Difference between revisions of "Paper - The process of retinal differentiation in man"

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Ida C. Mann, M.B., F.R.C.S. Eng.
 
Ida C. Mann, M.B., F.R.C.S. Eng.
  
 +
The paper forms a demonstration, illustrated by numerous examples from the developing eyes of a series of human embryos, of the stages of rearrangement which can be seen during the formation of the retinal nuclear layers from the undifferentiated neuro-epithelium of the wall of the optic cup. The earliest stage dealt with is that of a 4-5 mm. human embryo which shows in the inner wall of the optic cup a division into marginal and nuclear layers only. After this stage the first of the definitive cells to become recognizable are the ganglion cells which develop by migration of the innermost cells of the nuclear layer into the marginal layer. Further increment of cells taking place from the outer to the inner layers., a distinct zone can soon be recognized which is known as the inner neuroblastic zone, the remains of the original nuclear zone being new distinguishable as the outer neuroblastic zone. From these two neuroblastic zones the layers of the definitive retina are developed. From the inner neurobla.stic zone are formed by differentiation the ganglion cells, the nuclei of the fibres of Milller and the amacrine cells. These latter are separated from the outer neuroblastic layer by a narrow interval (Wider in the area centralis), the transient fibre layer of Chiewitz. From the outer neuroblastic layer are formed the bi-polar nuclei, the nuclei of the rods and cones and the horizontal cells. Towards the end of development the transient fibre layer disappears and in consequence the layer of amacrine cells and of nuclei of fibres of Wiiller fuses with the layer of bi-polar nuclei external to it to form the definitive inner nuclear layer. The internal molecular layer develops to separate this from the layer of ganglion cells. Later the external molecular layer develops and divides the original outer neuroblastic layer into two, namely an inner layer of bi-polar and horizontal cells and an outer layer of nuclei of rods and cones.
  
THE paper forms a demonstration, illustrated by numerous examples from the
 
developing eyes of a series of human embryos, of the stages of rearrangement which
 
can be seen during the formation of the retinal nuclear layers from the undifferentiated
 
neuro-epithelium of the wall of the optic cup. The earliest stage dealt with is that
 
of a 4-5 mm. human embryo which shows in the inner wall of the optic cup a
 
division into marginal and nuclear layers only. After this stage the first of the
 
definitive cells to become recognizable are the ganglion cells which develop by
 
migration of the innermost cells of the nuclear layer into the marginal layer.
 
Further increment of cells taking place from the outer to the inner layers., a distinct
 
zone can soon be recognized which is known as the inner neuroblastic zone, the
 
remains of the original nuclear zone being new distinguishable as the outer neuroblastic
 
zone. From these two neuroblastic zones the layers of the definitive retina are
 
developed. From the inner neurobla.stic zone are formed by differentiation the
 
ganglion cells, the nuclei of the fibres of Milller and the amacrine cells. These latter
 
are separated from the outer neuroblastic layer by a narrow interval (Wider in the
 
area centralis), the transient fibre layer of Chz'eu'itz. From the outer neuroblastic
 
layer are formed the bi-polar nuclei, the nuclei of the rods and cones and the
 
horizontal cells. Towards the end of development the transient fibre layer disappears
 
and in consequence the layer of amacrine cells and of nuclei of fibres of Wiiller fuses
 
with the layer of bi-polar nuclei external to it to form the definitive inner nuclear
 
layer. The internal molecular layer develops to separate this from the layer of
 
ganglion cells. Later the external molecular layer develops and divides the original
 
outer neuroblastic layer into two, namely an inner layer of bi-polar and horizontal
 
cells and an outer layer of nuclei of rods and cones.
 
  
 +
The definitive inner nuclear layer is therefore a. compound structure containing elements from both the original neuroblastic layers.
  
The definitive inner nuclear layer is therefore a. compound structure containing
+
The following scheme shows the process divided into stages as it can be observed in the human embryo.
elements from both the original neuroblastic layers.
 
  
 
The following scheme shows the process divided into stages as it can be observed in the human embryo.
 
The following scheme shows the process divided into stages as it can be observed in the human embryo.
  
 
{|
 
{|
! First stage
+
! width=200px|First stage
! Second stage
+
! width=200px|Second stage
! Third stage
+
! width=200px|Third stage
! Adult
+
! width=200px|Adult
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Marginal layer
 
| Marginal layer
Line 70: Line 47:
 
|}
 
|}
 
fourth fo fiffh u-(mic si.rII1 week fo third month third to scrcntlz month Adult
 
fourth fo fiffh u-(mic si.rII1 week fo third month third to scrcntlz month Adult
  Nerve fibre layer Nerve fibre layer
+
 
; Ganglion cells Ganglion cells
+
Nerve fibre layer Nerve fibre layer
/ Inner molecular layer
+
 
Inner neuroblastic ——§ Amacrine cells
+
Ganglion cells Ganglion cells
 +
 
 +
Inner molecular layer
 +
 
 +
Inner neuroblastic  
 +
 
 +
Amacrine cells
  
 
la er U
 
la er U

Revision as of 10:45, 18 November 2017

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Mann IC. The process of retinal differentiation in man. (1927) Proc R Soc Med. 21(1): 110.PubMed 19986142

Online Editor  
Mark Hill.jpg
This historic 1928 paper by Mann describes the development of the retina in several species.


See also by this author - Mann IC. The development of the human iris (1925) Br J Ophthalmol. 9(10): 495-512. PubMed 18168498

Mann IC. The developing third nerve nucleus in human embryos (1927) J Anat. 61(4): 424-438. PubMed 17104156

Mann IC. The process of differentiation of the retinal layers in vertebrates (1928) Br J Ophthalmol. 12(9): 449-478. PubMed 18168748

Mann IC. The relations of the hyaloid canal in the foetus and in the adult (1928) J Anat. 62(3): 290-296. PubMed 18168748

Modern Notes:

Vision Links: vision | lens | retina | placode | extraocular muscle | cornea | eyelid | vision abnormalities | Student project 1 | Student project 2 | Category:Vision | sensory
Historic Vision 
Historic Embryology: 1906 Eye Embryology | 1907 Development Atlas | 1912 Eye Development | 1912 Nasolacrimal Duct | 1918 Grays Anatomy | 1921 Eye Development | 1922 Optic Primordia | 1925 Eyeball and optic nerve | 1925 Iris | 1927 Oculomotor | 1928 Human Retina | 1928 Retina | 1928 Hyaloid Canal | Historic Disclaimer
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

The Process of Retinal Differentiation in Man

Ida Caroline Mann
Ida Caroline Mann (1893-1983)

Ida C. Mann, M.B., F.R.C.S. Eng.

The paper forms a demonstration, illustrated by numerous examples from the developing eyes of a series of human embryos, of the stages of rearrangement which can be seen during the formation of the retinal nuclear layers from the undifferentiated neuro-epithelium of the wall of the optic cup. The earliest stage dealt with is that of a 4-5 mm. human embryo which shows in the inner wall of the optic cup a division into marginal and nuclear layers only. After this stage the first of the definitive cells to become recognizable are the ganglion cells which develop by migration of the innermost cells of the nuclear layer into the marginal layer. Further increment of cells taking place from the outer to the inner layers., a distinct zone can soon be recognized which is known as the inner neuroblastic zone, the remains of the original nuclear zone being new distinguishable as the outer neuroblastic zone. From these two neuroblastic zones the layers of the definitive retina are developed. From the inner neurobla.stic zone are formed by differentiation the ganglion cells, the nuclei of the fibres of Milller and the amacrine cells. These latter are separated from the outer neuroblastic layer by a narrow interval (Wider in the area centralis), the transient fibre layer of Chiewitz. From the outer neuroblastic layer are formed the bi-polar nuclei, the nuclei of the rods and cones and the horizontal cells. Towards the end of development the transient fibre layer disappears and in consequence the layer of amacrine cells and of nuclei of fibres of Wiiller fuses with the layer of bi-polar nuclei external to it to form the definitive inner nuclear layer. The internal molecular layer develops to separate this from the layer of ganglion cells. Later the external molecular layer develops and divides the original outer neuroblastic layer into two, namely an inner layer of bi-polar and horizontal cells and an outer layer of nuclei of rods and cones.


The definitive inner nuclear layer is therefore a. compound structure containing elements from both the original neuroblastic layers.

The following scheme shows the process divided into stages as it can be observed in the human embryo.

The following scheme shows the process divided into stages as it can be observed in the human embryo.

First stage Second stage Third stage Adult
Marginal layer Superficial portion of marginal layer
Primitive neuroepithelium
Basement membrane

fourth fo fiffh u-(mic si.rII1 week fo third month third to scrcntlz month Adult

Nerve fibre layer Nerve fibre layer

Ganglion cells Ganglion cells

Inner molecular layer

Inner neuroblastic

Amacrine cells

la er U '4 y \ M mlermn fibre - Inner nuclear layer / Transient fibre layer nuclei r ' ~ of Chiewitz /~ Bi-polar cells | C 7 Horizontal cells ' - ~—\ Outer neuroblastic Outer molecular layer

layer \\

Nuclei of rods and Outer nuclear layer cones

................................................................................... ..External limiting

membrane Primitive rods and cones. Rods and cones