From Embryology


A start page for exploring reports that relate to embryological development. Many of these contain statistical analysis of country by country or world data by various government and non-government bodies. I have also included on this page legislation that relates to embryonic development.

Reports - Give a spoken or written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated.

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Some Recent Findings

World Health Organization (WHO)

Who Report - Born Too Soon

Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth

Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth (2012) The first-ever country-by-country estimate of premature births finds that 15 million babies a year are born preterm - more than one in 10 live births. The report on preterm birth provides the first-ever national, regional and global estimates of preterm birth. The report shows the extent to which preterm birth is on the rise in most countries, and is now the second leading cause of death globally for children under five, after pneumonia. Preterm Birth

World Health Statistics

WHO's annual World Health Statistics reports present the most recent health statistics for the WHO Member States.

International Classification of Diseases

The World Health Organization's classification used worldwide as the standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes. This includes the analysis of the general health situation of population groups. It is used to monitor the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems. Within this classification "congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities" are (Q00-Q99) but excludes "inborn errors of metabolism" (E70-E90).

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) ICD-10 was endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly in May 1990 and came into use in WHO Member States as from 1994. The classification is the latest in a series which has its origins in the 1850s. The first edition, known as the International List of Causes of Death, was adopted by the International Statistical Institute in 1893. WHO took over the responsibility for the ICD at its creation in 1948 when the Sixth Revision, which included causes of morbidity for the first time, was published. The World Health Assembly adopted in 1967 the WHO Nomenclature Regulations that stipulate use of ICD in its most current revision for mortality and morbidity statistics by all Member States.

The ICD is the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological, many health management purposes and clinical use.


The world health report

The world health report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage (2010)


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)

Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand

Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2010.jpg

ART 2010

Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2010[1] 26 Oct 2012

  • In 2010, there were 61,774 assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles performed in Australia and New Zealand.
  • Of these, 23.9% resulted in a clinical pregnancy and 18.1% in a live delivery (the birth of at least one liveborn baby).
  • There were 12,056 liveborn babies following ART treatments in 2010. (More? Assisted Reproductive Technology)
Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2009.jpg

ART 2009

Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2009.[2] 9 Nov 2011

  • In 2009, there were 70,541 assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles undertaken in Australian and New Zealand.
  • Of these cycles, 17.2% resulted in a live delivery (the birth of at least one liveborn baby).
  • In total, 13,114 liveborn babies were born following ART treatment in 2009.
  • The most important trend in ART treatment has been the increase of single embryo transfer, from 48.3% in 2005 to 69.7% in 2009.
  • This trend has resulted in significant reduction of multiple delivery rate from 14.1% in 2005 to 8.2% in 2009. (More? Assisted Reproductive Technology)

Australia’s Mothers and Babies

Australia mothers and babies 2010.jpg Australia mothers and babies 2009.jpg
Australia’s mothers and babies 2010 is an annual summary of data usually released 2 years after the dataset year. The latest released report is for 2010. Australia’s mothers and babies 2009 The previous released report is for 2009.

Australia’s mothers and babies 2010 is the 20th annual report on pregnancy and childbirth in Australia providing national information on women who gave birth and the characteristics and outcomes of their babies.

Year Live Births Fetal Deaths
2010 299,563 2,206
2009 296,791 2,341
2008 294,737 2,188
2007 292,027 2,177

Report Summaries - 2010[3] | 2009[4] | 2008[5] | 2007[6]

Congenital Anomalies in Australia

Listed below are external links to the Congenital Congenital Malformations then Anomalies in Australia reports.

Other AIHW Reports

Listed below are a number of different AIHW reports that relate to reproduction and maternal health.

  • Neural tube defects in Australia: prevalence before mandatory folic acid fortification [7] 19 Dec 2011
    • This report describes the prevalence and trends of neural tube defects (NTD) in Australia during the past decade.
    • The best estimated prevalence of NTD among pregnancies is presented based on the information from states that collect near complete data on NTD.
    • Characteristics and outcomes of the births and pregnancy characteristics of mothers are presented for the period 199-2008.
    • The purpose of compiling this national report is to provide baseline prevalence of NTD, before implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread flour in September 2009.
  • Maternity data in Australia: a review of sources and gaps.[8] 13 Sep 2011 This bulletin presents the results of a review of the depth and breadth of maternal data capture in Australia. Gaps in national data were identified, as well as opportunities for future improvements, A key output of the review is the Maternity Information Matrix, an electronic inventory of maternity data collections and data items.
  • Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: baseline report for monitoring[9] 11 May 2011
    • The Australia and New Zealand Food Regulation Ministerial Council (the Ministerial Council) requested that Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) consider mandatory folic acid fortification to help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) (serious birth defects), and mandatory iodine fortification to tackle the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in the population.
    • In response, FSANZ developed two mandatory standards, effective from October 2009, which require the addition of folic acid to bread- making flour in Australia, and iodine (via iodised salt) to bread in Australia and New Zealand.
    • This report presents baseline data for each component of the monitoring framework, and makes observations for future monitoring.
  • Nursing and midwifery labour force 2008[10] 13 Oct 2010
    • In 2008 the total number of registered and enrolled nurses estimated by the Nursing and Midwifery Labour Force Survey was 312,736, an increase of 10.6% since 2004.
    • The nursing workforce continued to age between 1997 and 2008; the proportion of nurses aged 50 years or over increased from 18.9% to 34.4%.
    • The number of full time equivalent nurses per 100,000 population increased by 15.2% between 2004 and 2008, and the profession continued to be predominantly female, with females comprising 91% of employed nurses in 2008.
  • Diabetes in pregnancy: its impact on Australian women and their babies.[11]
    • Diabetes is known to adversely affect women and their babies during pregnancy, labour and delivery.
    • These adverse effects differ by type of diabetes and between population groups.
    • This report is the first to explore these differences among Australian mothers and their babies at a national level, showing that: diabetes affects about 1 in 20 pregnancies; mothers with pre-existing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, and their babies, are at highest risk of adverse effects; mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus, and their babies, are also at increased risk; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and their babies are more likely to experience adverse effects than non-Indigenous mothers and their babies.
  • Diabetes prevalence in Australia: detailed estimates.[12] (based on self-reports to the Australian Bureau of Statistics' 2007-08) 30 Jun 2011
    • In 2007–08, an estimated 898,800 Australians had been diagnosed with diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) at some time in their lives.
    • 87,100 had been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes.
    • 787,500 had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
    • 56% of those diagnosed with diabetes were male and 44% were female.
    • About 96% of people with diabetes were 35 years old or more, and 43% were aged 65 years or more.
    • The proportion of people with diabetes was similar in all states and territories, after accounting for differences in age.
    • After accounting for differences in age, the proportion of people with diabetes was similar in major cities, regional areas and remote areas.

National Health and Medical Research Council


  • Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes.[13] 2006 PDF
    • The Nutrient Reference Values outline the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy people for prevention of deficiency states. The document can be used by health professionals to assess the likelihood of inadequate intake in individuals or groups of people.

Links: Australian Statistics | Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects | Iodine Deficiency | Nutrition | Maternal Diabetes
  • Clinical Practice Guidelines on Magnesium Sulphate Prior to Preterm Birth for Neuroprotection of the Fetus, Infant and Child[14] PDF
    • "The guideline recommendations outline the use of magnesium sulphate for pregnant women at imminent risk of preterm birth to reduce the risk of cerebral palsy and other adverse neurodevelopment outcomes."

Australian Government

Research Involving Embryos and Prohibition of Human Cloning Bill 2002

  • The Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002 and the Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 were passed by Parliament in December 2002.
  • These Acts establish a strong regulatory framework to prohibit certain unacceptable practices including human cloning, and to regulate uses of excess human embryos created though assisted reproductive technology (ART).

Definition in the Act

human embryo means a discrete entity that has arisen from either:

(a) the first mitotic division when fertilisation of a human oocyte by a human sperm is complete; or
(b) any other process that initiates organised development of a biological entity with a human nuclear genome or altered human nuclear genome that has the potential to develop up to, or beyond, the stage at which the primitive streak appears;
and has not yet reached 8 weeks of development since the first mitotic division.

Links: ComLaw | AustLII | National Library Australia | NHMRC

Human Embryo Experimentation in Australia 1985

Author: Australia. Parliament. Senate. Select Committee on the Human Embryo Experimentation Bill 1985.

Subjects: Human embryo -- Transplantation -- Moral and ethical aspects ; Embryology, Human -- Australia ; Embryology, Human -- Research -- Moral and ethical aspects ; Fertilization in vitro, Human -- Moral and ethical aspects ; Embryo Transfer ; Ethics, Medical -- Australia ; Human Experimentation Description: At head of title: The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. AGPS cat. no. 8615096.

Publisher: Canberra : Australian Government Publishing Service

Date: 1986

Format: xxii, 158 p. ; 25 cm.

Language: English

Identifier: ISBN0644053100 :;ISBN0644053100

ILS API ID: NSW01000400201

Links: National Library Australia | Open Library


CDC/National Center for Health Statistics

USA-ART-2009-cover.jpg CDC Report 2011 2009 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2011.
Links: Assisted Reproductive Technology | USA Syatistics
USA spina bifida rates.jpg

USA spina bifida rates

CDC Report 2005 Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States[15] In the U.S.A. the Food and Drug Administration in 1996 authorized that all enriched cereal grain products be fortified with folic acid, with optional fortification beginning in March 1996 and mandatory fortification in January 1998. The data in the report shows the subsequent changes in anencephaly and spina bifida rate over that period.
USA births fertility 2010.jpg

USA births fertility 2010

Recent Trends in Births and Fertility Rates Through 2010[16]

online report | PDF

  • The broad-based decline in births and fertility rates from 2007 through 2009 is now well-documented. An earlier NCHS Health E-Stat showed the overall birth count and fertility rate continuing to decline through the first 6 months of 2010. This report updates and extends the trend through December 2010.
  • The provisional count of births in the United States for 2010 (12-month period ending December 2010) was 4,007,000. This count was 3 percent less than the number of births in 2009 (4,131,019) and 7 percent less than the all-time high of 4,316,233 births in 2007.
  • The provisional fertility rate for 2010 was 64.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15–44. This was 3 percent less than the 2009 preliminary rate of 66.7 and 7 percent less than the 17-year high of 69.5 in 2007
  • CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report - United States, 2011[17] January 14, 2011 PDF

NIEHS - Early Pregnancy Study

Probability of women with regular or irregular cycles being in their fertile window

The original purpose of the Early Pregnancy Study (carried out in 1982-86) was to determine the extent of pregnancy loss that occurs before women know they are pregnant. To accomplish this, 221 healthy women who were planning to become pregnant were enrolled at the time they discontinued all methods of birth control. Study participants collected daily urine specimens and kept daily diaries of their intercourse and menstrual bleeding. Urine samples were assayed using a highly sensitive assay for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the key hormone marker of pregnancy. About 25% of pregnancies detectable by hCG did not survive to become clinically recognized, being lost in bleeding that was mistaken as menstrual bleeding.

Further hormonal assays for estrogen and progesterone metabolites in urine made it possible to estimate the day of ovulation in each cycle. Once this key benchmark of the cycle was determined, a number of basic observations about normal pregnancy and its variations have been possible. These include the first accurate descriptions of the fertile days of the menstrual cycle (i.e., the five days before ovulation and the day of ovulation), the time of implantation (six to twelve days after conception) and the incidence of vaginal bleeding in the early days of healthy pregnancies.

National Academy of Sciences

"In 2005, 12.5 percent of births in the United States were preterm, at less than 37 weeks gestation. This high rate of premature births in the United States constitutes a public health concern that costs society at least $26 billion a year."
Links: USA Statistics


Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

Hum Reprod. 2012 Apr;27(4):954-966. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

de Mouzon J, Goossens V, Bhattacharya S, Castilla JA, Ferraretti AP, Korsak V, Kupka M, Nygren KG, Andersen AN; The European IVF-Monitoring (EIM); Consortium for the European Society on Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Source ESHRE Central Office, Meerstraat 60, B-1852 Grimbergen, Belgium.


BACKGROUND This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007. METHODS From 33 countries, 1029 clinics reported 493 184 treatment cycles: IVF (120 761), ICSI (256 642), frozen embryo replacement (91 145), egg donation (15 731), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening (4638), in vitro maturation (660) and frozen oocytes replacements (3607). Overall, this represents a 7.6% increase since 2006, mostly related to an increase in all registers. IUI using husband/partner's (IUI-H) and donor (IUI-D) semen was reported from 23 countries: 142 609 IUI-H (+6.2%) and 26 088 IUI-D (+7.2%). RESULTS In 18 countries where all clinics reported, 376 971 ART cycles were performed in a population of 425.6million (886 cycles per million). The clinical pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 29.1 and 32.8% for IVF, and 28.6 and 33.0% for ICSI. Delivery rate after IUI-H was 10.2% in women aged < 40 years. In IVF/ICSI cycles, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 embryos were transferred in 21.4, 53.4, 22.7 and 2.5% of cycles, with no decline in the number of embryos per transfer since 2006. The proportion of multiple deliveries (22.3: 21.3% twin and 1.0% triplet), did not decrease compared with 2006 (20.8%) and 2005 (21.8%). In women < 40 years undergoing IUI-H, twin deliveries occurred in 11.7% and triplets in 0.5%. CONCLUSIONS In comparison with previous years, the reported number of ART cycles in Europe increased in 2007; pregnancy rates increased marginally, but the earlier decline in the number of embryos transferred and multiple births did not continue.

PMID 22343707

United Kingdom

Novel techniques for the prevention of mitochondrial DNA disorders: an ethical review

Swapping mitochondrial DNA mammalian oocytes

Why Mothers Die 2000–2002

  • Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD)[18]
  • Identified ectopic pregnancy as the fourth most common cause of maternal death (73% of early pregnancy deaths).
  • Venous thrombosis and thromboembolism
  • Hypertensive disease of pregnancy
  • Haemorrhage
  • Amniotic fluid embolism
  • Early pregnancy (ectopic pregnancies)
  • Genital tract sepsis
  • Anaesthesia and intensive care
  • Indirect deaths

Links: United Kingdom Statistics


  1. AIHW, Macaldowie A, Wang YA, Chambers GM & Sullivan EA 2012. Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2010. Assisted reproduction technology series. Cat. no. PER 55. Canberra: AIHW. Online Summary | PDF
  2. Wang YA, Macaldowie A, Hayward I, Chambers GM, & Sullivan EA 2011. Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2009. Assisted reproduction technology series no. 15. Cat. no. PER 51. Canberra: AIHW. Online Summary | PDF
  3. Li Z, Zeki R, Hilder L & Sullivan EA 2012. Australia's mothers and babies 2010. Perinatal statistics series no. 27. Cat. no. PER 57. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 14 December 2012 <>
  4. Li Z, McNally L, Hilder L & Sullivan EA 2011. Australia’s mothers and babies 2009 Perinatal statistics series no. 25 Cat. no. PER 52. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit.
  5. Laws P & Sullivan EA 2010. Australia's mothers and babies 2008 AIHW Perinatal statistics series no. 24 Cat. no. PER 48. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
  6. Laws P & Sullivan EA 2009. Australia's mothers and babies 2007 AIHW Perinatal statistics series no. 23 Cat. no. PER 48. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
  7. AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit 2011. Neural tube defects in Australia: prevalence before mandatory folic acid fortification. Cat. no. PER 53. Canberra: AIHW.
  8. AIHW 2011. Maternity data in Australia: a review of sources and gaps. AIHW bulletin no.87. Cat. no. AUS 136. Canberra: AIHW.
  9. AIHW 2011. Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: baseline report for monitoring. Cat. no. PHE 139. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 20 June 2011. PDF
  10. AIHW 2010. Nursing and midwifery labour force 2008. Cat. no. AUS 130. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 29 June 2011
  11. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010. Diabetes in pregnancy: its impact on Australian women and their babies. Diabetes series no. 14. Cat. no. CVD 52. Canberra: AIHW. AIHW | PDF
  12. AIHW 2011. Diabetes prevalence in Australia: detailed estimates. Diabetes series no. 17. Cat. no. CVD 56. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 30 June 2011.
  13. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. (2006) PDF
  14. The Antenatal Magnesium Sulphate for Neuroprotection Guideline Development Panel. Antenatal magnesium sulphate prior to preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus, infant and child: National clinical practice guidelines. Adelaide: The University of Adelaide, 2010. PDF
  15. CDC Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2005
  16. Sutton PD, Hamilton BE, Mathews TJ. Recent Trends in Births and Fertility Rates Through 2010 NCHS data brief MD: National Center for Health Statistics. report | PDF
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report - United States, 2011. MMWR 2011;60(Suppl):1-113. PDF
  18. Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD) Why Mothers Die 2000–2002 PDFPDF2

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, February 25) Embryology Reports. Retrieved from

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