Paper - Congenital absence of the kidney

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Boyden EA. Congenital absence of the kidney - an interpretation based on a 10-mm human embryo exhibiting unilateral renal agenesis. (1932) Anat. Rec. 52(4):325-349.

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This historic 1931 paper by Boyden describes the common renal abnormality of "horseshoe" kidney, where the two kidneys are usually joined at a single pole during development.


Modern Notes: Renal System - Abnormalities


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Historic Embryology - Renal  
1907 Urogenital images | 1911 Cloaca | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1915 Renal Artery | 1917 Urogenital System | 1925 Horseshoe Kidney | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites | 1930 Mesonephros 10 to 12 weeks | 1931 Horseshoe Kidney | 1932 Renal Absence | 1939 Ureteric Bud Agenesis | 1943 Renal Position


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