Difference between revisions of "Paper - The origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum"

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==Edit==
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=The Origin of the Lutein Cells of the Corpus Luteum=
22 Shaw: The Origin of the Lutein Cells of the Corpus Luteum
 
  
The Origin of the Lutein Cells of the Corpus Luteum.
+
By Wilfred Shaw, F.R.C.S.
By WILFRED SHaw, F.R.C.S.
 
  
THE origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum has for long been disputed.
 
The old view of the metaplasia of the cells of the blood-clot found in the cavity of
 
the follicle after ovulation was soon discarded, and at the present time two theories
 
hold the field ; that of von Baer, who attributed the origin of the lutein cells to the
 
theca interna layer, and that of Bischoff, who considered the granulosa cells to be
 
responsible for their origin. The essential difficulty in the solution of this problem
 
for the human corpus luteum has been the scarcity of accurately dated specimens of
 
young forms of the corpus luteum. In addition, even at the present time our
 
knowledge of the normal histology of the ovary is incomplete and much of the work
 
of early observers must be considered inaccurate. For, as Marshall points out,
 
confusion existed between the atretic follicle and the young corpus luteum. In view
 
of the enormous amount of work that has been done on this subject in a variety of
 
different fields, the problem must be considered from a very broad aspect at the
 
present time. .
 
COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY.
 
  
In the rabbit and in the mouse ovulation occurs at a fixed time after copulation.
+
The origin of the lutein cells of the {{corpus luteum}} has for long been disputed. The old view of the metaplasia of the cells of the blood-clot found in the cavity of the follicle after ovulation was soon discarded, and at the present time two theories hold the field ; that of von Baer, who attributed the origin of the lutein cells to the theca interna layer, and that of Bischoff, who considered the granulosa cells to be responsible for their origin. The essential difficulty in the solution of this problem for the human corpus luteum has been the scarcity of accurately dated specimens of young forms of the corpus luteum. In addition, even at the present time our knowledge of the normal histology of the ovary is incomplete and much of the work of early observers must be considered inaccurate. For, as Marshall points out, confusion existed between the atretic follicle and the young corpus luteum. In view of the enormous amount of work that has been done on this subject in a variety of different fields, the problem must be considered from a very broad aspect at the present time.  
A graduated series of specimens showing corpora lutea at various stages of
 
development can therefore be obtained, a method of deciding the origin of the lutein
 
cells of the corpus luteum thus being afforded. This technique, which is the only
 
reliable one for animal work, was first employed by Sobotta [1], who showed that in
 
the mouse and in the rabbit the lutein cells were derived from the granulosa layer.
 
Later, Marshall [2] confirmed this view as holding good in the case of the sheep.
 
  
HISTOLOGY OF THE MATURE CorRPUS LUTEUM.
 
  
It was pointed out by van der Stricht [3], who worked with the ovaries of the
+
==Comparative Morphology==
bat, that in addition to the large lutein cells, another series of cells can be seen.
 
These cells are found at the periphery and in the hila of the convolutions and are
 
much smaller and less numerous than the large lutein cells. Van der Stricht
 
succeeded in demonstrating these cells in the human corpus luteum, and _ his
 
observations were confirmed by Bihler, Seitz and others. The term paralutein cells
 
has been applied to them by Pinto and American authors. These cells have been
 
found in all specimens of corpora lutea out of some fifty that I have examined, and
 
it seems clear that in the corpus luteum two types of cell are represented. There is
 
no reason to believe that the paralutein cells are early forms of the large lutein cells,
 
so it must be assumed that they have a different origin.
 
  
As there is no evidence that the theca externa cells undergo luteinization, it
+
In the rabbit and in the mouse ovulation occurs at a fixed time after copulation. A graduated series of specimens showing corpora lutea at various stages of development can therefore be obtained, a method of deciding the origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum thus being afforded. This technique, which is the only reliable one for animal work, was first employed by Sobotta<ref name=Sobotta1895>Sobotta, Anat. Anz., 1895, x, p. 482.</ref>, who showed that in the mouse and in the rabbit the lutein cells were derived from the granulosa layer. Later, Marshall <ref name=Marshall1905>Marshall, Quart. Journ. Micros. Sc., 1905, xlix, p. 189.</ref> confirmed this view as holding good in the case of the sheep.
follows that the structure of the mature corpus luteum would lead one to believe that
 
the theca interna cells develop into paralutein cells and that the granulosa cells give
 
rise to the large lutein cells.
 
  
DIFFERENTIAL STAINING.
+
==Histology of the Mature Corrpus Luteum==
  
This view is borne out by the results of methods of differential staining. With
+
It was pointed out by van der Stricht<ref name=Stricht1901>van der Stricht, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 1901.</ref>, who worked with the ovaries of the bat, that in addition to the large lutein cells, another series of cells can be seen. These cells are found at the periphery and in the hila of the convolutions and are much smaller and less numerous than the large lutein cells. Van der Stricht succeeded in demonstrating these cells in the human corpus luteum, and  his observations were confirmed by Bihler, Seitz and others. The term paralutein cells has been applied to them by Pinto and American authors. These cells have been found in all specimens of corpora lutea out of some fifty that I have examined, and it seems clear that in the corpus luteum two types of cell are represented. There is no reason to believe that the paralutein cells are early forms of the large lutein cells, so it must be assumed that they have a different origin.
ordinary stains—particularly with van Gieson’s stain after fixation in absolute
 
Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology 23
 
  
alcohol—the two types of cell can be distinguished, but special methods are required
 
to produce a sharp differentiation. It has been shown by Corner [4], and Solomons
 
and Gatenby [5] that osmium tetroxide stains the cells of the theca interna far
 
better than the cells of the lutein layer. It is not necessary to use osmium tetroxide,
 
for Scharlach R, Sudan III and Nile blue sulphate bring out the differentiation very
 
beautifully. These fat reactions depend upon the differences in the fat content of the
 
cells of the two layers at various phases of the menstrual cycle. This is well seen
 
in the corpus luteum during and shortly after menstruation, for at this phase the
 
theca interna or paralutein cells contain fatty acids, while the large lutein cells
 
contain neutral tat. Consequently Nile blue sulphate gives a very beautiful
 
differentiation. Again, in the premenstrual phase, while the large lutein cells do not
 
give a fat reaction, a neutral fat reaction is given by the paralutein cells.
 
  
Lastly, with paraffin-embedded sections the two types of cell can be differentiated
+
As there is no evidence that the theca externa cells undergo luteinization, it follows that the structure of the mature corpus luteum would lead one to believe that the theca interna cells develop into paralutein cells and that the granulosa cells give rise to the large lutein cells.
with: Twort’s neutral red light-green method [6]. This is perhaps the easiest
 
technique to employ. These staining properties of the two layers of cells afford
 
further indirect evidence of their separate origin.
 
  
THE STUDY OF EARLY FORMS OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM.
+
==Differential Staining==
  
The problem of the origin of the large lutein cells of the human corpus luteum
+
This view is borne out by the results of methods of differential staining. With ordinary stains—particularly with van Gieson’s stain after fixation in absolute alcohol—the two types of cell can be distinguished, but special methods are required to produce a sharp differentiation. It has been shown by Corner<ref name=Corner1919>Corner, Amer. Journ. Anat., 1919, xxvi, p. 117.</ref>, and Solomons and Gatenby<ref name=Solomons1924>Solomons and Gatrensy, Journ. Obst. d: Gyn., 1924, xxxi, p. 580.</ref>  that osmium tetroxide stains the cells of the theca interna far better than the cells of the lutein layer. It is not necessary to use osmium tetroxide, for Scharlach R, Sudan III and Nile blue sulphate bring out the differentiation very beautifully. These fat reactions depend upon the differences in the fat content of the cells of the two layers at various phases of the menstrual cycle. This is well seen in the corpus luteum during and shortly after menstruation, for at this phase the theca interna or paralutein cells contain fatty acids, while the large lutein cells contain neutral tat. Consequently Nile blue sulphate gives a very beautiful differentiation. Again, in the premenstrual phase, while the large lutein cells do not give a fat reaction, a neutral fat reaction is given by the paralutein cells.
would be solved with mathematical accuracy if a reliable series of young specimens
 
of known dates were available. Such specimens are only rarely obtained, and at the
 
present time one can only give the results of investigations of isolated specimens. I
 
have obtained, up to the present, eight specimens of young proliferating corpora
 
lutea—the oldest corresponding to the nineteenth day of the menstrual cycle.
 
  
These specimens show the mode of development of the corpus luteum from the
 
follicle after ovulation has occurred. The outstanding feature of the early forms is
 
the hypertrophy of the cells of the granulosa layer. These cells soon attain a great size
 
and because of the denseness of the surrounding stroma they proliferate centripetally.
 
Further, early specimens show the convoluted outline characteristic of the mature
 
corpus luteum. The theca interna cells do not proliferate or hypertrophy beyond the
 
state they have reached when ovulation occurs, and in these early specimens the two
 
layers can easily be identified because of the great difference in size between the two
 
sets of cells.
 
  
The study of this series of young corpora lutea quite clearly indicates that the
+
Lastly, with paraffin-embedded sections the two types of cell can be differentiated with: Twort’s neutral red light-green method.<ref name=Twort1924>Twort, Journ. State Med., 1924, xxxii, p. 8.</ref> This is perhaps the easiest technique to employ. These staining properties of the two layers of cells afford further indirect evidence of their separate origin.
theca interna cells become the paralutein cells of the mature corpus luteum and that
 
the granulosa cells give rise to the large lutein cells.
 
  
If the follicle becomes atretic the histological picture is quite different. In this
+
==The Study of Early Forms of the Corpus Luteum==
case the granulosa cells atrophy and finally disappear, but the cells of the theca
 
interna layer hypertrophy in an eccentric direction much beyond the size they have
 
attained in the case of a ripe Graafian follicle. Again, another important difference
 
between the young corpus luteum and the atretic follicle is the character of the
 
membrane between the theca interna and granulosa layers. In early forms
 
of the atretic follicle a layer of hyaline material can be seen between them which
 
soon attains a considerable thickness. In the case of the corpus luteum no hyaline
 
tissue is deposited until degeneration of the corpus luteum begins at the time of the
 
menstrual discharge. These differences between the young corpus luteum and the
 
24 Shaw: The Origin of the Lutein Cells of the Corpus Lutewm
 
  
atretic follicle have been emphasized because it is easy to understand that, owing to
+
The problem of the origin of the large lutein cells of the human corpus luteum would be solved with mathematical accuracy if a reliable series of young specimens of known dates were available. Such specimens are only rarely obtained, and at the present time one can only give the results of investigations of isolated specimens. I have obtained, up to the present, eight specimens of young proliferating corpora lutea—the oldest corresponding to the nineteenth day of the menstrual cycle.
the hypertrophy of the theca lutein cells in the atretic follicle, this structure may be
 
mistaken for a young corpus luteum unless its true significance is familiar.
 
  
REFERENCES.
 
{1] Sozporra, Anat. Anz., 1895, x, p. 482. (2) MarswaLu, Quart. Journ. Micros. Sc., 1905, xlix, p. 189.
 
(8] Van pER Srricut, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 1901. [4] Corner, Amer. Journ. Anat., 1919,
 
xxvi, p. 117. [5] Sotomons and Gatrensy, Journ. Obst. d: Gyn., 1924, xxxi, p. 580. [6] Twort, Journ.
 
State Med., 1924, xxxii, p. 8.
 
  
Mr. Victor BONNEY, M.S., read a paper on ‘““ Myomectomy as the Treatment of
+
These specimens show the mode of development of the corpus luteum from the follicle after ovulation has occurred. The outstanding feature of the early forms is the hypertrophy of the cells of the granulosa layer. These cells soon attain a great size and because of the denseness of the surrounding stroma they proliferate centripetally. Further, early specimens show the convoluted outline characteristic of the mature corpus luteum. The theca interna cells do not proliferate or hypertrophy beyond the state they have reached when ovulation occurs, and in these early specimens the two layers can easily be identified because of the great difference in size between the two sets of cells.
Election for Uterine Fibroids,’’ published in full, with illustrations, in The Lancet,
+
 
November 21, 1925, p. 1060.
+
 
 +
The study of this series of young corpora lutea quite clearly indicates that the theca interna cells become the paralutein cells of the mature corpus luteum and that the granulosa cells give rise to the large lutein cells.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
If the follicle becomes atretic the histological picture is quite different. In this case the granulosa cells atrophy and finally disappear, but the cells of the theca interna layer hypertrophy in an eccentric direction much beyond the size they have attained in the case of a ripe Graafian follicle. Again, another important difference between the young corpus luteum and the atretic follicle is the character of the membrane between the theca interna and granulosa layers. In early forms of the atretic follicle a layer of hyaline material can be seen between them which soon attains a considerable thickness. In the case of the corpus luteum no hyaline tissue is deposited until degeneration of the corpus luteum begins at the time of the menstrual discharge. These differences between the young corpus luteum and the atretic follicle have been emphasized because it is easy to understand that, owing to the hypertrophy of the theca lutein cells in the atretic follicle, this structure may be mistaken for a young corpus luteum unless its true significance is familiar.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==References==
 +
<references/>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Mr. Victor BONNEY, M.S., read a paper on Myomectomy as the Treatment of Election for Uterine Fibroids, published in full, with illustrations, in The Lancet, November 21, 1925, p. 1060.
 +
 
 +
{{Footer}}
 +
[[Category:1920's]][[Category:Historic Embryology]][[Category:Corpus Luteum]][[Category:Ovary]][[Category:Menstrual Cycle]]

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Shaw W. The origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum. (1926) Proc R Soc Med. 19(Obstet Gynaecol Sect): 22-4. PMID 19985092

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This historic 1926 paper by Shaw describes the origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum as known at that time. We currently have a much better understanding.



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The Origin of the Lutein Cells of the Corpus Luteum

By Wilfred Shaw, F.R.C.S.


The origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum has for long been disputed. The old view of the metaplasia of the cells of the blood-clot found in the cavity of the follicle after ovulation was soon discarded, and at the present time two theories hold the field ; that of von Baer, who attributed the origin of the lutein cells to the theca interna layer, and that of Bischoff, who considered the granulosa cells to be responsible for their origin. The essential difficulty in the solution of this problem for the human corpus luteum has been the scarcity of accurately dated specimens of young forms of the corpus luteum. In addition, even at the present time our knowledge of the normal histology of the ovary is incomplete and much of the work of early observers must be considered inaccurate. For, as Marshall points out, confusion existed between the atretic follicle and the young corpus luteum. In view of the enormous amount of work that has been done on this subject in a variety of different fields, the problem must be considered from a very broad aspect at the present time.


Comparative Morphology

In the rabbit and in the mouse ovulation occurs at a fixed time after copulation. A graduated series of specimens showing corpora lutea at various stages of development can therefore be obtained, a method of deciding the origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum thus being afforded. This technique, which is the only reliable one for animal work, was first employed by Sobotta[1], who showed that in the mouse and in the rabbit the lutein cells were derived from the granulosa layer. Later, Marshall [2] confirmed this view as holding good in the case of the sheep.

Histology of the Mature Corrpus Luteum

It was pointed out by van der Stricht[3], who worked with the ovaries of the bat, that in addition to the large lutein cells, another series of cells can be seen. These cells are found at the periphery and in the hila of the convolutions and are much smaller and less numerous than the large lutein cells. Van der Stricht succeeded in demonstrating these cells in the human corpus luteum, and his observations were confirmed by Bihler, Seitz and others. The term paralutein cells has been applied to them by Pinto and American authors. These cells have been found in all specimens of corpora lutea out of some fifty that I have examined, and it seems clear that in the corpus luteum two types of cell are represented. There is no reason to believe that the paralutein cells are early forms of the large lutein cells, so it must be assumed that they have a different origin.


As there is no evidence that the theca externa cells undergo luteinization, it follows that the structure of the mature corpus luteum would lead one to believe that the theca interna cells develop into paralutein cells and that the granulosa cells give rise to the large lutein cells.

Differential Staining

This view is borne out by the results of methods of differential staining. With ordinary stains—particularly with van Gieson’s stain after fixation in absolute alcohol—the two types of cell can be distinguished, but special methods are required to produce a sharp differentiation. It has been shown by Corner[4], and Solomons and Gatenby[5] that osmium tetroxide stains the cells of the theca interna far better than the cells of the lutein layer. It is not necessary to use osmium tetroxide, for Scharlach R, Sudan III and Nile blue sulphate bring out the differentiation very beautifully. These fat reactions depend upon the differences in the fat content of the cells of the two layers at various phases of the menstrual cycle. This is well seen in the corpus luteum during and shortly after menstruation, for at this phase the theca interna or paralutein cells contain fatty acids, while the large lutein cells contain neutral tat. Consequently Nile blue sulphate gives a very beautiful differentiation. Again, in the premenstrual phase, while the large lutein cells do not give a fat reaction, a neutral fat reaction is given by the paralutein cells.


Lastly, with paraffin-embedded sections the two types of cell can be differentiated with: Twort’s neutral red light-green method.[6] This is perhaps the easiest technique to employ. These staining properties of the two layers of cells afford further indirect evidence of their separate origin.

The Study of Early Forms of the Corpus Luteum

The problem of the origin of the large lutein cells of the human corpus luteum would be solved with mathematical accuracy if a reliable series of young specimens of known dates were available. Such specimens are only rarely obtained, and at the present time one can only give the results of investigations of isolated specimens. I have obtained, up to the present, eight specimens of young proliferating corpora lutea—the oldest corresponding to the nineteenth day of the menstrual cycle.


These specimens show the mode of development of the corpus luteum from the follicle after ovulation has occurred. The outstanding feature of the early forms is the hypertrophy of the cells of the granulosa layer. These cells soon attain a great size and because of the denseness of the surrounding stroma they proliferate centripetally. Further, early specimens show the convoluted outline characteristic of the mature corpus luteum. The theca interna cells do not proliferate or hypertrophy beyond the state they have reached when ovulation occurs, and in these early specimens the two layers can easily be identified because of the great difference in size between the two sets of cells.


The study of this series of young corpora lutea quite clearly indicates that the theca interna cells become the paralutein cells of the mature corpus luteum and that the granulosa cells give rise to the large lutein cells.


If the follicle becomes atretic the histological picture is quite different. In this case the granulosa cells atrophy and finally disappear, but the cells of the theca interna layer hypertrophy in an eccentric direction much beyond the size they have attained in the case of a ripe Graafian follicle. Again, another important difference between the young corpus luteum and the atretic follicle is the character of the membrane between the theca interna and granulosa layers. In early forms of the atretic follicle a layer of hyaline material can be seen between them which soon attains a considerable thickness. In the case of the corpus luteum no hyaline tissue is deposited until degeneration of the corpus luteum begins at the time of the menstrual discharge. These differences between the young corpus luteum and the atretic follicle have been emphasized because it is easy to understand that, owing to the hypertrophy of the theca lutein cells in the atretic follicle, this structure may be mistaken for a young corpus luteum unless its true significance is familiar.


References

  1. Sobotta, Anat. Anz., 1895, x, p. 482.
  2. Marshall, Quart. Journ. Micros. Sc., 1905, xlix, p. 189.
  3. van der Stricht, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 1901.
  4. Corner, Amer. Journ. Anat., 1919, xxvi, p. 117.
  5. Solomons and Gatrensy, Journ. Obst. d: Gyn., 1924, xxxi, p. 580.
  6. Twort, Journ. State Med., 1924, xxxii, p. 8.


Mr. Victor BONNEY, M.S., read a paper on Myomectomy as the Treatment of Election for Uterine Fibroids, published in full, with illustrations, in The Lancet, November 21, 1925, p. 1060.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, May 11) Embryology Paper - The origin of the lutein cells of the corpus luteum. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Paper_-_The_origin_of_the_lutein_cells_of_the_corpus_luteum

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