Neural System - Molecular

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Brain stem subdivisions

New Brain Stem Subdivisions[1]

Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

Mechanism Links: mitosis | cell migration | cell junctions |epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular

Molecular System Links: Heart | Neural | Renal | Respiratory | Mechanisms | Factors | Molecular

Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

  • Variation of Human Neural Stem Cells Generating Organizer States In Vitro before Committing to Cortical Excitatory or Inhibitory Neuronal Fates[2] "Better understanding of the progression of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the developing cerebral cortex is important for modeling neurogenesis and defining the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we use RNA sequencing, cell imaging, and lineage tracing of mouse and human in vitro NSCs and monkey brain sections to model the generation of cortical neuronal fates. We show that conserved signaling mechanisms regulate the acute transition from proliferative NSCs to committed glutamatergic excitatory neurons. As human telencephalic NSCs develop from pluripotency in vitro, they transition through organizer states that spatially pattern the cortex before generating glutamatergic precursor fates. NSCs derived from multiple human pluripotent lines vary in these early patterning states, leading differentially to dorsal or ventral telencephalic fates. This work furthers systematic analyses of the earliest patterning events that generate the major neuronal trajectories of the human telencephalon."
More recent papers
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Search term: Notch


Developmental Signals - Notch

Spinal Cord

Model of the embryonic rostro-caudal gradient of neurogenesis along the chicken spinal cord from the stem zone to the neurogenic neural tube summarising how DELTA-NOTCH signalling may be involved in these processes.[3]
  • Caudal to rostral decreasing FGF gradient, leads to Delta-1 expression decrease in cells that leave the stem zone (light blue) and move into the PNTZ where they intermingle with cells that do not express Delta-1.
  • Generates differences in DELTA/NOTCH signalling between adjacent cells that may initiate lateral inhibition.
  • Upregulation of Delta-1 in single NP cells which signal (blue arrows) and activate NOTCH signalling in adjacent cells, which as a consequence express Hes5 and are maintained in a proliferating state.
  • Delta-1 expressing NP cell divides into two cells that express Tis21.
  • Double Delta-1/Tis21 labelled NP down regulate the expression of Delta-1 as they reach the NZ and begin to divide in a neurogenic manner.
  • One of the daughter cells upregulates Delta-1 expression and differentiates as a neuron while the other one, which receives NOTCH signalling (blue arrows), remains as neurogenic NP. Hensen node (HN), neural tube (NT), neurogenic zone (NZ), proliferation to neurogenesis transition zone (PNTZ), presomitic territory (PS), somite (S).
Spinal cord delta notch model.png


Hypothalamus gene interaction model.jpg

Hypothalamus Development Gene Interaction Model[4]

Links: Hypothalamus Development


  1. Watson C, Bartholomaeus C & Puelles L. (2019). Time for Radical Changes in Brain Stem Nomenclature-Applying the Lessons From Developmental Gene Patterns. Front Neuroanat , 13, 10. PMID: 30809133 DOI.
  2. Micali N, Kim SK, Diaz-Bustamante M, Stein-O'Brien G, Seo S, Shin JH, Rash BG, Ma S, Wang Y, Olivares NA, Arellano JI, Maynard KR, Fertig EJ, Cross AJ, Bürli RW, Brandon NJ, Weinberger DR, Chenoweth JG, Hoeppner DJ, Sestan N, Rakic P, Colantuoni C & McKay RD. (2020). Variation of Human Neural Stem Cells Generating Organizer States In Vitro before Committing to Cortical Excitatory or Inhibitory Neuronal Fates. Cell Rep , 31, 107599. PMID: 32375049 DOI.
  3. Hämmerle B & Tejedor FJ. (2007). A novel function of DELTA-NOTCH signalling mediates the transition from proliferation to neurogenesis in neural progenitor cells. PLoS ONE , 2, e1169. PMID: 18000541 DOI.
  4. Ratié L, Ware M, Barloy-Hubler F, Romé H, Gicquel I, Dubourg C, David V & Dupé V. (2013). Novel genes upregulated when NOTCH signalling is disrupted during hypothalamic development. Neural Dev , 8, 25. PMID: 24360028 DOI.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 24) Embryology Neural System - Molecular. Retrieved from

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