Difference between revisions of "Postnatal - Vaccination"

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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
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Although the use of most vaccines during pregnancy is not usually recommended on precautionary grounds, there is no convincing evidence that pregnancy should be an absolute contraindication to the use of any vaccine, particularly inactivated vaccines. The only exception is vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccination), which has been shown to cause fetal malformation.<ref>
  
 
[[File:Aus public health activities 2007-08.png|thumb|Australian Public Health Activities (2007-08)]]
 
[[File:Aus public health activities 2007-08.png|thumb|Australian Public Health Activities (2007-08)]]
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:'''Links:'''  [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-home AIH 9th edition] (2008) | [http://wcmprd01.central.health/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook10-home AIH 10th edition] (April 2013) | [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-specialgroups 2.3 Groups with Special Vaccination Requirements] (July 2009) | [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-specialrisk232 Vaccination of women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and preterm infants] (July 2009)
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:'''Links:'''  [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-home AIH 9th edition] (2008) | [http://www.immunise.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook10-home AIH 10th edition] (April 2013) | [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-specialgroups 2.3 Groups with Special Vaccination Requirements] (July 2009) | [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-specialrisk232 Vaccination of women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and preterm infants] (July 2009)
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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===Australia===
 
===Australia===
 
* [http://www.immunise.health.gov.au Immunise Australia Program] The Immunise Australia Program aims to increase national immunisation rates by funding free vaccination programs, administering the Australian Childhood Immunisation register and communicating information about immunisation to the general public and health professionals.  
 
* [http://www.immunise.health.gov.au Immunise Australia Program] The Immunise Australia Program aims to increase national immunisation rates by funding free vaccination programs, administering the Australian Childhood Immunisation register and communicating information about immunisation to the general public and health professionals.  
* '''Australian Immunisation Handbook.''' [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-home 9th edition] (2008) | [http://wcmprd01.central.health/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook10-home 10th edition] (April 2013)
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* '''Australian Immunisation Handbook.''' [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-home 9th edition] (2008) | [http://www.immunise.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook10-home AIH 10th edition] (April 2013)
 
** [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-specialgroups 2.3 Groups with Special Vaccination Requirements] updated July 2009
 
** [http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-specialgroups 2.3 Groups with Special Vaccination Requirements] updated July 2009
  

Revision as of 08:45, 30 March 2013

Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.

Introduction

Although the use of most vaccines during pregnancy is not usually recommended on precautionary grounds, there is no convincing evidence that pregnancy should be an absolute contraindication to the use of any vaccine, particularly inactivated vaccines. The only exception is vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccination), which has been shown to cause fetal malformation.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag "Our final analysis included 243 women with spontaneous abortion and 243 matched control group women; 82% of women with spontaneous abortion had ultrasound confirmation of fetal demise. ...There was no statistically significant increase in the risk of pregnancy loss in the 4 weeks after seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination."

  • Influenza A/H1N1 MF59 adjuvanted vaccine in pregnant women and adverse perinatal outcomes: multicentre study[1] "This large study using primary data collection found that MF59 adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine did not result in an increased risk of adverse perinatal events and suggested a lower risk among vaccinated women. These findings should contribute to inform stakeholders and decision makers on the prescription of vaccination against influenza A/H1N1 in pregnant women."

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Recent References | References


Neonatal Vaccination

Vaccination of premature infants

A recent study has looked at Wheezing lower respiratory disease hazard ratios (HR) for vaccination of premature infants.[2] Premature infants are at increased risk of wheezing in association with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus infections. The study found no evidence of increased WLRD risk following routine vaccinations of premature infants. WLRD risk among non-fragile premature infants appears to be reduced for a few weeks after live attenuated vaccinations.

"Wheezing lower respiratory disease hazard ratios (HR) were not significantly elevated for any vaccine type among non-fragile or fragile premature infants. Among non-fragile infants the 8-14 days HR was significantly reduced for live attenuated MMR (0.68, 0.52-0.88) and Varicella (0.71, 0.53-0.94) vaccines, and similarly but insignificantly reduced for infrequently used live attenuated OPV vaccine (0.70, 0.46-1.06). There was a smaller significant reduction (0.83, 0.69-0.998) in the 15-30 days HR for MMR and a similar but not significant reduction (0.86, 0.71-1.05) in the 31-44 days HR for MMR. Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), which is not a live vaccine, had significantly reduced 8-14 days (0.84, 0.72-0.98) and 31-44 days (0.88, 0.78-0.98) HRs among non-fragile infants. The apparent protective effect of HBV may be confounded by live vaccines administered simultaneously with the third dose of HBV. Among fragile infants there was a large significant reduction in the 8-14 days HR for live attenuated OPV vaccine (0.40, 0.23-0.70) and smaller significant reductions in the 8-14 days HR for inactivated DTaP (0.82, 0.71-0.95), Hib (0.83, 0.73-0.96), and PCV7 (0.84, 0.70-0.997) vaccines. Delays in vaccinating fragile infants may have made simultaneous administration of live vaccines and third doses of these inactivated vaccines more likely."

Australian Immunisation Handbook

The purpose of The Australian Immunisation Handbook is to provide clinical guidelines for health professionals on the safest and most effective use of vaccines in their practice. These recommendations are developed by the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) and endorsed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).

There is a specific section within the handbook for Vaccination of women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and preterm infants.


Links: AIH 9th edition (2008) | AIH 10th edition (April 2013) | 2.3 Groups with Special Vaccination Requirements (July 2009) | Vaccination of women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and preterm infants (July 2009)

References

  1. <pubmed>23381200</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>21875634</pubmed>


Journals

Vaccine is the journal for those interested in vaccines and vaccination. Homepage | PubMed


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, May 25) Embryology Postnatal - Vaccination. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Postnatal_-_Vaccination

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G