Neural - Vascular Development

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Introduction

Plate 4. Vascular system of the brain of the human embryo
Human Embryo vascular development (week 8, stage 20 Carnegie Embryo No. 460)

Draft Page

See the historic article on human vascular development by George L. Streeter The Developmental Alterations in the Vascular System of the Brain of the Human Embryo (1921)


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Profile reconstruction of the dural veins in a human embryo 50 mm. long (Carnegie Collection, No. 96)
Human embryo 50 mm long (Carnegie Collection, No. 96.

Some Recent Findings

  • Foxc1 is required for early stage telencephalic vascular development[1] "The brain vascular system arises from the perineural vascular plexus (PNVP) which sprouts radially into the neuroepithelium and subsequently branches off laterally to form a secondary plexus in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the subventricular vascular plexus (SVP). The process of SVP formation remains to be fully elucidated. We investigated the role of Foxc1 in early stage vascular formation in the ventral telencephalon. Results: The Foxc1 loss of function mutant mouse, Foxc1ch/ch , showed enlarged telencephalon and hemorrhaging in the ventral telencephalon by E11.0. The mutant demonstrated blood vessel dilation and aggregation of endothelial cells in the SVZ after the invasion of endothelial cells through the radial path, which lead to failure of SVP formation. During this early stage of vascular development, Foxc1 was expressed in endothelial cells and pericytes, as well as in cranial mesenchyme surrounding the neural tube."
  • Review - The human brain intracerebral microvascular system: development and structure.[2] "The capillary from the meningeal inner pial lamella play a crucial role in the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex extrinsic and intrinsic microvascular compartments. Only pial capillaries are capable of perforating through the cortex external glial limiting membrane (EGLM) to enter into the nervous tissue, although incapable of perforating the membrane to exit the brain. Circulatory dynamics and functional demands determine which capillaries become arterial and which capillaries become venous."
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Search term: Neural Vascular System Development

<pubmed limit=5>Neural Vascular System Development</pubmed>

Cerebral Blood Supply Development

Cerebral blood supply development 01.jpg

Embryonic stage

  • 4-5 mm - hindbrain (i.e., future posterior fossa) is supplied by two parallel neural arteries (or channels). These arteries obtain their blood supply from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses given by the trigeminal artery (TA), the otic artery (OA), hypoglossal artery (HA), and the proatlantal artery (ProA)
  • 5-8 mm - basilar artery (BA) forms from the consolidation of the neural arteries.
  • 7-12 mm - vertebral arteries (VA) forms from transverse anastomoses between cervical intersegmental arteries, beginning with the ProA and proceeding downward to the 6th intersegmental artery,
  • 11-12 mm - (35 days) development of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is first identified as small buds originating proximal to the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) on the anterior division of the primitive internal carotid artery (ICA).
  • 16-18 mm - middle cerebral artery (MCA) becomes more prominent, the plexi fuse into a single artery and further branches pierce the cerebral hemisphere.
  • 18 mm - stem of the ACA gives rise to the olfactory artery.
  • 21-24 mm - formation of the anterior communicating artery (ACOMM).
  • A - In early phases of development the posterior circulation relies almost entirely from blood supply coming from the anterior circulation through carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses.


  • B and C - As the posterior fossa structures and the occipital lobe grow, the posterior circulation becomes progressively independent from the anterior circulation with obliteration of the anterior-posterior anastomoses from caudal to rostral maintaining in the majority of adult only one connection between the distal basilar arteries with the carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery.

(above text modified from reference[3])


Molecular

Foxc1

  • required for early stage telencephalic vascular development[1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>25733312</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>22993505</pubmed>| PMC3440694 | Front Neuroanat.
  3. <pubmed>26060802</pubmed>| J Stroke.


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The Developmental Alterations in the Vascular System of the Brain of the Human Embryo (1921)

Gillilan, LA. Significant superficial anastomoses in the arterial blood supply to the human brain. J Comp Neurol. 1959 Jun;112:55-74. PMID 13850118

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, April 5) Embryology Neural - Vascular Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Vascular_Development

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