Difference between revisions of "Paper - The weight of the skin and tela subcutanea of the human fetus"

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The present publication is a report on the Weights of the
+
Institute of Anatomy, University of Minnesota
skin and tela subcutanea and their relations to total body
 
Weight, total body length, and age during the fetal period.
 
  
Bisohoff(1863) reported the Weights of skin and subcutaneous tissue of three fetuses as part of a general study of the
+
Three Figures (1933)
weight of parts and organs of the body at all ages. One
 
newborn girl who had breathed a little had a skin Weight of
 
337.25 grams, a tela subcutanea Weight of 405.5 grams, and a
 
total body Weight of 2929 grams. One 6-month fetus had
 
a body Weight of 497 grams, a body length of 28 cm., and a
 
skin weight (including the subcutaneous fat, lymph, and salivary glands) of 73.5 grams. A stillborn male infant had a
 
body weight of 2400 grams, a body length of 49 cm., and a
 
skin weight (including subcutaneous fat, lymph, and salivary
 
glands) of 480 grams. In 1903, Brandt edited and published
 
Welcker’s extensive analysis of Weights of the component
 
parts of animal and human bodies. He gave the analysis
 
made by Welcker in 1866 of a 3-month male human fetus
 
which had a body Weight of 12.513 grams and a skin weight
 
of 1.05 grams. Jackson (’09) found that the Weight of the
 
skin and subcutaneous fat of a 6-month fetus was 13 per cent
 
of the body Weight. He showed that this value is in fair
 
  
‘This report is part of the thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of PhD. under the direction of Prof. R. E. Scammon
 
and Dr. Edith Boyd.
 
  
 +
The present publication is a report on the Weights of the skin and tela subcutanea and their relations to total body Weight, total body length, and age during the fetal period.
  
agreement with the 15 per cent for Bischoff’s fetus of the
+
Bisohoff(1863) reported the Weights of skin and subcutaneous tissue of three fetuses as part of a general study of the weight of parts and organs of the body at all ages. One newborn girl who had breathed a little had a skin Weight of 337.25 grams, a tela subcutanea Weight of 405.5 grams, and a total body Weight of 2929 grams. One 6-month fetus had a body Weight of 497 grams, a body length of 28 cm., and a skin weight (including the subcutaneous fat, lymph, and salivary glands) of 73.5 grams. A stillborn male infant had a body weight of 2400 grams, a body length of 49 cm., and a skin weight (including subcutaneous fat, lymph, and salivary glands) of 480 grams. In 1903, Brandt edited and published Welcker’s extensive analysis of Weights of the component parts of animal and human bodies. He gave the analysis made by Welcker in 1866 of a 3-month male human fetus which had a body Weight of 12.513 grams and a skin weight of 1.05 grams. Jackson (’09) found that the Weight of the skin and subcutaneous fat of a 6-month fetus was 13 per cent of the body Weight. He showed that this value is in fair
same age, is more than the 8 per cent found by Welcker for
 
a 3-month fetus, and less than the 20 per cent found by
 
Bischoif for a stillborn infant and the summary value of
 
19.7 per cent for newborns given by Vierordt (’06). In 1925,
 
Jackson reported that the skin Weighed 136, 275, 270, and 316
 
grams for four atrophic infants measuring 1800, 3204, 3580,
 
and 5334 grams in total body weight and 48, 54, 55.6, and 62
 
cm. in total body length, respectively. The weight of the skin
 
varied from 6 to 9 per cent of the body weight.
 
  
No other workers have reported the weight of the subcutaneous tissue in the fetal period, but two have Weighed
+
‘This report is part of the thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of PhD. under the direction of Prof. R. E. Scammon and Dr. Edith Boyd.
the body fat. Fehling (1877) reported that the weight of the
 
chemical fat is from 0.6 to 9.1 per cent of the body weight
 
in twenty fetuses ranging from 4 months of age to birth.
 
Camerer (’02) found the chemical fat to be on an average
 
12.3 per cent of the total body weight at birth.
 
  
The few weights of skin and tela subcutanea given by these
 
and other workers for postnatal life may be found either in
 
Vierordt’s (’06) tables or in Welcker and Brandt’s (’03)
 
summary.
 
  
The meager data reviewed indicates that the skin forms
+
agreement with the 15 per cent for Bischoff’s fetus of the same age, is more than the 8 per cent found by Welcker for a 3-month fetus, and less than the 20 per cent found by Bischoif for a stillborn infant and the summary value of 19.7 per cent for newborns given by Vierordt (’06). In 1925, Jackson reported that the skin Weighed 136, 275, 270, and 316 grams for four atrophic infants measuring 1800, 3204, 3580, and 5334 grams in total body weight and 48, 54, 55.6, and 62 cm. in total body length, respectively. The weight of the skin varied from 6 to 9 per cent of the body weight.
about 6 to 9 per cent of the total body weight during fetal
 
life, while chemical fat, hence probably subcutaneous tissue,
 
increases from a fraction of 1 per cent to approximately 10
 
per cent of the body weight.
 
  
In this study additional data on the weight of the skin
+
No other workers have reported the weight of the subcutaneous tissue in the fetal period, but two have Weighed the body fat. Fehling (1877) reported that the weight of the chemical fat is from 0.6 to 9.1 per cent of the body weight in twenty fetuses ranging from 4 months of age to birth. Camerer (’02) found the chemical fat to be on an average 12.3 per cent of the total body weight at birth.
and tela subcutanea have been obtained from tWenty—eight
 
fetuses ranging in length from 17 to 52 cm. These data were
 
obtained as part of a total dissection dividing the body into
 
skin, tela subcutanea, musculature, skeleton, and the
 
remainder. The muscle and skeleton weights will be reported
 
later.
 
  
In order to obtain representative fetuses for dissection, an
+
The few weights of skin and tela subcutanea given by these and other workers for postnatal life may be found either in Vierordt’s (’06) tables or in Welcker and Brandt’s (’03) summary.
attempt was made to use only those having a total body
 
weight for total body length within i 15 per cent of the
 
calculated weight for length, according to the Scammon—Calkins (’24 a) formula for total body weight and length?
 
Because of the slowness of the accumulation of these specimens, these conditions were not always met, so that the
 
weights of three specimens were below and two above the set
 
standard. All the weights, however, were well within three
 
probable errors of calculated Values. This indicates that
 
these specimens are a reasonably good sample of fetuses.
 
  
Length was measured three times on a Schultz measuring
+
The meager data reviewed indicates that the skin forms about 6 to 9 per cent of the total body weight during fetal life, while chemical fat, hence probably subcutaneous tissue, increases from a fraction of 1 per cent to approximately 10 per cent of the body weight.
board. The fetuses were weighed accurately on a balance
 
scale to 0.1 gram. The skin was carefully removed from each
 
fetus. Any fascia left on the skin was scraped off with the
 
sharp edge of a knife. All hair and nails and the entire
 
auricle were included with the skin weights. The tela sub«
 
cutanea was dissected from the superficial muscles. The socalled sucking pad and all of the fat of the ischial rectal f ossae
 
were included with it. To prevent drying, each tissue was
 
returned to 10 per cent formalin as soon as it was removed
 
from the body. When ready to weigh, each tissue was dried
 
between paper towels under approximately constant and even
 
pressure of the fingers until no more moisture appeared on
 
the paper. The tissue was then accurately weighed to 0.01
 
gram on an analytic balance. The dissection was done by
 
several people, but, in order to keep the errors at a minimum,
 
all the drying and weighing was done by myself.
 
  
The data for the twenty—eight specimens are summarized
+
In this study additional data on the weight of the skin and tela subcutanea have been obtained from tWenty—eight fetuses ranging in length from 17 to 52 cm. These data were obtained as part of a total dissection dividing the body into skin, tela subcutanea, musculature, skeleton, and the remainder. The muscle and skeleton weights will be reported later.
in table 1. The accuracy of these data is influenced to some
 
degree by the effect of formalin as well as technical errors.
 
The extraneous factors, however, are probably not suflicient
 
to affect the general relations of the weights of the skin and
 
tela subcutanea to body length and weight. Scammon and
 
Calkins (’29) give a detailed analysis of the errors due to
 
formalin and technical procedures.
 
  
When the weights of skin and tela subcutanea are plotted
+
In order to obtain representative fetuses for dissection, an attempt was made to use only those having a total body weight for total body length within i 15 per cent of the calculated weight for length, according to the Scammon—Calkins (’24 a) formula for total body weight and length? Because of the slowness of the accumulation of these specimens, these conditions were not always met, so that the weights of three specimens were below and two above the set standard. All the weights, however, were well within three probable errors of calculated Values. This indicates that these specimens are a reasonably good sample of fetuses.
against body weight, the skin appears to have a rectilinear
 
relation to total body weight, while subcutaneous tissue has
 
  
’BW= (0.26 L)“~“”+4.6, where L is total body length in centimeters and
+
Length was measured three times on a Schultz measuring board. The fetuses were weighed accurately on a balance scale to 0.1 gram. The skin was carefully removed from each fetus. Any fascia left on the skin was scraped off with the sharp edge of a knife. All hair and nails and the entire auricle were included with the skin weights. The tela sub« cutanea was dissected from the superficial muscles. The socalled sucking pad and all of the fat of the ischial rectal f ossae were included with it. To prevent drying, each tissue was returned to 10 per cent formalin as soon as it was removed from the body. When ready to weigh, each tissue was dried between paper towels under approximately constant and even pressure of the fingers until no more moisture appeared on the paper. The tissue was then accurately weighed to 0.01 gram on an analytic balance. The dissection was done by several people, but, in order to keep the errors at a minimum, all the drying and weighing was done by myself.
BW is total body weight in grams.
 
  
 +
The data for the twenty—eight specimens are summarized in table 1. The accuracy of these data is influenced to some degree by the effect of formalin as well as technical errors. The extraneous factors, however, are probably not suflicient to affect the general relations of the weights of the skin and tela subcutanea to body length and weight. Scammon and Calkins (’29) give a detailed analysis of the errors due to formalin and technical procedures.
  
 +
When the weights of skin and tela subcutanea are plotted against body weight, the skin appears to have a rectilinear relation to total body weight, while subcutaneous tissue has
  
a. curvilinear (fig. 1). The rectilinear trend is the one usually found for the relation of the weights of organs and body
+
’BW= (0.26 L)“~“”+4.6, where L is total body length in centimeters and BW is total body weight in grams.
parts (Scammon, ’25, ’26, ’27 a and b, ’30, and Wald and
+
 
Scammon, ’32) and may be expressed by the formula:
+
 
 +
a. curvilinear (fig. 1). The rectilinear trend is the one usually found for the relation of the weights of organs and body parts (Scammon, ’25, ’26, ’27 a and b, ’30, and Wald and Scammon, ’32) and may be expressed by the formula:
  
 
sw = 0.06447BW — 6.1173 (1)
 
sw = 0.06447BW — 6.1173 (1)
  
TABLE 1
+
TABLE 1 Observed weights of skin and tela subcutanea in fetal life
Observed weights of skin and tela subcutanea in fetal life
 
  
l'I'l‘AI. BODY BODY sxm TELA sunoummn
+
l'I'l‘AI. BODY BODY sxm TELA sunoummn A621 LENGTH wmanm WEIGHT wnmnm‘
A621 LENGTH wmanm WEIGHT wnmnm‘
 
  
Lunar month Om. Grams
+
Lunar month Om. Grams 4.2 0.6 4.5 . . . 4.9 0.5 5.1 1.8 5.1 0.7 5.4 2.6 5.4 2.0 5.5 2.7 5.6 1.5 5.8 3.3 5.8 . . . 6.0 3.3 6.1 10.9 6.4 12.6 6.4 28.8 6.7 ’ 13.6 6.8 14.1 7.0 13.4 7.1 50.0 7.2 19.8 7.2 40.6 7.4’ . . . . 7.7 123.5 8.2’ 87.3 8.3’ 110.4 8.6 116.0 8.7 164.2 10.4 483.8
4.2 0.6
 
4.5 . . .
 
4.9 0.5
 
5.1 1.8
 
5.1 0.7
 
5.4 2.6
 
5.4 2.0
 
5.5 2.7
 
5.6 1.5
 
5.8 3.3
 
5.8 . . .
 
6.0 3.3
 
6.1 10.9
 
6.4 12.6
 
6.4 28.8
 
6.7 ’ 13.6
 
6.8 14.1
 
7.0 13.4
 
7.1 50.0
 
7.2 19.8
 
7.2 40.6
 
7.4’ . . . .
 
7.7 123.5
 
8.2’ 87.3
 
8.3’ 110.4
 
8.6 116.0
 
8.7 164.2
 
10.4 483.8
 
  
 
‘Calculated from the Scammon-Calkins (’23, ’29) age-length formula, T =
 
‘Calculated from the Scammon-Calkins (’23, ’29) age-length formula, T =
Line 178: Line 71:
 
2.3 -|- 2%]: + £2, where T is age in lunar months and L is the crown-heel length
 
2.3 -|- 2%]: + £2, where T is age in lunar months and L is the crown-heel length
  
in centimeters.
+
in centimeters. “Fresh specimens.
“Fresh specimens.
 
  
  
 
SKIN AND TELA SUBCUTANEA WEIGHT 131
 
SKIN AND TELA SUBCUTANEA WEIGHT 131
  
when SW is skin weight in grams and BW is total body weight
+
when SW is skin weight in grams and BW is total body weight in grams, and the numerical constants were determined by the method of averages from the observed weights. The calculated Values have a mean absolute deviation of 11 grams and a mean relative deviation of 24 per cent from the observed weights.
in grams, and the numerical constants were determined by
+
 
the method of averages from the observed weights. The calculated Values have a mean absolute deviation of 11 grams
+
According to this expression, the skin increases approximately 0.06 gram in weight for each gram of increase in total body weight.
and a mean relative deviation of 24 per cent from the observed
 
weights.
 
  
According to this expression, the skin increases approximately 0.06 gram in weight for each gram of increase in total
 
body weight.
 
  
+
300 _ ‘ boo sw = o.o?447 Bw— 6.1113 r i 3250 '” L— 1 . @500 3 _ _ Es E200 — L L L L -5 400 p -51
  
300 _ ‘ boo
+
1 I ' s
sw = o.o?447 Bw— 6.1113 r
+
jiso Jr —~ g coo C .. - 0 E g : ' E C 100 § 200 2% ' 1- ° 2 l 1' :2 SO . 41 )3 100 .00. L , i o i o 0.0 0.5 L0 L5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0.0 0.5 L0 L5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Bodvj weight in kil.o()ram-.~(B\V) Bodij weight in kilograms
i
 
3250 '” L— 1 . @500
 
3 _ _ Es
 
E200 — L L L L -5 400
 
p -51
 
:1 I ' s
 
jiso Jr —~ g coo
 
C
 
.. - 0 E
 
g : ' E
 
C 100 § 200
 
2% ' 1- ° 2
 
l 1' :2
 
SO . 41 )3 100
 
.00. L , i
 
o i o
 
0.0 0.5 L0 L5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0.0 0.5 L0 L5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
 
Bodvj weight in kil.o()ram-.~(B\V) Bodij weight in kilograms
 
  
Fig.1 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weight of the skin and tela
+
Fig.1 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weight of the skin and tela subcutanea. to the total body weight. The solid dots represent the individual observations. The solid line curve in the skin panel represents the empirical formula. In the tela subcutanea panel the solid line curve is drawn in by inspection.
subcutanea. to the total body weight. The solid dots represent the individual
 
observations. The solid line curve in the skin panel represents the empirical
 
formula. In the tela subcutanea panel the solid line curve is drawn in by
 
inspection.
 
  
The analysis of the curvilinear relation of tela subcutanea
+
The analysis of the curvilinear relation of tela subcutanea Weight to body Weight was limited to the graphic method of drawing in a curve by inspection after two applications of 3-point smoothing to the observed Values. The estimated Weights of the tela subcutanea read from the curve for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 kg. of body Weight are 6.0, 38.5, 100.0, 176.0, 273.5, and 383.0 grams, respectively. According to these estimated values and the curve (fig. 1), as the body increases in weight from 0.5 to 3.0 kg. the subcutaneous tissue increases slowly in amount until the body Weighs about 1.5 kg., after which the subcutaneous tissue increases very rapidly.
Weight to body Weight was limited to the graphic method of
 
drawing in a curve by inspection after two applications of
 
3-point smoothing to the observed Values. The estimated
 
Weights of the tela subcutanea read from the curve for 0.5,
 
1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 kg. of body Weight are 6.0, 38.5, 100.0,
 
176.0, 273.5, and 383.0 grams, respectively. According to
 
these estimated values and the curve (fig. 1), as the body increases in weight from 0.5 to 3.0 kg. the subcutaneous tissue increases slowly in amount until the body Weighs about 1.5 kg.,
 
after which the subcutaneous tissue increases very rapidly.
 
  
When the Weights of the skin and tela subcutanea are
+
When the Weights of the skin and tela subcutanea are plotted against body length, both have curvilinear relations to body length, but the curves are strikingly different (fig. 2).
plotted against body length, both have curvilinear relations
 
to body length, but the curves are strikingly different (fig. 2).
 
  
The curve for the weight of the skin and body length has
+
The curve for the weight of the skin and body length has the general form of an exponential curve expressed by the
the general form of an exponential curve expressed by the
 
  
formula :
+
formula : sw = aL", (2)
sw = aL", (2)
 
  
 
600
 
600
  
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
  
$150
+
 
3
+
$150 3 n E200 S O" .5 “ 150 .C .9‘ o 3 E 1.00 31 «n
n
 
E200
 
S
 
O"
 
.5
 
“ 150
 
.C
 
.9‘
 
o
 
3
 
E 1.00
 
31
 
«n
 
  
 
50
 
50
  
o E -"
+
o E -" 5lO151025303540455055 5l0l57.07.5303540455055 Bode) iencjth in centimeters (L) Bock, iength in centimeters
5lO151025303540455055 5l0l57.07.5303540455055
 
Bode) iencjth in centimeters (L) Bock, iength in centimeters
 
  
Fig.2 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weight of the skin and tela
+
Fig.2 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weight of the skin and tela subcutanea. to the total body length. The solid dots represent the individual observations. The solid line curve in the skin panel represents the empirical formula. In the tela subcutanea panel the solid line curve is drawn in by inspection.
subcutanea. to the total body length. The solid dots represent the individual
 
observations. The solid line curve in the skin panel represents the empirical
 
formula. In the tela subcutanea panel the solid line curve is drawn in by
 
inspection.
 
  
of which the logarithmic form is:
+
of which the logarithmic form is: logSW=loga+b-logL. (3) VVhen the constants log a and b are determined from the
logSW=loga+b-logL. (3)
 
VVhen the constants log a and b are determined from the
 
  
logarithms of the observed Values by the method of averages,
+
logarithms of the observed Values by the method of averages, equation 3 becomes:
equation 3 becomes:
 
  
 
log SW = —3.8324 + 3.5748 log L (4)
 
log SW = —3.8324 + 3.5748 log L (4)
  
and equation 2 becomes:
+
and equation 2 becomes: SW = 0.0001471L”’“. (5)
SW = 0.0001471L”’“. (5)
 
  
The mean absolute deviation of observed from calculated
+
The mean absolute deviation of observed from calculated values is 9 grams, and the mean relative deviation is 22 per cent.
values is 9 grams, and the mean relative deviation is 22 per
 
cent.
 
  
The analysis of the curvilinear relation3 of tela subcutanea
+
The analysis of the curvilinear relation3 of tela subcutanea weight to total body length was limited to drawing in a curve by inspection to the observed values after two applications of 3-point smoothing. The estimated values read from the curve for 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 cm. of body length are 0.5, 1.2, 2.5, 8.5, 29.0, 77.5, 197.0, and 402.0 grams, respectively.
weight to total body length was limited to drawing in a curve
 
by inspection to the observed values after two applications of
 
3-point smoothing. The estimated values read from the curve
 
for 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 cm. of body length are
 
0.5, 1.2, 2.5, 8.5, 29.0, 77.5, 197.0, and 402.0 grams, respectively.
 
  
 
TABLE 2
 
TABLE 2
  
Calculated or estimated weights, velocities, and relative velocities of skin and
+
Calculated or estimated weights, velocities, and relative velocities of skin and tela subcutanea. 1'/n fetal life
tela subcutanea. 1'/n fetal life
+
 
 +
E SKIN ST1_B;!UTANEA
  
E SKIN ST1_B;!UTANEA
+
  ';;*...r*  5;;-7“ 5.. 11.:  "15.. 7
  ';;*...r*  5;;-7“ 5.. 11.:  "15.. 7
+
L en a e i - e a. 1 3 ima e . AGE ! ENGTH izveight 1 Velocity velocity? weight i Velocity vglgcizj’ Lunar , E l Grams ] Percent 5 Grams Per cent month I Om. Grams per month ; per month ‘ Gram in" month iper month
L en a e i - e a. 1 3 ima e .  
 
AGE ! ENGTH izveight 1 Velocity velocity? weight i Velocity vglgcizj’
 
Lunar , E l Grams ] Percent 5 Grams Per cent
 
month I Om. Grams per month ; per month ‘ Gram in" month iper month
 
  
5 : 22.9 10.7 . 11.3 105.7 2 _ 0.7 ; 33.9
+
5 : 22.9 10.7 . 11.3 105.7 2 _ 0.7 ; 33.9 6 ‘ 29.2 ' 25.6 f 19.1 i 74.6 ; 6 12.2 I 203.5 7 . 35.1 1 49.3 E 28.0 ' 56.8 | 30 3 40.3 ‘ 134.3 8 40.6 _: 82.6 37.8 i 45.8 ; 85 | 83.1 _ 97.8 9 - 45.7 ‘ 126.4 48.1 1 38.0 I 220 5 209.5 95.2 10 I 50.5 _. 180.9 I 58.8 ' 32.5 ‘
6 ‘ 29.2 ' 25.6 f 19.1 i 74.6 ; 6 12.2 I 203.5
 
7 . 35.1 1 49.3 E 28.0 ' 56.8 | 30 3 40.3 ‘ 134.3
 
8 40.6 _: 82.6 37.8 i 45.8 ; 85 | 83.1 _ 97.8
 
9 - 45.7 ‘ 126.4 48.1 1 38.0 I 220 5 209.5 95.2
 
10 I 50.5 _. 180.9 I 58.8 ' 32.5 ‘
 
  
‘ 422 . . . . . ;
+
‘ 422 . . . . . ; ‘ From Scammon-Calkins fetal age—weight—length table (’24 b).
‘ From Scammon-Calkins fetal age—weight—length table (’24 b).
 
  
These relationships of skin and tela subcutanea weights to
+
These relationships of skin and tela subcutanea weights to length were shifted to a time scale of lunar months, according to the lengths for each lunar month given in the Scammon— lalkins (’24 b) table. The corresponding values for skin weight (table 2) were calculated from equation 4, and those for tela subcutanea Were read from the graph in figure 2. The resulting curves are shown as solid black lines in figure 3, along with the broken line curves obtained in the same manner from skin weight-body Weight formula and tela subcutanea Weight-body Weight graph. 3 In work in progress, Scammon has found this type of curve is characteristic of the relation of the weight of fat and other chemical constituents of the body to
length were shifted to a time scale of lunar months, according to the lengths for each lunar month given in the Scammon—
 
lalkins (’24 b) table. The corresponding values for skin
 
weight (table 2) were calculated from equation 4, and those
 
for tela subcutanea Were read from the graph in figure 2. The
 
resulting curves are shown as solid black lines in figure 3,
 
along with the broken line curves obtained in the same manner
 
from skin weight-body Weight formula and tela subcutanea
 
Weight-body Weight graph.
 
3 In work in progress, Scammon has found this type of curve is characteristic
 
of the relation of the weight of fat and other chemical constituents of the body to
 
  
total body length and that this curve may be represented by the equation of
+
total body length and that this curve may be represented by the equation of compound interest.
compound interest.
 
  
THE ANATOMICAL RECORD, voL. 55, No. 2
+
THE ANATOMICAL RECORD, voL. 55, No. 2 134 HAROLD E. ROE
134 HAROLD E. ROE
 
  
Both skin and tela subcutanea have a curvilinear relation
+
Both skin and tela subcutanea have a curvilinear relation to age, but, again, the tela subcutanea curve has a slower rise in the early fetal life and a more rapid rise in late fetal life than the curve for skin Weight. This is more clearly illustrated by the curves of velocity and relative velocity
to age, but, again, the tela subcutanea curve has a slower
 
rise in the early fetal life and a more rapid rise in late fetal
 
life than the curve for skin Weight. This is more clearly
 
illustrated by the curves of velocity and relative velocity
 
  
Te 1 I Subcutanen
+
Te 1 I Subcutanen 300 250 coo
300 250 coo
 
  
 
gm 9!“.
 
gm 9!“.
Line 365: Line 160:
 
100
 
100
  
 
  
 
  
5 0 ‘Z 8 9 to
+
5 0 ‘Z 8 9 to Age. in lunar months A9: in lunar months
Age. in lunar months A9: in lunar months
 
  
Fig.3 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weights of the skin and tela
+
Fig.3 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weights of the skin and tela subcutanea to age. The solid line in the skin panel represents the weights calculated from length according to body length for each month of age, and the broken 1i11e represents the Weights calculated from body weight according to body weight for each month of age. The insert represents absolute and relative velocities calculated from the skin weight-body length formula shifted to the time scale. The solid line in the tela subcutanea panel represents the weights read from the curve for tela subcutanea weight and total body lengt.h according to total body length for each month of age, and the broken line represents weights read from tela subcutanea weight-body weight curve according to total body weight for each month of age. The insert represents the velocities and relative velocities read from the curve for tela subcutanea weight and age with a tangeutometer. The dotted line indicates where the trend of the curve is questionable.
subcutanea to age. The solid line in the skin panel represents the weights
 
calculated from length according to body length for each month of age, and the
 
broken 1i11e represents the Weights calculated from body weight according to
 
body weight for each month of age. The insert represents absolute and relative
 
velocities calculated from the skin weight-body length formula shifted to the
 
time scale. The solid line in the tela subcutanea panel represents the weights
 
read from the curve for tela subcutanea weight and total body lengt.h according
 
to total body length for each month of age, and the broken line represents
 
weights read from tela subcutanea weight-body weight curve according to total
 
body weight for each month of age. The insert represents the velocities and
 
relative velocities read from the curve for tela subcutanea weight and age with a
 
tangeutometer. The dotted line indicates where the trend of the curve is
 
questionable.
 
  
placed in the inserts. The velocities for skin Weight were obtained algebraically from the first derivative of the skin
+
placed in the inserts. The velocities for skin Weight were obtained algebraically from the first derivative of the skin weight-body length formula shifted to a time basis. The velocities for tela subcutanea were read from the age-tela subcutanea curve (fig. 3) by means of a tangentometer. The numerical values are given in table 2. SKIN AND TELA SUBCUTANEA WEIGHT 135
weight-body length formula shifted to a time basis. The
 
velocities for tela subcutanea were read from the age-tela subcutanea curve (fig. 3) by means of a tangentometer. The
 
numerical values are given in table 2.
 
SKIN AND TELA SUBCUTANEA WEIGHT 135
 
  
At 5 fetal months the skin weight is increasing at the rate of
+
At 5 fetal months the skin weight is increasing at the rate of 11 grams per month, and by 10 fetal months at approximately 60 grams, or five times as fast at birth as in early fetal life. In contrast, the tela subcutanea weight is increasing at a slow rate of less than 1 gram per month at 5 fetal months, and at a very rapid rate of 210 grams by 9 fetal months (the value for 10 fetal months could not be read from the curve), or approximately 300 times as fast at 9 lunar months as in early fetal life. The relative rate of growth of the skin decreases rapidly from 106 per cent per month at 5 fetal months to 46 per cent at 8 fetal months and then slowly to 33 per cent per month at birth. The relative rate of growth of the tela subcutanea increases abruptly from 34 per cent per month at 5 fetal months to 203 per cent at 6 fetal months, then decreases gradually to 95 per cent per month at birth. This curious relative rate may be due to artifacts introduced by the few cases and graphic methods used.
11 grams per month, and by 10 fetal months at approximately
 
60 grams, or five times as fast at birth as in early fetal life.
 
In contrast, the tela subcutanea weight is increasing at a slow
 
rate of less than 1 gram per month at 5 fetal months, and at a
 
very rapid rate of 210 grams by 9 fetal months (the value for
 
10 fetal months could not be read from the curve), or approximately 300 times as fast at 9 lunar months as in early fetal
 
life. The relative rate of growth of the skin decreases rapidly
 
from 106 per cent per month at 5 fetal months to 46 per cent
 
at 8 fetal months and then slowly to 33 per cent per month
 
at birth. The relative rate of growth of the tela subcutanea
 
increases abruptly from 34 per cent per month at 5 fetal
 
months to 203 per cent at 6 fetal months, then decreases
 
gradually to 95 per cent per month at birth. This curious
 
relative rate may be due to artifacts introduced by the few
 
cases and graphic methods used.
 
  
Certain general relations of the weights of skin and tela
+
Certain general relations of the weights of skin and tela subcutanea are brought out by a series of indices for each fetal month based on the calculated values of their weights and the total body Weight (table 3). The skin forms 4 per cent of total body weight at 5 fetal months and 6 per cent at birth, while tela subcutanea forms only about 1 per cent at 5 fetal months and 13 per cent, or twice as much as the skin, by birth. These results are in agreement with those of earlier workers for skin weight and chemical fat weight, respectively, quoted above.
subcutanea are brought out by a series of indices for each
 
fetal month based on the calculated values of their weights
 
and the total body Weight (table 3). The skin forms 4 per
 
cent of total body weight at 5 fetal months and 6 per cent at
 
birth, while tela subcutanea forms only about 1 per cent at
 
5 fetal months and 13 per cent, or twice as much as the skin,
 
by birth. These results are in agreement with those of earlier
 
workers for skin weight and chemical fat weight, respectively,
 
quoted above.
 
  
The skin weight-tela subcutanea Weight ratio shows that
+
The skin weight-tela subcutanea Weight ratio shows that the skin weighs approximately five times as much as the tela subcutanea at 5 fetal months, While by birth the subcutaneous tissue weighs twice as much as the skin. Also, at 5 fetal months the skin has reached approximately onetwentieth of its birth weight, while the tela subcutanea is only one-two hundredth of its birth weight. By 8 fetal months the skin has one-half of its birth Weight and the tela subcutanea has only one-fourth of its birth Weight. These relations redemonstrate the strikingly slow rate of increase in 136 HAROLD E. nor:
the skin weighs approximately five times as much as the
 
tela subcutanea at 5 fetal months, While by birth the subcutaneous tissue weighs twice as much as the skin. Also, at
 
5 fetal months the skin has reached approximately onetwentieth of its birth weight, while the tela subcutanea is only
 
one-two hundredth of its birth weight. By 8 fetal months
 
the skin has one-half of its birth Weight and the tela subcutanea has only one-fourth of its birth Weight. These relations redemonstrate the strikingly slow rate of increase in
 
136 HAROLD E. nor:
 
  
subcutaneous tissue in the early fetal months and its very
+
subcutaneous tissue in the early fetal months and its very rapid increase in the last 2 fetal months.
rapid increase in the last 2 fetal months.
 
  
In summary, the skin weight has the same general growth
+
In summary, the skin weight has the same general growth characteristics of other organs and parts of the body, having a rectilinear relation to body weight, curvilinear relations to body length, for which empirical formulas have been deter TABLE 3
characteristics of other organs and parts of the body, having
 
a rectilinear relation to body weight, curvilinear relations
 
to body length, for which empirical formulas have been deter
 
TABLE 3
 
  
Indices calculated from either the calculated or estimated weights of skin, tela
+
Indices calculated from either the calculated or estimated weights of skin, tela subcutanea, and total body for each lunar month of fetal life
subcutanea, and total body for each lunar month of fetal life
 
  
 
I l E 1 3 PER OENTAGE
 
I l E 1 3 PER OENTAGE
  
- PERCENTAGE 1 J
+
- PERCENTAGE 1 J CALCULATED ESNMMED I 7 A R;1'.'Pl§gIl)'1FA1I:l’EE:l;AA FETAL Bony SKIN ! '1:i]1_‘PAAiI‘;PA‘ ‘ ‘ mu ' wu1(:H'r T0: AGE 3 1 - A _ 2 ‘ A It I \ ~ . ' * ,w“G"T ' w(F§€\l{)T “’(*;l{“3‘j,*"' I 1“ Total ‘ lts Total Its ’ i body birth body birth I | Weight l weight weight weight ——- V 4 . — . | W. . 4. __-7r — »~.— +— .~—r 1. . g I ' M13211; ' Grams Grame . Grams i I I 5 261 10.7 2.0 535.0 I 4.1 5.7 I 0.8 0.5 6 I 552 I 29.5 ‘ 6.5 453.8 E 5.3 i 15.8 _ 1.2 1.7 7 ' 971 56.5 ' 35.0 161.4 ; 5.8 ' 30.2 I 3.6 8.9 8 1519 91.8 = 99.0 92.7 I 6.0 49.0 I 6.5 ; 25.3 9 2196 i 135.5 ! 215.0 63.0 ‘ 6.2 i 72.4 . 9.8 ! 54.3 10 2999 187.2 392.0 I 47.8 6.2 1 100.0 | 13.1 100.0
CALCULATED ESNMMED I 7 A R;1'.'Pl§gIl)'1FA1I:l’EE:l;AA
 
FETAL Bony SKIN ! '1:i]1_‘PAAiI‘;PA‘ ‘ ‘ mu ' wu1(:H'r T0:
 
AGE 3 1 - A _ 2 ‘ A It I \ ~ . ' *
 
,w“G"T ' w(F§€\l{)T “’(*;l{“3‘j,*"' I 1“ Total ‘ lts Total Its
 
’ i body birth body birth
 
I | Weight l weight weight weight
 
——- V 4 . — . | W. . 4. __-7r — »~.— +— .~—r
 
1. . g I '
 
M13211; ' Grams Grame . Grams   i
 
I I
 
5 261 10.7 2.0 535.0 I 4.1 5.7 I 0.8 0.5
 
6 I 552 I 29.5 ‘ 6.5 453.8 E 5.3 i 15.8 _ 1.2 1.7
 
7 ' 971 56.5 ' 35.0 161.4 ; 5.8 ' 30.2 I 3.6 8.9
 
8 1519 91.8 = 99.0 92.7 I 6.0 49.0 I 6.5 ; 25.3
 
9 2196 i 135.5 ! 215.0 63.0 ‘ 6.2 i 72.4 . 9.8 ! 54.3
 
10 2999 187.2 392.0 I 47.8 6.2 1 100.0 | 13.1 100.0
 
  
 
‘From Scammon—Calkins fetal age-weight-length table (’24 b).
 
‘From Scammon—Calkins fetal age-weight-length table (’24 b).
Line 465: Line 188:
 
3 Calculated from body weight according to equation 1.
 
3 Calculated from body weight according to equation 1.
  
“Read from curve in second panel of figure 1 according to body weight for
+
“Read from curve in second panel of figure 1 according to body weight for each lunar month.
each lunar month.
 
  
mined. The weight of the tela subcutanea forms an exception to this general pattern of growth, since its relation to
+
mined. The weight of the tela subcutanea forms an exception to this general pattern of growth, since its relation to body weight is curvilinear, for which no empirical formula has been found. Its curvilinear relation to body length‘ determined graphically shows a slower rate of growth than other structures in the early fetal months and a strikingly fast rate in the last month and a half.
body weight is curvilinear, for which no empirical formula
 
has been found. Its curvilinear relation to body length‘ determined graphically shows a slower rate of growth than
 
other structures in the early fetal months and a strikingly
 
fast rate in the last month and a half.
 
  
 
‘ See footnote 3 on page 133.
 
‘ See footnote 3 on page 133.
Line 480: Line 198:
  
  
 +
LITERATURE CITED
  
 +
BISCHOFF, E. 1863 Einige Gewichts- und Trocken-Bestimmungen der O1-gane des menschlichen Korpers. Zeitschr. f. rat. Med., Bd. 20, S. 75-118. CAMERER, W., JUN. 1902 Die chemische Zusarnmensetzung des neugebornen Menschen. Zeitschr. f. Biol., n.F., Bd. 25, S. 1-12. FEELING, H. 1877 Beitrage zur Physiologie des plaeentaren Stoffverkebrs. Arch. f. Gyniiln, Bd. 11, s. 523-557. JACKSON, 0. M. 1909 On the prenatal growth of the human body and the relative growth of the various organs and parts. Am. J. Anat., vol. 9, pp. 119-165. 1925 The effects of inanition and malnutrition upon growth and structure, p. 464. Philadelphia: Blakiston. SCAMMON, R. E. 1925 The growth in mass of the various regions of the body in the fetal period. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 23, pp. 238-241. 1926 The prenatal growth and natal involution of the human suprarenal gland. Proe. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 23, pp. 809-811. 1927a The prenatal growth of the human pancreas. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 24, pp. 391-394. 1927 b The prenatal growth of the human thymus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 24, pp. 906-909. 1930 The ponderal growth of the extremities of the human fetus. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 15, pp. 111-121. SCAMMON, R. E., AND L. A. CALKINS 1923 Simple empirical formulae for expressing the lineal growth of the human fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 20, pp. 353-356. 1924 a The relation between body length and body weight in the human embryo and fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 21, pp. 549-551. 1924 b The relation between the body weight and age of the human fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 22, pp. 157-161. 1929 The development and growth of the external dimensions of the human body in the fetal period. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Vtmmowr, H. 1906 Anatomische physiologische und physikalische Daten und Tabellen zum Gebrauche fiir Mediziner. Dritte neu bearb. Auflage, S. 91-108. Jena: Gustav Fischer. WALD, H., AND R. E. SCAMMON 1932 Prenatal growth of human testes and ovaries. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 29, pp. 416-420. WELCKER, H., AND A. BRANDT 1903 Gewichtswertbe der Kiirperorgane bei dem Menschen und den Thieren. Arch. f. Anthrop., Bd. 28, S. 1-89.
  
 +
{{Footer}}
  
LITERATURE CITED
+
[[Category:Draft]]
 
 
BISCHOFF, E. 1863 Einige Gewichts- und Trocken-Bestimmungen der O1-gane
 
des menschlichen Korpers. Zeitschr. f. rat. Med., Bd. 20, S. 75-118.
 
CAMERER, W., JUN. 1902 Die chemische Zusarnmensetzung des neugebornen
 
Menschen. Zeitschr. f. Biol., n.F., Bd. 25, S. 1-12.
 
FEELING, H. 1877 Beitrage zur Physiologie des plaeentaren Stoffverkebrs.
 
Arch. f. Gyniiln, Bd. 11, s. 523-557.
 
JACKSON, 0. M. 1909 On the prenatal growth of the human body and the
 
relative growth of the various organs and parts. Am. J. Anat., vol. 9,
 
pp. 119-165.
 
1925 The effects of inanition and malnutrition upon growth and
 
structure, p. 464. Philadelphia: Blakiston.
 
SCAMMON, R. E. 1925 The growth in mass of the various regions of the body
 
in the fetal period. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 23, pp.
 
238-241.
 
1926 The prenatal growth and natal involution of the human
 
suprarenal gland. Proe. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 23, pp. 809-811.
 
1927a The prenatal growth of the human pancreas. Proc. Soc.
 
Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 24, pp. 391-394.
 
1927 b The prenatal growth of the human thymus. Proc. Soc. Exp.
 
Biol. and Med., vol. 24, pp. 906-909.
 
1930 The ponderal growth of the extremities of the human fetus.
 
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 15, pp. 111-121.
 
SCAMMON, R. E., AND L. A. CALKINS 1923 Simple empirical formulae for expressing the lineal growth of the human fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.
 
and Med., vol. 20, pp. 353-356.
 
1924 a The relation between body length and body weight in the
 
human embryo and fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 21,
 
pp. 549-551.
 
1924 b The relation between the body weight and age of the human
 
fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 22, pp. 157-161.
 
1929 The development and growth of the external dimensions of
 
the human body in the fetal period. Minneapolis: The University of
 
Minnesota Press.
 
Vtmmowr, H. 1906 Anatomische physiologische und physikalische Daten und
 
Tabellen zum Gebrauche fiir Mediziner. Dritte neu bearb. Auflage,
 
S. 91-108. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
 
WALD, H., AND R. E. SCAMMON 1932 Prenatal growth of human testes and
 
ovaries. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 29, pp. 416-420.
 
WELCKER, H., AND A. BRANDT 1903 Gewichtswertbe der Kiirperorgane bei dem
 
Menschen und den Thieren. Arch. f. Anthrop., Bd. 28, S. 1-89.
 

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The Weight Of The Skin And Tela Subcutanea Of The Human Fetus

Harold E. Roe


Institute of Anatomy, University of Minnesota

Three Figures (1933)


Institute of Anatomy, University of Minnesota

Three Figures (1933)


The present publication is a report on the Weights of the skin and tela subcutanea and their relations to total body Weight, total body length, and age during the fetal period.

Bisohoff(1863) reported the Weights of skin and subcutaneous tissue of three fetuses as part of a general study of the weight of parts and organs of the body at all ages. One newborn girl who had breathed a little had a skin Weight of 337.25 grams, a tela subcutanea Weight of 405.5 grams, and a total body Weight of 2929 grams. One 6-month fetus had a body Weight of 497 grams, a body length of 28 cm., and a skin weight (including the subcutaneous fat, lymph, and salivary glands) of 73.5 grams. A stillborn male infant had a body weight of 2400 grams, a body length of 49 cm., and a skin weight (including subcutaneous fat, lymph, and salivary glands) of 480 grams. In 1903, Brandt edited and published Welcker’s extensive analysis of Weights of the component parts of animal and human bodies. He gave the analysis made by Welcker in 1866 of a 3-month male human fetus which had a body Weight of 12.513 grams and a skin weight of 1.05 grams. Jackson (’09) found that the Weight of the skin and subcutaneous fat of a 6-month fetus was 13 per cent of the body Weight. He showed that this value is in fair

‘This report is part of the thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of PhD. under the direction of Prof. R. E. Scammon and Dr. Edith Boyd.


agreement with the 15 per cent for Bischoff’s fetus of the same age, is more than the 8 per cent found by Welcker for a 3-month fetus, and less than the 20 per cent found by Bischoif for a stillborn infant and the summary value of 19.7 per cent for newborns given by Vierordt (’06). In 1925, Jackson reported that the skin Weighed 136, 275, 270, and 316 grams for four atrophic infants measuring 1800, 3204, 3580, and 5334 grams in total body weight and 48, 54, 55.6, and 62 cm. in total body length, respectively. The weight of the skin varied from 6 to 9 per cent of the body weight.

No other workers have reported the weight of the subcutaneous tissue in the fetal period, but two have Weighed the body fat. Fehling (1877) reported that the weight of the chemical fat is from 0.6 to 9.1 per cent of the body weight in twenty fetuses ranging from 4 months of age to birth. Camerer (’02) found the chemical fat to be on an average 12.3 per cent of the total body weight at birth.

The few weights of skin and tela subcutanea given by these and other workers for postnatal life may be found either in Vierordt’s (’06) tables or in Welcker and Brandt’s (’03) summary.

The meager data reviewed indicates that the skin forms about 6 to 9 per cent of the total body weight during fetal life, while chemical fat, hence probably subcutaneous tissue, increases from a fraction of 1 per cent to approximately 10 per cent of the body weight.

In this study additional data on the weight of the skin and tela subcutanea have been obtained from tWenty—eight fetuses ranging in length from 17 to 52 cm. These data were obtained as part of a total dissection dividing the body into skin, tela subcutanea, musculature, skeleton, and the remainder. The muscle and skeleton weights will be reported later.

In order to obtain representative fetuses for dissection, an attempt was made to use only those having a total body weight for total body length within i 15 per cent of the calculated weight for length, according to the Scammon—Calkins (’24 a) formula for total body weight and length? Because of the slowness of the accumulation of these specimens, these conditions were not always met, so that the weights of three specimens were below and two above the set standard. All the weights, however, were well within three probable errors of calculated Values. This indicates that these specimens are a reasonably good sample of fetuses.

Length was measured three times on a Schultz measuring board. The fetuses were weighed accurately on a balance scale to 0.1 gram. The skin was carefully removed from each fetus. Any fascia left on the skin was scraped off with the sharp edge of a knife. All hair and nails and the entire auricle were included with the skin weights. The tela sub« cutanea was dissected from the superficial muscles. The socalled sucking pad and all of the fat of the ischial rectal f ossae were included with it. To prevent drying, each tissue was returned to 10 per cent formalin as soon as it was removed from the body. When ready to weigh, each tissue was dried between paper towels under approximately constant and even pressure of the fingers until no more moisture appeared on the paper. The tissue was then accurately weighed to 0.01 gram on an analytic balance. The dissection was done by several people, but, in order to keep the errors at a minimum, all the drying and weighing was done by myself.

The data for the twenty—eight specimens are summarized in table 1. The accuracy of these data is influenced to some degree by the effect of formalin as well as technical errors. The extraneous factors, however, are probably not suflicient to affect the general relations of the weights of the skin and tela subcutanea to body length and weight. Scammon and Calkins (’29) give a detailed analysis of the errors due to formalin and technical procedures.

When the weights of skin and tela subcutanea are plotted against body weight, the skin appears to have a rectilinear relation to total body weight, while subcutaneous tissue has

’BW= (0.26 L)“~“”+4.6, where L is total body length in centimeters and BW is total body weight in grams.


a. curvilinear (fig. 1). The rectilinear trend is the one usually found for the relation of the weights of organs and body parts (Scammon, ’25, ’26, ’27 a and b, ’30, and Wald and Scammon, ’32) and may be expressed by the formula:

sw = 0.06447BW — 6.1173 (1)

TABLE 1 Observed weights of skin and tela subcutanea in fetal life

l'I'l‘AI. BODY BODY sxm TELA sunoummn A621 LENGTH wmanm WEIGHT wnmnm‘

Lunar month Om. Grams 4.2 0.6 4.5 . . . 4.9 0.5 5.1 1.8 5.1 0.7 5.4 2.6 5.4 2.0 5.5 2.7 5.6 1.5 5.8 3.3 5.8 . . . 6.0 3.3 6.1 10.9 6.4 12.6 6.4 28.8 6.7 ’ 13.6 6.8 14.1 7.0 13.4 7.1 50.0 7.2 19.8 7.2 40.6 7.4’ . . . . 7.7 123.5 8.2’ 87.3 8.3’ 110.4 8.6 116.0 8.7 164.2 10.4 483.8

‘Calculated from the Scammon-Calkins (’23, ’29) age-length formula, T =

2.3 -|- 2%]: + £2, where T is age in lunar months and L is the crown-heel length

in centimeters. “Fresh specimens.


SKIN AND TELA SUBCUTANEA WEIGHT 131

when SW is skin weight in grams and BW is total body weight in grams, and the numerical constants were determined by the method of averages from the observed weights. The calculated Values have a mean absolute deviation of 11 grams and a mean relative deviation of 24 per cent from the observed weights.

According to this expression, the skin increases approximately 0.06 gram in weight for each gram of increase in total body weight.


300 _ ‘ boo sw = o.o?447 Bw— 6.1113 r i 3250 '” L— 1 . @500 3 _ _ Es E200 — L L L L -5 400 p -51

1 I ' s jiso Jr —~ g coo C .. - 0 E g : ' E C 100 § 200 2% ' 1- ° 2 l 1' :2 SO . 41 )3 100 .00. L , i o i o 0.0 0.5 L0 L5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0.0 0.5 L0 L5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Bodvj weight in kil.o()ram-.~(B\V) Bodij weight in kilograms

Fig.1 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weight of the skin and tela subcutanea. to the total body weight. The solid dots represent the individual observations. The solid line curve in the skin panel represents the empirical formula. In the tela subcutanea panel the solid line curve is drawn in by inspection.

The analysis of the curvilinear relation of tela subcutanea Weight to body Weight was limited to the graphic method of drawing in a curve by inspection after two applications of 3-point smoothing to the observed Values. The estimated Weights of the tela subcutanea read from the curve for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 kg. of body Weight are 6.0, 38.5, 100.0, 176.0, 273.5, and 383.0 grams, respectively. According to these estimated values and the curve (fig. 1), as the body increases in weight from 0.5 to 3.0 kg. the subcutaneous tissue increases slowly in amount until the body Weighs about 1.5 kg., after which the subcutaneous tissue increases very rapidly.

When the Weights of the skin and tela subcutanea are plotted against body length, both have curvilinear relations to body length, but the curves are strikingly different (fig. 2).

The curve for the weight of the skin and body length has the general form of an exponential curve expressed by the

formula : sw = aL", (2)

600



$150 3 n E200 S O" .5 “ 150 .C .9‘ o 3 E 1.00 31 «n

50

o E -" 5lO151025303540455055 5l0l57.07.5303540455055 Bode) iencjth in centimeters (L) Bock, iength in centimeters

Fig.2 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weight of the skin and tela subcutanea. to the total body length. The solid dots represent the individual observations. The solid line curve in the skin panel represents the empirical formula. In the tela subcutanea panel the solid line curve is drawn in by inspection.

of which the logarithmic form is: logSW=loga+b-logL. (3) VVhen the constants log a and b are determined from the

logarithms of the observed Values by the method of averages, equation 3 becomes:

log SW = —3.8324 + 3.5748 log L (4)

and equation 2 becomes: SW = 0.0001471L”’“. (5)

The mean absolute deviation of observed from calculated values is 9 grams, and the mean relative deviation is 22 per cent.

The analysis of the curvilinear relation3 of tela subcutanea weight to total body length was limited to drawing in a curve by inspection to the observed values after two applications of 3-point smoothing. The estimated values read from the curve for 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 cm. of body length are 0.5, 1.2, 2.5, 8.5, 29.0, 77.5, 197.0, and 402.0 grams, respectively.

TABLE 2

Calculated or estimated weights, velocities, and relative velocities of skin and tela subcutanea. 1'/n fetal life

E SKIN ST1_B;!UTANEA

';;*...r*  5;;-7“ 5.. 11.:  "15.. 7

L en a e i - e a. 1 3 ima e . AGE ! ENGTH izveight 1 Velocity velocity? weight i Velocity vglgcizj’ Lunar , E l Grams ] Percent 5 Grams Per cent month I Om. Grams per month ; per month ‘ Gram in" month iper month

5 : 22.9 10.7 . 11.3 105.7 2 _ 0.7 ; 33.9 6 ‘ 29.2 ' 25.6 f 19.1 i 74.6 ; 6 12.2 I 203.5 7 . 35.1 1 49.3 E 28.0 ' 56.8 | 30 3 40.3 ‘ 134.3 8 40.6 _: 82.6 37.8 i 45.8 ; 85 | 83.1 _ 97.8 9 - 45.7 ‘ 126.4 48.1 1 38.0 I 220 5 209.5 95.2 10 I 50.5 _. 180.9 I 58.8 ' 32.5 ‘

‘ 422 . . . . . ; ‘ From Scammon-Calkins fetal age—weight—length table (’24 b).

These relationships of skin and tela subcutanea weights to length were shifted to a time scale of lunar months, according to the lengths for each lunar month given in the Scammon— lalkins (’24 b) table. The corresponding values for skin weight (table 2) were calculated from equation 4, and those for tela subcutanea Were read from the graph in figure 2. The resulting curves are shown as solid black lines in figure 3, along with the broken line curves obtained in the same manner from skin weight-body Weight formula and tela subcutanea Weight-body Weight graph. 3 In work in progress, Scammon has found this type of curve is characteristic of the relation of the weight of fat and other chemical constituents of the body to

total body length and that this curve may be represented by the equation of compound interest.

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD, voL. 55, No. 2 134 HAROLD E. ROE

Both skin and tela subcutanea have a curvilinear relation to age, but, again, the tela subcutanea curve has a slower rise in the early fetal life and a more rapid rise in late fetal life than the curve for skin Weight. This is more clearly illustrated by the curves of velocity and relative velocity

Te 1 I Subcutanen 300 250 coo

gm 9!“.

250

500

200 4.00

150 300

100

200

100


5 0 ‘Z 8 9 to Age. in lunar months A9: in lunar months

Fig.3 Graphs illustrating the relations of the weights of the skin and tela subcutanea to age. The solid line in the skin panel represents the weights calculated from length according to body length for each month of age, and the broken 1i11e represents the Weights calculated from body weight according to body weight for each month of age. The insert represents absolute and relative velocities calculated from the skin weight-body length formula shifted to the time scale. The solid line in the tela subcutanea panel represents the weights read from the curve for tela subcutanea weight and total body lengt.h according to total body length for each month of age, and the broken line represents weights read from tela subcutanea weight-body weight curve according to total body weight for each month of age. The insert represents the velocities and relative velocities read from the curve for tela subcutanea weight and age with a tangeutometer. The dotted line indicates where the trend of the curve is questionable.

placed in the inserts. The velocities for skin Weight were obtained algebraically from the first derivative of the skin weight-body length formula shifted to a time basis. The velocities for tela subcutanea were read from the age-tela subcutanea curve (fig. 3) by means of a tangentometer. The numerical values are given in table 2. SKIN AND TELA SUBCUTANEA WEIGHT 135

At 5 fetal months the skin weight is increasing at the rate of 11 grams per month, and by 10 fetal months at approximately 60 grams, or five times as fast at birth as in early fetal life. In contrast, the tela subcutanea weight is increasing at a slow rate of less than 1 gram per month at 5 fetal months, and at a very rapid rate of 210 grams by 9 fetal months (the value for 10 fetal months could not be read from the curve), or approximately 300 times as fast at 9 lunar months as in early fetal life. The relative rate of growth of the skin decreases rapidly from 106 per cent per month at 5 fetal months to 46 per cent at 8 fetal months and then slowly to 33 per cent per month at birth. The relative rate of growth of the tela subcutanea increases abruptly from 34 per cent per month at 5 fetal months to 203 per cent at 6 fetal months, then decreases gradually to 95 per cent per month at birth. This curious relative rate may be due to artifacts introduced by the few cases and graphic methods used.

Certain general relations of the weights of skin and tela subcutanea are brought out by a series of indices for each fetal month based on the calculated values of their weights and the total body Weight (table 3). The skin forms 4 per cent of total body weight at 5 fetal months and 6 per cent at birth, while tela subcutanea forms only about 1 per cent at 5 fetal months and 13 per cent, or twice as much as the skin, by birth. These results are in agreement with those of earlier workers for skin weight and chemical fat weight, respectively, quoted above.

The skin weight-tela subcutanea Weight ratio shows that the skin weighs approximately five times as much as the tela subcutanea at 5 fetal months, While by birth the subcutaneous tissue weighs twice as much as the skin. Also, at 5 fetal months the skin has reached approximately onetwentieth of its birth weight, while the tela subcutanea is only one-two hundredth of its birth weight. By 8 fetal months the skin has one-half of its birth Weight and the tela subcutanea has only one-fourth of its birth Weight. These relations redemonstrate the strikingly slow rate of increase in 136 HAROLD E. nor:

subcutaneous tissue in the early fetal months and its very rapid increase in the last 2 fetal months.

In summary, the skin weight has the same general growth characteristics of other organs and parts of the body, having a rectilinear relation to body weight, curvilinear relations to body length, for which empirical formulas have been deter TABLE 3

Indices calculated from either the calculated or estimated weights of skin, tela subcutanea, and total body for each lunar month of fetal life

I l E 1 3 PER OENTAGE

- PERCENTAGE 1 J CALCULATED ESNMMED I 7 A R;1'.'Pl§gIl)'1FA1I:l’EE:l;AA FETAL Bony SKIN ! '1:i]1_‘PAAiI‘;PA‘ ‘ ‘ mu ' wu1(:H'r T0: AGE 3 1 - A _ 2 ‘ A It I \ ~ . ' * ,w“G"T ' w(F§€\l{)T “’(*;l{“3‘j,*"' I 1“ Total ‘ lts Total Its ’ i body birth body birth I | Weight l weight weight weight ——- V 4 . — . | W. . 4. __-7r — »~.— +— .~—r 1. . g I ' M13211; ' Grams Grame . Grams i I I 5 261 10.7 2.0 535.0 I 4.1 5.7 I 0.8 0.5 6 I 552 I 29.5 ‘ 6.5 453.8 E 5.3 i 15.8 _ 1.2 1.7 7 ' 971 56.5 ' 35.0 161.4 ; 5.8 ' 30.2 I 3.6 8.9 8 1519 91.8 = 99.0 92.7 I 6.0 49.0 I 6.5 ; 25.3 9 2196 i 135.5 ! 215.0 63.0 ‘ 6.2 i 72.4 . 9.8 ! 54.3 10 2999 187.2 392.0 I 47.8 6.2 1 100.0 | 13.1 100.0

‘From Scammon—Calkins fetal age-weight-length table (’24 b).

3 Calculated from body weight according to equation 1.

“Read from curve in second panel of figure 1 according to body weight for each lunar month.

mined. The weight of the tela subcutanea forms an exception to this general pattern of growth, since its relation to body weight is curvilinear, for which no empirical formula has been found. Its curvilinear relation to body length‘ determined graphically shows a slower rate of growth than other structures in the early fetal months and a strikingly fast rate in the last month and a half.

‘ See footnote 3 on page 133.



LITERATURE CITED

BISCHOFF, E. 1863 Einige Gewichts- und Trocken-Bestimmungen der O1-gane des menschlichen Korpers. Zeitschr. f. rat. Med., Bd. 20, S. 75-118. CAMERER, W., JUN. 1902 Die chemische Zusarnmensetzung des neugebornen Menschen. Zeitschr. f. Biol., n.F., Bd. 25, S. 1-12. FEELING, H. 1877 Beitrage zur Physiologie des plaeentaren Stoffverkebrs. Arch. f. Gyniiln, Bd. 11, s. 523-557. JACKSON, 0. M. 1909 On the prenatal growth of the human body and the relative growth of the various organs and parts. Am. J. Anat., vol. 9, pp. 119-165. 1925 The effects of inanition and malnutrition upon growth and structure, p. 464. Philadelphia: Blakiston. SCAMMON, R. E. 1925 The growth in mass of the various regions of the body in the fetal period. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 23, pp. 238-241. 1926 The prenatal growth and natal involution of the human suprarenal gland. Proe. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 23, pp. 809-811. 1927a The prenatal growth of the human pancreas. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 24, pp. 391-394. 1927 b The prenatal growth of the human thymus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 24, pp. 906-909. 1930 The ponderal growth of the extremities of the human fetus. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 15, pp. 111-121. SCAMMON, R. E., AND L. A. CALKINS 1923 Simple empirical formulae for expressing the lineal growth of the human fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 20, pp. 353-356. 1924 a The relation between body length and body weight in the human embryo and fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 21, pp. 549-551. 1924 b The relation between the body weight and age of the human fetus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 22, pp. 157-161. 1929 The development and growth of the external dimensions of the human body in the fetal period. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Vtmmowr, H. 1906 Anatomische physiologische und physikalische Daten und Tabellen zum Gebrauche fiir Mediziner. Dritte neu bearb. Auflage, S. 91-108. Jena: Gustav Fischer. WALD, H., AND R. E. SCAMMON 1932 Prenatal growth of human testes and ovaries. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., vol. 29, pp. 416-420. WELCKER, H., AND A. BRANDT 1903 Gewichtswertbe der Kiirperorgane bei dem Menschen und den Thieren. Arch. f. Anthrop., Bd. 28, S. 1-89.


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