Neural - Telencephalon Development
|Embryology - 17 Jan 2021 Expand to Translate|
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Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon (forebrain)||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|diencephalon||epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon (midbrain)||mesencephalon||tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons|
|myelencephalon||medulla oblongata, isthmus|
|spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal|
Adult Cerebral Cortex
Each lobe below is further divided into regions.
- Frontal lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Occipital lobe
- Temporal lobe
- Limbic lobe
- Insular cortex
- Interlobar sulci/fissures
Early Brain Vesicles
(insula, insulary cortex, insular lobe) Region from the telencephalon forming part of the cerebral cortex located deep within the lateral fissure (Sylvian fissure) between the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. Adult roles in consciousness, emotion, sensory and homeostasis, see review.
- less than 2% of total cortical surface area
- receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei
- connected with amygdala and many limbic and association cortical areas
Algorithm-based gene regulatory network structure for dorsal and ventral telencephalon development.
To highlight the key regulators, the nodes representing genes predicted to be the parent of at least nine other genes are largest in size (Sox9, Mef2a, Elavl4 and Pou6f1), whereas those that are predicted to regulate at least five other genes are medium in size (Ngn2, Centg3, Tef, Tcf4, Wnt7b, Pou2f1, Yy1, Dll1, E2f1, Arx, and Creb).
|Model of the Role of Netrin-1 Signaling in the Topography of Thalamocortical Projections in the Ventral Telencephalon
- Sagai T, Amano T, Maeno A, Ajima R & Shiroishi T. (2019). SHH signaling mediated by a prechordal and brain enhancer controls forebrain organization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , , . PMID: 31685615 DOI.
- Konno D, Iwashita M, Satoh Y, Momiyama A, Abe T, Kiyonari H & Matsuzaki F. (2012). The mammalian DM domain transcription factor Dmrta2 is required for early embryonic development of the cerebral cortex. PLoS ONE , 7, e46577. PMID: 23056351 DOI.
- Judaš M, Sedmak G, Pletikos M & Jovanov-Milošević N. (2010). Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon. J. Anat. , 217, 381-99. PMID: 20979586 DOI.
- Rudolph J, Zimmer G, Steinecke A, Barchmann S & Bolz J. (2010). Ephrins guide migrating cortical interneurons in the basal telencephalon. Cell Adh Migr , 4, 400-8. PMID: 20473036
- Roth M, Bonev B, Lindsay J, Lea R, Panagiotaki N, Houart C & Papalopulu N. (2010). FoxG1 and TLE2 act cooperatively to regulate ventral telencephalon formation. Development , 137, 1553-62. PMID: 20356955 DOI.
- Nieuwenhuys R. (2012). The insular cortex: a review. Prog. Brain Res. , 195, 123-63. PMID: 22230626 DOI.
- Rose M. Die Inselrinde des Menschen und der Tiere. (1928) Journal fuer Psychologie und Neurologie, 37: 467–624
- Mesulam MM. and Mufson EJ. The insula of Reil in man and monkey. (1985) A. Peters, E.G. Jones (Eds.), Association and auditory cortices, Plenum, New York, pp. 179–226
- Gohlke JM, Armant O, Parham FM, Smith MV, Zimmer C, Castro DS, Nguyen L, Parker JS, Gradwohl G, Portier CJ & Guillemot F. (2008). Characterization of the proneural gene regulatory network during mouse telencephalon development. BMC Biol. , 6, 15. PMID: 18377642 DOI.
- Powell AW, Sassa T, Wu Y, Tessier-Lavigne M & Polleux F. (2008). Topography of thalamic projections requires attractive and repulsive functions of Netrin-1 in the ventral telencephalon. PLoS Biol. , 6, e116. PMID: 18479186 DOI.
- Dufour A, Seibt J, Passante L, Depaepe V, Ciossek T, Frisén J, Kullander K, Flanagan JG, Polleux F & Vanderhaeghen P. (2003). Area specificity and topography of thalamocortical projections are controlled by ephrin/Eph genes. Neuron , 39, 453-65. PMID: 12895420
Nomura T, Hattori M & Osumi N. (2009). Reelin, radial fibers and cortical evolution: insights from comparative analysis of the mammalian and avian telencephalon. Dev. Growth Differ. , 51, 287-97. PMID: 19210541 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, January 17) Embryology Neural - Telencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Telencephalon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G