 12) Embryology Symbols. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G